Human Growth pp 239-272 | Cite as

Body Composition in Adolescence

  • Gilbert B. Forbes


Anatomists showed many years ago that some organs grow at rates which differ from that of the body as a whole. In recent decades we have witnessed the development of techniques which permit the assessment of certain features of body composition in the living subject. Humans rank among the fattest of mammals, and it is this fact, among others, which has stimulated the development of methods for estimating the relative proportions of lean and fat in our species. These methods make it possible to define the contribution of each component to the adolescent growth process. Body composition data can also help in estimating certain nutritional requirements for growth. Although long a favorite of nutritionists, the metabolic balance method is not equal to this task (Wallace, 1959; Forbes, 1973), and one can look forward to more realistic estimates based on these newer techniques.


Body Composition Bone Mineral Content Lean Body Mass Body Density Total Body Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, T. H., Anderson, E. C., and Langham, W. H., 1960, Total body potassium and gross body composition in relation to age, J. Gerontol. 15: 348.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J., Osbom, S. B., Tomlinson, R. W. S., Newton, D., Rundo, J., Salmon, L., and Smith, J. W., 1964, Neutron-activation analysis in man in vivo: A new technique in medical investigation, Lancet 2: 1201.Google Scholar
  3. Bauer, J. H., 1976, Oral administration of radioactive sulfate to measure extracellular fluid space in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 648.Google Scholar
  4. Behnke, A. R., 1945, The absorption and elimination of gases of the body in relation to its fat and water content, Medicine 24: 359.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, A. R., and Wilmore, J. H., 1974, Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  6. Behnke, A. R., Feen, B. G., and Welham, W. C., 1942. The specific gravity of healthy men, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 118: 495.Google Scholar
  7. Bezold, A. von, 1857, Untersuchungen über die Vertheilung von Wasser, organischer Materie und anorganische Verbindungen im Thierreiche, Z. Wiss. Zool. 8: 486.Google Scholar
  8. Bland, W. H., Cassen, B., and Lederer, M., 1963, Body potassium content in patients with muscular dystrophy, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 282.Google Scholar
  9. Boddy, K., Hume, R., King, P. C., Weyers, E., and Rowan, T., 1974, Total body plasma and erythrocyte potassium and leucocyte ascorbic acid in “ultra-fit” subjects, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 46: 449.Google Scholar
  10. Boddy, K., Lindsay, R., Holloway, I., Smith, D. A. S., Elliott, A., Robertson, I., and Glaros, D., 1976, A study of changes in whole-body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen by neutron activation analysis in vivo in rats on a calcium-deficient diet, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 51: 399.Google Scholar
  11. Boileau, R. A., Buskirk, E. R., Horstman, D. H., Mendez, J., and Nicholas, W. C., 1971, Body composition changes in obese and lean men during physical conditioning, Med. Sci. Sports 3: 183.Google Scholar
  12. Bonnard, G. D., 1968, Cortical thickness and diaphyseal diameter of the metacarpal bones from the age of three months to eleven years, Helv. Paediatr. Acta 30: 445.Google Scholar
  13. Booth, R. A. D., Goddard, B. A., and Paton, A., 1966, Measurement of fat thickness in man. A comparison of ultrasound, Harpenden calipers, and electrical conductivity, Br. J. Nutr. 20: 719.Google Scholar
  14. Borgstedt, A., Forbes, G. B., and Reina, J. C., 1970, Total body potassium and lean body mass in patients with Duchenne dystrophy and their female relations, Neuropädiatrie 1: 447.Google Scholar
  15. Borisov, B. K., and Marei, A. N., 1974, Weight parameters of adult human skeleton, Health Phys. 27: 224.Google Scholar
  16. Bradbury, M. W. B., 1961, Urea and deuterium-oxide spaces in man, Br. J. Nutr. 15: 177.Google Scholar
  17. Brodie, B. B., Berger, E. Y., Axelrod, J., Dunning, M. F., Porosowska, Y., and Steele, J. M., 1951, Use of N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine (NAAP) in measurement of total body water, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 77: 794.Google Scholar
  18. Brook, C. G. D., 1971, Determination of body composition of children from skinfold measurements, Arch. Dis. Child. 46: 182.Google Scholar
  19. Brook, C. G. D., Huntley, R. M. C., and Slack, J., 1975, Influence of heredity and environment in determination of skinfold thickness in children, Br. Med. J. 2: 719.Google Scholar
  20. Brozek, J., 1961, Body composition, Science 134: 920.Google Scholar
  21. Brozek, J. (ed.), 1965, Human Body Composition: Approaches and Applications, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  22. Brozek, J., and Henschel, A. (eds.), 1961, Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, Nat’l Acad. Sci.-Nat’l Res. Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  23. Brozek, J., Grande, F., Anderson, J. T., and Keys, A., 1963, Densitometric analysis of body composition: Revision of some quantitative assumptions, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 113.Google Scholar
  24. Burmeister, V. W., and Fromberg, G., 1970, Depotfet, bestimmt nach der Kalium-40 Methode, und seine Beziehung zur Hautfaltendicke, Arch. Kinderh. 180: 228.Google Scholar
  25. Burmeister, W., and Bingert, A., 1967, Die quantitativen Veränderungen der menschlichen Zellmasse zwischen dem 8 und 90 Lebensjahr, Klin. Wochenschr. 45: 409.Google Scholar
  26. Buskirk, E. R., 1961, Underwater weighing and body density: A review of procedures, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 90–107, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Cheek, D. B., 1968, Human Growth, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  28. Cheek, D. B., and West, C. D., 1955, An appraisal of methods of tissue chloride analysis: The total carcass chloride, exchangeable chloride, potassium and water of the rat, J. Clin. Invest. 34: 1744.Google Scholar
  29. Cheek, D. B., Schultz, R. B., Pana, A., and Reba, R. C., 1970, Overgrowth of lean and adipose tissues in adolescent obesity, Pediatr. Res. 4: 268.Google Scholar
  30. Christiansen, C., and Rödbro, P., 1975a, Estimation of total body calcium from the bone mineral content of the forearm, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 35: 425.Google Scholar
  31. Christiansen, C., and Rödbro, P., 1975b, Bone mineral content and estimated total body calcium in normal adults, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 35: 433.Google Scholar
  32. Christiansen, C., Rödbro, P., and Nielsen, C. T., 1975, Bone mineral content and estimated total body calcium in normal children and adolescents, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 35: 507.Google Scholar
  33. Cohn, S. H., and Dombrowski, C. S., 1971, Measurement of total-body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen and phosphorus in man, J. Nucl. Med. 12: 499.Google Scholar
  34. Cohn, S. H., and Ellis, K. J., 1975, Predicting radial bone mineral content in normal subjects, Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2: 53.Google Scholar
  35. Cohn, S. H., and Fairchild, R. G., 1976, Application of neutron activation analysis in nuclear medicine, in: CRC Handbook of Nuclear Medicine ( R. P. Spencer, ed.), CRC Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  36. Cohn, S. H., Ellis, K. J., Wallach, S., Zanzi, I, Atkins, H. L., and Aloia, J. R., 1974, Absolute and relative deficit in total-skeletal calcium and radial bone mineral in osteoporosis, J. Nucl. Med. 15: 428.Google Scholar
  37. Collipp, P. J., Curti, V., Thomas, J., Sharma, R. K., Maddaiah, V. T., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Body composition changes in children receiving human growth hormone, Metabolism 22: 589.Google Scholar
  38. Comstock, G. W., and Livesay, V. T., 1963, Subcutaneous fat determinations from a community-wide chest X-Ray survey in Muscogee County, Georgia, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 475.Google Scholar
  39. Crook, G. H., Bennett, C. A., Norwood, W. D., and Mahaffey, J. A., 1966, Evaluation of skinfold measurements and weight chart to measure body fat, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 198: 39.Google Scholar
  40. Cureton, K. J., Boileau, R. A., and Lohman, T. G., 1975, A comparison of densitometric, potassium-40 and skinfold estimates of body composition in prepubescent boys, Hum. Biol. 47: 321.Google Scholar
  41. Davies, D. L., and Robertson, J. W. K., 1973, Simultaneous measurement of total exchangeable potassium and sodium using 43K and 24Na, Metabolism 22: 133.Google Scholar
  42. Delwaide, P. A., and Crenier, E. J., 1973, Body potassium as related to lean body mass measured by total water determination and by anthropometric method, Hum. Biol. 45: 509.Google Scholar
  43. Döbeln, W. von, 1956, Human standard and maximal metabolic rate in relation to fat-free body mass, Acta Physiol. Scand. 37 (Suppl): 126.Google Scholar
  44. Döbeln, W. von, 1959, Anthropometric determination of fat-free body weight, Acta Med. Scand. 165: 37. Dombrowski, C. S., Wallach, S, Shukla, K. K., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Determination of whole body magnesium by in vivo neutron activation, Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol. 1: 15.Google Scholar
  45. Domermuth, W., Veum, T. L., Alexander, M. A., Hedrick, H. B., Clark, J., and Eklund, D., 1976, Prediction of lean body composition of live market weight swine by indirect methods. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 966.Google Scholar
  46. Dumin, J. V. G. A., and Taylor, A., 1960, Replicability of measurements of density of the human body as determined by underwater weighing, J. Appl. Physiol. 15: 142.Google Scholar
  47. Dumin, J. V. G. A., and Womersley, J., 1974, Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: Measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years, Br. J. Nutr. 32: 77.Google Scholar
  48. East, B. W., Boddy, K., and Price, W. H., 1976, Total body potassium content in males with X and Y chromosome abnormalities, Clin. Endocrinol. 5: 43.Google Scholar
  49. Edwards, K. D. G., and Whyte, H. M., 1962, The simple measurement of obesity, Clin. Sci. 22: 347. Elkinton, J. R., and Danowski, T. S., 1955, The Body Fluids, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  50. Ellis, K. J., and Cohn, S. H., 1975, Correlation between skeletal calcium mass and muscle mass in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 38: 455.Google Scholar
  51. Ellis, K. J., Shukla, K. K., Cohn, S. H., and Pierson, R. N., Jr., 1974, A predictor for total body potassium in man based on height, weight, sex and age: Application in metabolic disorders, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 83: 716.Google Scholar
  52. Ellis, K. J., Vaswani, A., Zanzi, I, and Cohn, S. H., 1976, Total body sodium and chlorine in normal adults, Metabolism 25: 645.Google Scholar
  53. Fahey, T. D., and Brown, C. H., 1973, The effects of an anabolic steroid on the strength, body composition, and endurance of college males when accompanied by a weight training program, Med. Sci. Sports 5: 272.Google Scholar
  54. Flynn, M. A., Murthy, Y., Clark, J., Comfort, G., Chase, G., and Bentley, A. E. T., 1970, Body composition of Negro and white children, Arch. Environ. Health 20: 604.Google Scholar
  55. Flynn, M. A., Woodruff, C., and Chase, G., 1972, Total body potassium in normal children, Pediatr. Res. 6: 239.Google Scholar
  56. Forbes, G. B., 1962, Methods for determining composition of the human body, Pediatrics 29: 477.Google Scholar
  57. Forbes, G. B., 1964, Lean body mass and fat in obese children, Pediatrics 34: 308.Google Scholar
  58. Forbes, G. B., 1972a, Relation of lean body mass to height in children and adolescents, Pediatr. Res. 6: 32.Google Scholar
  59. Forbes, G. B., 1972b, Growth of the lean body mass in man, Growth 36: 325.Google Scholar
  60. Forbes, G. B., 1973, Another source of error in the metabolic balance method, Nutr. Rev. 31: 297. Forbes, G. B., 1974, Stature and lean body mass, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 595.Google Scholar
  61. Forbes, G. B., 1976a, The adult decline in lean body mass, Hum. Biol. 48: 161.Google Scholar
  62. Forbes, G. B., 1976b, Biological implications of the adolescent growth process: Body composition, in: Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence ( J. I. McKigney and H. N. Munro, eds.), pp. 57–66, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  63. Forbes, G. B., and Amirhakimi, G. H., 1970, Skinfold thickness and body fat in children, Hum. Biol. 42: 401.Google Scholar
  64. Forbes, G. B., and Bruining, G. J., 1976, Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 1359.Google Scholar
  65. Forbes, G. B., and Hursh, J. B., 1963, Age and sex trends in lean body mass calculated from K90 measurements: With a note on the theoretical basis for the procedure, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 255.Google Scholar
  66. Forbes, G. B., and Lewis, A., 1956, Total sodium, potassium, and chloride in adult man, J. Clin. Invest. 35: 596.Google Scholar
  67. Forbes, G. B., and Perley, A. M., 1951, Estimation of total body sodium by isotopic dilution, J. Clin. Invest. 30: 558, 566.Google Scholar
  68. Forbes, G. B., Schultz, F., Cafarelli, C., and Amirhakimi, G. H., 1968, Effects of body size on potassium-40 measurement in the whole body counter (tilt-chair technique), Health Phys. 15: 435.Google Scholar
  69. Foy, J. M., and Schnieden, H., 1960, Estimation of total body water (virtual tritium space) in the rat, cat, rabbit, guinea pig and man, and of the biological half-life of tritium in man, J. Physiol. 154: 169.Google Scholar
  70. Friis-Hansen, B., 1957, Changes in body water compartments during growth, Acta Paediatr. 110 (Suppl): 46.Google Scholar
  71. Fuller, M. F., Houseman, R. A., and Cadenhead, A., 1971, The measurement of exchangeable potassium in living pigs and its relation to body composition, Br. J. Nutr. 26: 203.Google Scholar
  72. Gamble, J. L., Jr., Robertson, J. S., Hannigan, C. A., Foster, C. G., and Farr, L. F., 1953, Chloride, bromide, sodium, and sucrose spaces in man, J. Clin. Invest. 32: 483.Google Scholar
  73. Garn, S. M., 1961, Radiographic analysis of body composition, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 36–58, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  74. Garn, S. M., 1970, The Earlier Gain and the Later Loss of Cortical Bone in Nutritional Perspective, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  75. Garrow, J. S., 1974, Energy Balance and Obesity in Man, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Garrow, J. S., Fletcher, K., and Halliday, D., 1965, Body composition in severe infantile malnutrition, J. Clin. Invest. 44: 417.Google Scholar
  77. Godfrey, B. E., and Wadsworth, G. R., 1970, Total body potassium in pregnant women, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77: 244.Google Scholar
  78. Goldman, R. F., Haisman, M. F., Bynum, G., Horton, E. S., and Sims, E. A. H., 1975, Experimental obesity in man, in: Obesity in Perspective (G. A. Bray, ed.), pp. 165–186, DHEW Pub. No. (NIH) 75–708, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  79. Greenway, R. M., Littell, A. S., Houser, H. B., Lindan, O., and Weir, D. R., 1%5, An evaluation of the variability in measurement of some body composition parameters, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 120: 487.Google Scholar
  80. Groner, O., and Salmen, A., 1961, Vergleichende Körperwasserbestimmungen mit Hilfe von N-Acetyl4-amino Antipyrin und Alkohol, Klin. Wochenschr. 39: 92.Google Scholar
  81. Gryfe, C. I., Exton-Smith, A. N., Payne, P. R., and Wheeler, E. F., 1971, Pattern of development of bone in childhood and adolescence, Lancet 1: 523.Google Scholar
  82. Halliday, D., 1971, An attempt to estimate total body fat and protein in malnourished children, Br. J. Nutr. 26: 147.Google Scholar
  83. Harvey, T. C., Dykes, P. W., Chen, N. S., Ettinger, K. V., Jain, S., James, H., Chettle, D. R., Fremlin, J. H., and Thomas, B. J., 1973, Measurement of whole-body nitrogen by neutron-activation analysis, Lancet 2: 395.Google Scholar
  84. Hastings, A. B., and Eichelberger, L., 1937, The exchange of salt and water between muscle and blood, J. Biol. Chem. 117: 73.Google Scholar
  85. Hawkins, W. W., 1964, Iron, copper, and cobalt, in: Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise ( G. H. Beaton and E. W. McHenry, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 309–372, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Haxhe, J. J., 1963, La Composition Corporelle Normale, Librairie Maloine S.A., Paris.Google Scholar
  87. Heald, F. P., Hunt, E. E., Jr., Schwartz, R., Cook, C. D., Elliot, O., and Vajda, B., 1963, Measures of body fat and hydration in adolescent boys, Pediatrics 31: 226.Google Scholar
  88. Hermansen, L., and Döbeln, W. von, 1971, Body fat and skinfold measurements, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 27: 315.Google Scholar
  89. Hervey, G. R., Hutchinson, I., Knibbs, A. V., Burkinshaw, L., Jones, P. R. M., Norgan, N. G., and Levell, M. J., 1976, “Anabolic” effects of methandienone in men undergoing athletic training, Lancet 2: 699.Google Scholar
  90. Huenemann, R L, Hampton, M. C., Behnke, A. R., Shapiro, L. R., and Mitchell, B. W., 1974, Teenage Nutrition and Physique, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  91. Hume, R., 1966, Prediction of lean body mass from height and weight, J. Clin. Pathol. 19: 389.Google Scholar
  92. Hume, R., and Weyers, E., 1971, Relationship between total body water and surface area in normal and obese subjects, J. Clin. Pathol. 24: 234.Google Scholar
  93. Hytten, F. E., and Leitch, I., 1971, The Physiology of Human Pregnancy, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford. Hytten, F. E., Taylor, K., and Taggart, N., 1966, Measurement of total body fat in man by absorption of 85Kr, Clin. Sci. 31: 111.Google Scholar
  94. International Atomic Energy Agency, 1970, Directory of Whole Body Radioactivity Monitors, Vienna.Google Scholar
  95. Isherwood, I., Rutherford, R. A., Pullan, B. R., and Adams, P. H., 1976, Bone-mineral estimation by computer-assisted transverse axial tomography, Lancet 2: 712.Google Scholar
  96. Jasani, B M, and Edmonds, C. J., 1971, Kinetics of potassium distribution in man using isotope dilution and whole-body counting, Metabolism 20: 1099.Google Scholar
  97. Johny, K. V., Worthey, B. W., Lawrence, J. R., and O’Halloran, M. W., 1970, A whole body counter for serial studies of total body potassium, Clin. Sci. 39: 319.Google Scholar
  98. Katch, F. I., and Michael, E. D., Jr., 1968, Prediction of body density from skinfold and girth measurements of college females, J. Appl. Physiol. 25: 92.Google Scholar
  99. Kaufman, L., and Wilson, C. J., 1973, Determination of extracellular fluid volume by fluorescent excitation analysis of bromine, J. Nucl. Med. 14: 812.Google Scholar
  100. Khosla, T., 1968, Unfairness of certain events in the Olympic Games, Br. Med. J. 4: 111.Google Scholar
  101. King, J. C., Calloway, D. H., and Morgen, S., 1973, Nitrogen retention, total body 40K and weight gain in teenage pregnant girls, J. Nutr. 103: 772.Google Scholar
  102. Kjellberg, J., and Reizenstein, P., 1970, Body composition in obesity, Acta Med. Scand. 188: 161.Google Scholar
  103. Knittle, J. L., 1976, Discussion, in: Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence ( J. I. McKigney and H. N. Munro, eds.), pp. 76–83, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  104. Kreisberg, R. A., Bowdoin, B., and Meador, C. K., 1970, Measurement of muscle mass in humans by isotopic dilution of creatine-14C, J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 264.Google Scholar
  105. Lesser, G. T., Perl, W., and Steele, J. M., 1960, Determination of total body fat by absorption of an inert gas: measurements and results in normal human subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 39: 1791.Google Scholar
  106. Lesser, G. T., Deutsch, S., and Markofsky, J., 1971, Use of independent measurement of body fat to evaluate overweight and underweight, Metabolism 20: 792.Google Scholar
  107. Linquette, M., Fossati, P., Lefebvre, J., and Checkau, C., 1969, The measurement of total water, exchangeable sodium and potassium in obese persons, in: Pathophysiology of Adipose Tissue ( J. Vague, ed.), pp. 302–316, Excerpta Medica Foundation, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  108. Ljunggren, H., Ikkos, D., and Luft, R., 1957, Studies on body composition, Acta Endocrinol. 25: 187.Google Scholar
  109. Lohman, T. G., Boileau, R. A., and Massey, B. H., 1975, Prediction of lean body mass in young boys from skinfold thickness and body weight, Hum. Biol. 47: 245.Google Scholar
  110. Long, C. L., Haverberg, L. N., Young, V. R., Kinney, J. M., Munro, H. N., and Geiger, J. W., 1975, Metabolism of 3-methyl histidine in man, Metabolism 24: 929.Google Scholar
  111. Lye, M., May, T., Hammick, J., and Ackery, D., 1976, Whole body and exchangeable potassium measurements in normal elderly subjects, Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 1: 167.Google Scholar
  112. MacGillivray, I., and Buchanan, T. J., 1958, Total exchangeable sodium and potassium in non-pregnant women and in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy, Lancet 2: 1090.Google Scholar
  113. Magnus-Levy, A., 1906, Physiologie des Stoffwechsels, in: Handbuch der Pathologie des Stoffwechsels ( C. von Noorden, ed.), p. 446, Hirschwald, Berlin.Google Scholar
  114. Manna, R. M., 1969, Quantification of fat, muscle, and bone in man, Clin. Orthop. 65: 9.Google Scholar
  115. Manery, J. F., and Haege, L. F., 1941, The extent to which radioactive chloride penetrates tissues, and its significance, Am. J. Physiol. 134: 83.Google Scholar
  116. Manzke, E., Chestnut, C. H., III, Wergedal, J. E., Baylink, D. J., and Nelp, W. B., 1975, Relationship between local and total bone mass, Metabolism 24: 605.Google Scholar
  117. Maresh, M. M., 1966, Changes in tissue widths during growth, Am. J. Dis. Child. 111: 142.Google Scholar
  118. Mazess, R. B., and Cameron, J. R., 1972, Growth of bone in school children: Comparison of radiographic morphometry and photon absorptiometry, Growth 36: 77.Google Scholar
  119. McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M., 1951, A method of breaking down the body weights of living persons into terms of extracellular fluid, cell mass and fat, and some applications of it to physiology and medicine, Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B 138: 115.Google Scholar
  120. Meneely, G. R., Heyssel, R. M., Ball, C. O. T., Weiland, R. L., Lorimer, A. R., Constantinides, C., and Meneely, E. U., 1963, Analysis of factors affecting body composition determined from potassium content in 915 normal subjects, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 271.Google Scholar
  121. Mettau, J. W., Degenhart, H. J., Visser, H. K. A., and Holland, W. P. S., 1977, Measurement of total body fat in newborns and infants by absorption and desorption of nonradioactive xenon, Pediatr. Res. 11: 1097.Google Scholar
  122. Michael, E. D., Jr., and Katch, F. I., 1968, Prediction of body density from skinfold and girth measurements of 17-year-old boys, J. Appl. Physiol. 25: 747.Google Scholar
  123. Moody, D. L., Wihnore, J. H., Girandola, R. N., and Royce, J. P., 1972, The effects of a jogging program on the body composition of normal and obese high school girls, Med. Sci. Sports 4: 210.Google Scholar
  124. Moore, F. D., Olesen, K. H., McMurray, J. D., Parker, H. V., Ball, M. R., and Boyden, C. M., 1963, The Body Cell Mass and Its Supporting Environment, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  125. Moore, F. D., Lister, J., Boyden, C. M., Ball, M. R., Sullivan, N., and Dagher, F. J., 1968, The skeleton as a feature of body composition: values predicted by isotope dilution and observed by cadaver dissection in an adult female, Hum. Biol. 40: 135.Google Scholar
  126. National Academy of Sciences, 1968, Body Composition in Animals and Man, Pub. 1598, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  127. National Center for Health Statistics, 1974, Skinfold thickness of youths 12–17 years, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  128. DHEW Pub. No. (HRA) 74–614, Series 11, #132, Rockville, Maryland. Nelp, W. B., Palmer, H. E., Murano, R., Pailthorp, K., Hinn, G. M., Rich, C., Williams, J L, Rudd, T. G., and Denney, J. D., 1970, Measurement of total body calcium (bone mass) in vivo with the use of total body neutron activation, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 76: 151.Google Scholar
  129. Nichols, B. L., Hazlewood, C. F., and Barnes, D. J., 1968, Percutaneous needle biopsy of quadriceps muscle: Potassium analysis in normal children, J. Pediatr. 72: 840.Google Scholar
  130. Norris, A. H., Lundy, T., and Shock, N. W., 1963, Trends in selected indices of body composition in men between the ages 30 and 80 years, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 623.Google Scholar
  131. Novak, L. P., 1966a, Total body water and solids in six-to seven-year-old children: Differences between the sexes, Pediatrics 38: 483.Google Scholar
  132. Novak, L. P., 1966b, Physical activity and body composition of adolescent boys, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 197: 891.Google Scholar
  133. Novak, L. P., 1970, Comparative study of body composition of American and Filipino women, Hum. Biol. 42: 206.Google Scholar
  134. Novak, L. P., Tauxe, W. N., and Orvis, A. L., 1973, Estimation of total body potassium in normal adolescents by whole body counting: age and sex differences, Med. Sci. Sports 5: 147.Google Scholar
  135. Oberhausen, E., Burmeister, W., and Huycke, E. J., 1965, Das Wachstrum des Kaliumbestandes im Menschen gemessen mit dem Ganzkörperzähler, Ann. Paediatr. 205: 381.Google Scholar
  136. Owen, G. M., Jensen, R. L., and Fomon, S. J., 1962, Sex-related difference in total body water and exchangeable chloride during infancy, J. Pediatr. 60: 858.Google Scholar
  137. Pace, N., and Rathbun, E. N., 1945, Studies on body composition, J. Biol. Chem. 158: 685.Google Scholar
  138. Parizkova, J., 1961a, Total body fat and skinfold thickness in children, Metabolism 10: 794.Google Scholar
  139. Parizkova, J., 1961b, Age trends in fat in normal and obese children, J. Appl. Physiol. 16: 173.Google Scholar
  140. Parizkova, J., 1963, Impact of age, diet, and exercise on man’s body composition, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 661.Google Scholar
  141. Parizkova, J., 1976, Growth and growth velocity of lean body mass and fat in adolescent boys, Pediatr. Res. 10: 647.Google Scholar
  142. Parizkova, J., Vanéckova, M., and Vamberova, M., 1962, A study of changes in some functional indicators following reduction of excessive fat in obese children, Physiol. Bohemoslov. 11: 351.Google Scholar
  143. Parizkova, J., Vanéckovâ, M., prynarova, S., and Vamberovâ, M., 1971, Body composition and fitness in obese children before and after special treatment, Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 217: 6.Google Scholar
  144. Pearson, A. M., Purchas, R. W., and Reineke, E. P., 1968, Theory and potential usefulness of body density as a predictor of body composition, in: Body Composition in Animals and Man (J. T. Reid, ed.), pp. 153–185, National Academy of Science, Pub. #1598, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  145. Pfeiffer, L., 1887, Über den Fettgehalt des Körpers, Z. Biol. 23: 340.Google Scholar
  146. Picou, D., Reeds, P. J., Jackson, A., and Poulter, N., 1976, The measurement of muscle mass in children using [’SN]creatine, Pediatr. Res. 10: 184.Google Scholar
  147. Pierson, R. N., Jr., Lin, D. H. Y., and Phillips, R. A., 1974, Total-body potassium in health: Effects of age, sex, height, and fat, Am. J. Physiol. 226: 206.Google Scholar
  148. Pitts, G. C., and Bullard, T. R., 1968, Some interspecific aspects of body composition in mammals, in: Body Composition in Animals and Man, pp. 45–70, National Academy of Science, Pub. #1598, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  149. Pollock, M. L., Hickman, T., Kendrick, A., Jackson, A., Linnerud, A., and Dawson, G., 1976, Prediction of body density in young and middle-aged men, J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 300.Google Scholar
  150. Price, W. F., Hazelrig, J. B., Kreisberg, R. A., and Meador, C. K., 1969, Reproducibility of body composition measurements in a single individual, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 74: 557.Google Scholar
  151. Rudd, T. G., Pailthorp, K. G., and Nelp, W. B., 1972, Measurement of non-exchangeable sodium in normal man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 80: 442.Google Scholar
  152. Rundo, J., and Sagild, U., 1955, Total and “exchangeable” potassium in humans, Nature 175: 774.Google Scholar
  153. Schuster, W., 1970, Über Methoden und Ergebnisse quantitativer Mineralsalz-bestimmungen am kindlichen Skelett, Arch. Kinderh. 180: 256.Google Scholar
  154. Seitchik, J., 1967, Total body water and total body density of pregnant women, Obstet. Gynecol. 29: 155.Google Scholar
  155. Shaffer, P., 1908, The excretion of kreatinin and kreatin in health and disease, Am. J. Physiol. 23: 1.Google Scholar
  156. Shephard, R. J., Hatcher, J., and Rode, A., 1973, On the body composition of the Eskimo, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 32: 3.Google Scholar
  157. Shukla, K. K., Ellis, K. J., Dombrowski, C. S., and Cohn, S. H., 1973, Physiological variation of total-body potassium in man, Am. J. Physiol. 224: 271.Google Scholar
  158. Siri, W. E., 1961, Body composition from fluid spaces and density: Analysis of methods, in: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition ( J. Brozek and A. Henschel, eds.), pp. 223–244, National Academy of Science, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  159. Sloan, A. W., 1967, Estimation of body fat in young men, J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 311.Google Scholar
  160. Smith, D. M., Nance, W. E., Kang, K. W., Christian, J. C., and Johnston, C. C., Jr., 1973, Genetic factors in determining bone mass, J. Clin. Invest. 52: 2800.Google Scholar
  161. Sprynarovd, S., and Parizkovâ, J., 1965, Changes in the aerobic capacity and body composition in obese boys after reduction, J. Appl. Physiol. 20: 934.Google Scholar
  162. Steinkamp, R., Cohen, N. L., Gaffey, W. R., McKey, T., Bron, G., Siri, W. E., Sargent, T. W., and Isaacs, E., 1965, Measures of body fat and related factors in normal adults—II: A simple clinical method to estimate body fat and lean body mass, J. Chron. Dis. 18: 1291.Google Scholar
  163. Stouffer, J. R., 1%3, Relationship of ultrasonic measurements and X-rays to body composition, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 31.Google Scholar
  164. Stuart, H. C., Hill, P., and Shaw, C., 1940, The growth of bone, muscle and overlying tissue as revealed by studies of roentgenograms of the leg area, Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. V: (No. 3, serial No. 26) 1–190.Google Scholar
  165. Surveyor, I., and Hughes, D., 1968, Discrepancies between whole-body potassium content and exchangeable potassium, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 71: 464.Google Scholar
  166. Talso, P. J., Miller, C. E., Carballo, A. J., and Vasquez, I., 1960, Exchangeable potassium as a parameter of body composition, Metabolism 9: 456.Google Scholar
  167. Tanner, J. M., 1962, Growth at Adolescence, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  168. Tanner, J. M., 1974, Sequence and tempo in the somatic changes in puberty, in: Control of the Onset of Puberty ( M. M. Grumbach, G. D. Grave, and F. E. Mayer, eds.), pp. 448–470, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  169. Tanner, J. M., and Whitehouse, R. H., 1967, The effect of human growth hormone on subcutaneous fat thickness in hyposomatotrophic and panhypopituitary dwarfs, J. Endocrinol. 39: 263.Google Scholar
  170. Tanner, J. M., and Whitehouse, R. H., 1975, Revised standards for triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children, Arch. Dis. Child. 50: 142.Google Scholar
  171. Tisavipat, A., Vibulsreth, S., Sheng, H.-P., and Huggins, R. A., 1974, Total body water measured by desiccation and by tritiated water in adult rats, J. Appl. Physiol. 37: 699.Google Scholar
  172. Trotter, M., and Hixon, B. B., 1974, Sequential changes in weight, density, and percentage ash weight of human skeletons from an early fetal period through old age, Anat. Rec. 179: 1.Google Scholar
  173. Tyson, I., Genna, S., Jones, R. L., Bikerman, V., and Burrows, B. A., 1970, Body potassium measurements with a total-body counter, J. Nucl. Med. 11: 255.Google Scholar
  174. Wallace, W. M., 1959, Nitrogen content of the body and its relation to retention and loss of nitrogen, Fed. Proc. 18: 1125.Google Scholar
  175. Ward, G. M., Krzywicki, H. J., Rahman, D. P., Quaas, R. L., Nelson, R. A., and Consolazio, C. F., 1975, Relationship of anthropometric measurements to body fat as determined by densitometry, potassium-40, and body water, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28: 162.Google Scholar
  176. Ward, P., 1973, The effect of an anabolic steroid on strength and lean body mass, Med. Sci. Sports 5: 277.Google Scholar
  177. Wedgewood, R. J., 1963, Inconstancy of the lean body mass, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 141.Google Scholar
  178. Whipple, H. E., and Brozek, J. (eds.), 1963, Body composition, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 1.Google Scholar
  179. Widdowson, E. M., McCance, R. A., and Spray, C. M., 1951, The chemical composition of the human body, Clin. Sci. 10: 113.Google Scholar
  180. Wilmore, J. H., and Behnke, A. R., 1970, An anthropometric estimation of body density and lean body weight in young women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 267.Google Scholar
  181. Wilmore, J. H., Girandola, R. N., and Moody, D. L., 1970, Validity of skinfold and girth assessment for predicting alterations in body composition, J. Appl. Physiol. 29: 313.Google Scholar
  182. Womersley, J., Durnin, J. V. G. A., Boddy, K., and Mahaffy, M., 1976, Influence of muscular development, obesity, and age on the fat-free mass of adults, J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 223.Google Scholar
  183. Young, C., Sipin, S. S., and Roe, D. A., 1968, Body composition of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 53: 25, 357, 469, 579.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert B. Forbes
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Medicine and DentistryThe University of RochesterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations