Covalent Linkage: I. Enzymes Immobilized by Covalent Linkage on Insolubilized Supports
The attachment of enzymes to solids has progressed rapidly in recent years from a laboratory curiosity to a widely expanding field which is useful in many applications. Enzymes immobilized on surfaces now find increasing use in medical, clinical analysis, and synthetic chemistry applications. Immobilized enzymes have provided valuable insight to basic protein interactions. In addition to enzymes, many different types of proteins, including antibodies, enzyme inhibitors, proteinaceous antigens, and peptide hormones, have been attached to polymers and have been shown to possess biological activity. The attachment of an enzyme or other biologically active protein to a solid phase produces an adduct which can have several interesting and useful properties. Since the adducts are water-insoluble, they can be easily recovered from reaction mixtures by centrifugation or filtration. Additionally, enzymes attached to particulate matter can be placed in a column which is used for a continuous flow-through process. In medical applications of enzymes, immobilization can provide advantages because the enzymes do not enter the bloodstream as soluble agents and therefore may have a long lifetime in the body. Enzymes can also be attached to the surfaces of membranes or the inside of tubes or cannulas and can interact with substances flowing past the surface.
KeywordsEnzyme Immobilization Maleic Anhydride Covalent Attachment Covalent Linkage Cyanogen Bromide
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