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Artificial Kidney, Artificial Liver, and Detoxifiers Based on Artificial Cells, Immobilized Proteins, and Immobilized Enzymes

  • T. M. S. Chang

Abstract

The standard artificial kidney for patients with chronic renal failure and detoxifiers for patients with drug intoxication being used at present are based on the principle of hemodialysis. All hemodialysis systems have in common the following basic principle. A semipermeable membrane separates two compartments. The patient’s blood flows through one compartment. Here, permeant molecules from the patient’s blood cross the semipermeable membrane by diffusion along electrochemical gradients or by ultrafiltration along hydrostatic gradients to the other compartment, where they are washed away by a very large volume of dialysate (200–300 liters). The rate of removal of waste metabolites depends on a number of factors; one is the total surface area of the membrane available for diffusion, another is the permeability of the membrane. Although hemodialysis has been successfully used for the treatment of patients with loss of kidney function or with drug intoxication, there are a number of problems. The general transport characteristics of the membrane are such that treatments of 6–12 hr 3 times a week is required. The present hemodialysis machine is the size of a washing machine, bulkly and extremely expensive. It is not efficient in the detoxification of many types of drug intoxication. Furthermore, it is not effective for the treatment of liver failure. As a result, extensive efforts have been concentrated on new approaches.

Keywords

Activate Charcoal Liquid Membrane Activate Charcoal Hepatic Coma Drug Intoxication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. M. S. Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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