Prison Environments and Psychological Survival
We all know—or we all presume we know—that prison is hell. We know this through Goffman’s (1961) indictment of total institutions. We know it from prison studies (such as Sykes, 1966; Clemmer, 1940; Ward & Kassebaum, 1965)—studies that catalog “pains of imprisonment” and list extreme adjustments required of inmates to cope with captivity. We even know it from the laboratory, where Zimbardo (1972) has “brutalized” students in simulated cells.
KeywordsDimension Score Female Inmate Prison Environment Item Cluster Social Stimulation
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