Environmental Change and the Elderly

  • Kermit K. Schooler

Abstract

Projections of future events may have become more frequent simply because a new century is approaching. Or, quite possibly, the incidence of such projections has increased because the technology for making them has proliferated and improved. Whatever the reason may be, one such set of projections was recently undertaken and presented by a group of scholars interested in the problems of aging (Neugarten, 1975). As background for the more sophisticated projections, one estimate predicted that in the year 2000 over 35 million people in the United States would be 65 years of age or over, in contrast to about 22 million at the time of this writing. The magnitude of this increase in the United States in the aged population is, to say the least, impressive. On a worldwide basis, the figures are even more impressive. And yet, as Beattie has pointed out, a number of significant futuristic studies have for all intents and purposes ignored or have omitted consideration of the elderly segment of the population (Beattie, 1975).

Keywords

Sugar Migration Income Bacillus Lost 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich, C. K., and Mendkoff, E. Relocation of the aged and disabled: A mortality study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1963, 11, 185–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anders, T. R., Fozard, T. L., and Lillyquist, T. D. The effects of age upon retrieval from short-term memory. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6, 214–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, N. N. Effects of institutionalization on self-esteem, Journal of Gerontology, 1967, 22, 313–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltes, P. B., and Schaie, K. W. Aging and IQ: The myth of the twilight years. Psychology Today, 1974, 7 (10), 35–40.Google Scholar
  5. Beattie, W. M., Jr. Discussion, in Aging in the year 2000: A look at the future. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15 (1), 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Botwinick, J. Aging and behavior. New York: Springer Publishing Co., Inc., 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Bourestom, N., and Tars, S. Alterations in life patterns following nursing home relocation. The Gerontologist, 1974, 14, 506–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butler, R. N. Why survive? Being old in America. New York: Harper Row, 1975.Google Scholar
  9. Camargo, O., and Preston, G. H. What happens to patients who are hospitalized for the first time when over 65? American Journal of Psychiatry, 1945, 102, 168–173.Google Scholar
  10. Carp, F. M. A future for the aged. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. Carp, F. M. The impact of environment on old people. The Gerontologist, 1967, 7, 106–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carp, F. M. Short-term and long-term prediction of adjustment to a new environment. Journal of Gerontology, 1974, 29, 444–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cassel, J. The relation of the urban environment to health: Toward a conceptual frame and a research strategy. (mimeo, no date).Google Scholar
  14. Conestrari, R. E., Jr. Paced and self-paced learning in young and elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology, 1963, 18, 165–168.Google Scholar
  15. De Vries, H. A. Physiology of exercise and aging. In D. S. Woodruff and J. Birren (Eds.), Aging. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1975.Google Scholar
  16. Eisdorfer, C. Verbal learning and response time in the aged. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1965, 197, 15–22.Google Scholar
  17. Fried, M. Grieving for a lost home: Psychological costs of relocation. In L. Duhl (Ed.), The urban condition. New York: Basic Books, 1963.Google Scholar
  18. Goldfarb, A. I., Shahinian, S. P., and Turner, H. Death rates of relocated nursing home residents. Paper presented at the 17th annual meeting of Gerontological Society, New York, November, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. Helson, H. Adaption level theory. New York: Harper Row, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Kahana, E. A congruence model of person-environment interaction. In P. G. Windley, T. O. Byerts, and F. G. Ernst (Eds.), Theory development in environment and aging. Washington, D.C.: The Gerontological Society, 1975.Google Scholar
  21. Kasteler, J. M., Gray, R. M., and Carruth, M. L. Involuntary relocation of the elderly. The Gerontologist, 1968, 8, 276–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Killian, E. C. Effect of geriatric transfers on mortality rates. Social Work, 1970, 15, 19–26.Google Scholar
  23. Kleemeier, R. W. The use and measuring of time in special settings. In R. W. Kleemeier (Ed.), Aging and leisure. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  24. Lawton, M. P. Institutions for the aged: Theory, content, and methods for research. The Gerontologist, 1970, 10, 305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lawton, M. P. Competence, environmental press and the adaptation of older people. In P. G. Windley, T. O. Byerts, and F. G. Ernst (Eds.), Theory development in environment and aging, Washington, D.C.: The Gerontological Society, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Lawton, M. P., and Cohen, J. The generality of housing impact on the well-being of older people. Journal of Gerontology, 1974, 29, 194–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawton, M. P., and Nahemow, L. Ecology and the aging process. In C. Eisdorfer and M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. Lawton, M. P., Nahemow, L., and Teaff, J. Housing characteristics and the well-being of elderly tenants in federally assisted housing. Journal of Gerontology, 1975, 30, 601–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lawton, M. P., and Yaffee, S. Mortality, morbidity, and voluntary change of residence by older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1970, 18, 823–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazarus, R. S. Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966.Google Scholar
  31. Lieberman, M. A. Relationship of mortality rates to entrance to a home for the aged. Geriatrics, 1961, 16, 515–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lieberman, M. A. Psychological correlates of impending death: Some preliminary observations. Journal of Gerontology, 1965, 20, 181–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lieberman, M. A. Relocation research and social policy. The Gerontologist, 1974, 14, 494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Maddox, G., and Douglas, E. G. Aging and individual differences: A longitudinal analysis of social, psychological, and physiological indicators, Journal of Gerontology, 1974, 29, 555–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Manney, J. D., Jr. Aging in American society. Ann Arbor: Institute of Gerontology, Michigan-Wayne State University, 1975.Google Scholar
  36. Markson, E. W., and Cumming, J. H. A strategy of necessary mass transfer and its impact on patient mortality. Journal of Gerontology, 1974, 29, 315–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Markson, E. W., and Cumming, J. H. The post-transfer fate of relocated mental patients in New York. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15, 104–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Markus, E. Post-relocation mortality among institutionalized aged. Cleveland: Benjamin Rose Institute, 1970 (mimeo).Google Scholar
  39. Markus, E., Blenkner, M., Bloom, J., and Downs, T. Relocation stress and the aged. Interdisciplinary topics in gerontology, Vol. 6, Basel: S. Karger, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. Markus, E., Blenkner, M., Bloom, J., and Downs, T. The impact of relocation upon mortality rates of institutionalized aged persons. Journal of Gerontology, 1971, 26, 537–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Markus, E., Blenkner, M., Bloom, J., and Downs, T. Some factors and their association with post-relocation mortality among institutionalized aged persons. Journal of Gerontology, 1972, 27, 376–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, D., and Lieberman, M. A. The relationships of affected state and adaptive capacity to reactions to stress. Journal of Gerontology, 1965, 20, 492–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Murray, H. A. Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford Press, 1938.Google Scholar
  44. Neugarten, B. L. (Ed.). Aging in the year 2000: A look at the future. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15(1), part II.Google Scholar
  45. Pastalan, L. A. Panelist’s paper. Involuntary environmental relocation: Death and survival. In W. F. E. Preiser (Ed.), Environmental design research. Vol. 2. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc., 1973, p. 410.Google Scholar
  46. Riegel, K., and Riegel, R. Development, drop and death. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6, 306–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rosow, I. Socialization to old age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  48. Schooler, K. K. Effects of changes in residential environment. Paper presented at the 9th International Congress on Gerontology, Kiev, Russia, July, 1972.Google Scholar
  49. Schooler, K. K. Some consequences of environmental change in an elderly sample. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Quebec, 27 August 1973.Google Scholar
  50. Schooler, K. K. Response of the elderly to environment: A stress-theoretical perspective. In P. G. Windley, T. O. Byerts, and F. G. Ernst (Eds.), Theory development in environment and aging. Washington, D.C.: The Gerontological Society, 1975.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, A. Aging and interference with memory. Journal of Gerontology, 1975, 30, 319–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Spirduso, W. W. Reaction and movement time as a function of age and physical activity level. Journal of Gerontology, 1975, 30, 435–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Storandt, M., Wittels, I., and Botwinick, J. Predictors of a dimension of well-being in the relocated health aged. Journal of Gerontology, 1975, 30 (1), 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Terreberry, S. Household relocation: Resident’s views. In E. Wolf and C. Lebeaux (Eds.), Change and renewal in an urban community: Five case studies in Detroit, 1967.Google Scholar
  55. Wohlwill, J. F. Behavioral response and adaptation to environmental stimulation. In A. Damon (Ed.), Physiological anthropology, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  56. Woodruff, D. S. The usefulness of the life span approach for the psycho-physiology of aging. The Gerontologist, 1973, 13, 467–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Woodruff, D. S., and Birren, J. E. (Eds.) Aging, New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kermit K. Schooler
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social WorkSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations