Advertisement

Work Environments

  • H. McIlvaine Parsons

Abstract

How do environments influence human behavior in the world of work? More particularly, how do work environments affect the workers? This chapter will examine two environments that can be designed to influence worker behavior: industrial plants and business offices.

Keywords

Work Environment Spatial Arrangement Thermal Comfort Industrial Plant Office Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altman, I. The environment and social behavior. Privacy, personal space, territory, crowding. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Atherley, G. R. C., Gibbons, S. L., and Powell, J. A. Moderate acoustic stimuli: The interrelation of subjective importance and certain physiological changes. Ergonomics, 1970, 13, 536–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayoub, M. M. Work place design and posture. Human Factors, 1973, 15, 265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, R. M. Motion and time study. 3d ed. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  5. Bedford, T. Researches on thermal comfort. Ergonomics, 1961, 4, 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berenson, P. J., and Robertson, W. G. Temperature. In J. F. Parker, Jr., and Vita R. West (Eds.), Bioastronautics data book. 2d ed. NASA SP-3006. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Blood, M. R., and Huhn, C. L. Alienation, environmental characteristics, and worker responses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1967, 51, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyce, P. R. Users’ assessments of a landscaped office. Journal of Architectural Research, 1974, 3 (3), 44–62.Google Scholar
  9. Branton, P. Behavior, body mechanics and discomfort. Ergonomics, 1969, 12, 316–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broadbent, D. E., and Little, E. A. J. Effects of noise reduction in a work situation. Occupational Psychology, 1960, 34, 133–140.Google Scholar
  11. Brookes, M. J., and Kaplan, A. The office environment: Space planning and affective behavior. Human Factors, 1972, 14, 373–391.Google Scholar
  12. Burandt, M., and Grandjean, E. Sitting habits of office employees. Ergonomics, 1963, 6, 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cain, W. S. (Ed.). Odors: Evaluation, utilization, and control. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 237. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1974.Google Scholar
  14. Carroll, D. Physiological response to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in a simple reaction time situation. Ergonomics, 1973, 16, 587–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, A. Noise effects on health, productivity, and well-being. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1968 30 (7), 910–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Corso, J. F. The effects of noise on human behavior. Report WADC 53–81. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Wright Air Development Center, 1952.Google Scholar
  17. Damon, A., Stoudt, H. W., and McFarland, R. A. The human body in equipment design. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. Duke, M. J., Findikyan, N., Anderson, J., and Sells, S. B. Stress reviews: II. Thermal stress—heat. Technical Report No. 11. Fort Worth, Texas: Institute of Behavioral Research, Texas Christian University, 1967.Google Scholar
  19. Faulkner, T. W., and Murphy, T. J. Lighting for difficult visual tasks. Human Factors, 1973, 5, 149–162.Google Scholar
  20. Floyd, W. F., and Roberts, D. F. Anatomical and physiological principles in chair and table design. Ergonomics, 1958, 2, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ford, R. N. Job enrichment lessons from A.T.T. Harvard Business Review, 1973, 50, 65–69.Google Scholar
  22. Fox, W. F. Human performance in the cold. Human Factors, 1967, 9, 203–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fucigna, J. T. The ergonomics of offices. Ergonomics, 1967, 10, 589–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilbreth, F. B. Motion study. New York: Van Nostrand, 1911.Google Scholar
  25. Gilbreth, F. B., and Gilbreth, L. M. A fourth dimension for measuring skill for obtaining the one best way. Society of Industrial Engineering Bulletin, 1923, 5, 11.Google Scholar
  26. Glass, D. C., and Singer, J. E. Urban stress. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  27. Grandjean, E., Hunting, W., Wotzka, G., and Schärer, R. An ergonomic investigation of multipurpose chairs. Human Factors, 1973, 15, 247–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grether, W. F. Vibration and human performance. Human Factors, 1971, 13, 203–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Guilford, J. P., and Smith, P. C. A system of color preferences. American Journal of Psychology, 1959, 72, 487–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanes, L. F. Thermal comfort in dwellings. Proceedings of annual meeting of the Environmental Design Research Association, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. Harper, W. J. On the interpretation of preference experiments in illumination. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 1974, 3, 157–159.Google Scholar
  32. Helson, H., and Lansford, T. The role of spectral energy of source and background color in the pleasantness of object colors. Applied Optics, 1970, 9, 1513–1562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hopkinson, R. G., and Kay, J. D. The lighting of buildings. New York: Praeger, 1969.Google Scholar
  34. Humphreys, M. A., and Nicol, J. F. An investigation into thermal comfort of office workers. Journal of the Institution of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, 1970, 38, 181–189.Google Scholar
  35. Huntington, E. Civilization and climate. 3d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1924.Google Scholar
  36. Kaplan, A. Are your offices boring? Business Management, 1973.Google Scholar
  37. Kroemer, E. K. H. Seating in plant and office. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 1971, 32, 633–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kryter, K. D. The effects of noise on man. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  39. Lawler, E. E. Job design and employee motivation. Personnel Psychology, 1969, 22, 426–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawler, E. E., III. Motivation in work organizations. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1973.Google Scholar
  41. Lewis, P. T., and O’Sullivan, P. E. Acoustic privacy in office design. Journal of Architectural Research, 1974, 3 (1), 48–51.Google Scholar
  42. McCormick, E. J. Human factors engineering. 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.Google Scholar
  43. McGehee, W., and Gardner, J. E. Music in a complex industrial job. Personnel Psychology, 1949, 2, 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mehrabian, A., and Russell, J. A. An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  45. Moleski, W. Behavioral analysis and environmental programming for offices. In J. Lang, C. Burnette, W. Moleski, and D. Vachon (Eds.), Designing for human behavior: Architecture and the behavioral sciences. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1974.Google Scholar
  46. Murrell, K. F. H. Ergonomics. Man and his working environment. London: Chapman and Hall, 1969.Google Scholar
  47. Muther, R. Plant layout. In H. B. Maynard (Ed.), Industrial engineering handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.Google Scholar
  48. Nemecek, J., and Grandjean, E. Results of an ergonomic investigation of large-space offices. Human Factors, 1973, 15, 111–124.Google Scholar
  49. Newman, R. I., Hunt, D. L., and Rhodes, Fen. Effects of music on employee attitude and productivity in a skateboard factory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1966, 50, 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Parke, E. L., and Tausky, C. Need theory, reinforcement theory, and job enrichment. Personnnel, 1975.Google Scholar
  51. Parsons, H. M. Human factors in the constructed environment. Paper presented at the Engineering Foundation Conference on The Constructed Environment with Man as the Measure, Monterey, Calif., 1974.Google Scholar
  52. Parsons, H. M. What happened at Hawthorne? Science, 1974, 183, 922–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peter, L. J. The Peter prescription. New York: William Morrow, 1972.Google Scholar
  54. Plutchik, R. The effects of high intensity intermittent sound on performance, feeling, and physiology. Psychological Bulletin, 1959, 56, 133–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Poulton, E. C. Environment and human efficiency. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1970.Google Scholar
  56. Roethlisberger, F. J., and Dickson, W. J. Management and the worker. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1939.Google Scholar
  57. Shackel, B., Chidsey, K. D., and Shipley, Pat. The assessment of chair comfort. Ergonomics, 1969, 12, 269–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith, K. R. Intermittent loud noise and mental performance. Science, 1951, 114, 132–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smith, W. A. S. Effects of industrial music in a work situation requiring complex mental activity. Psychological Reports, 1961, 8, 159.Google Scholar
  60. Sommer, R. Tight spaces. Hard architecture and how to humanize it. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974.Google Scholar
  61. Sucov, E. W. European research. Lighting Design and Application, 1973, 39–43.Google Scholar
  62. Terkel, S. Working. New York: Pantheon, 1974.Google Scholar
  63. Theologus, G. C., Wheaton, G. R., and Fleishman, E. A. Effects of intermittent, moderate intensity noise stress on human performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Teichner, W. H. Reaction time in the cold. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1958, 42, 54–59.Google Scholar
  65. Tinker, M. A. Illumination standards for effective and comfortable vision. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1939, 3, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Turner, A. N. and Lawrence, P. R. Industrial jobs and the worker. Boston: Harvard University School of Business Administration, 1965.Google Scholar
  67. Uhrbrock, R. S. Music on the job: Its influence on worker morale and production. Personnel Psychology, 1961, 14, 9–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Cott, H. P., and Kinkade, R. G. (Eds.). Human engineering guide to equipment design. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  69. Viteles, M. S., and Smith, K. R. A psychological and physiological study of the accuracy, variability, and volume of work of young men in hot spaces with different noise levels. ASHVE Report. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Ships, U.S. Navy, 1941.Google Scholar
  70. Warner, H. D., and Heimstra, N. W. Effects of Intermittent noise on visual search tasks of varying complexity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1971, 32, 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Weinstein, N. D. Effect of noise on intellectual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, 548–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wyatt, S., and Langdon, J. N. Fatigue and boredom in repetitive work. I.H.R.B. Report 63. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1937.Google Scholar
  73. Wyon, D. P. The effects of moderate heat stress on typewriting performance. Ergonomics, 1974, 17, 309–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zeitlin, L. R. A comparison of employee attitudes toward the conventional and the landscaped office. Report. New York: Port of New York Authority, 1969.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. McIlvaine Parsons
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Behavioral Research, Inc.Silver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations