Advertisement

Social Cognition

A Selective Review of Current Research
  • Michael J. Chandler

Abstract

Literature reviews typically begin with some brief justificatory statement defending the particular gerrymandering of conceptual boundaries which led to the inclusion of some studies and the exclusion of others. As a selective summary of research in the area of social cognition the present review similarly requires an explicit statement of its ordering principles and a description of the inclusion rule used to rationalize the walling in and walling out of contending studies. The special difficulties posed by these requirements are that the sharp dichotomy between impersonal and social cognition implicit in this task involves a distinction which is, in the opinion of this writer, both awkward and improper, and that, as a consequence, the research literature dealing with this topic seems to follow no detectable ordering principle. Responsibility for this garbled state of affairs is traceable, in part, to the fact that the collection of studies which together compose the research literature on social cognition includes the efforts of investigators who represent several sharply different psychological traditions. Included in this loose federation are representatives of both Piagetian and Wernerian perspectives, as well as a sizable group of more empirically oriented investigators, operating out of various information-processing models. Behind these first-rank contenders are smaller groups of more psychodynamically oriented personality theorists, developmentally oriented social psychologists, and a varied assortment of personalogists, psychomotorists, and social philosophers. All these groups proceed from different sets of orienting premises, search for different answers to different questions, and employ often unreconcilable experimental and assessment strategies.

Keywords

Social Cognition Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Person Perception Feeling State Empathic Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anthony, B. J., 1974, The development of empathy in high risk children, paper presented at the Eighth International Congress of the International Association for Child Psychiatry and Allied Professions, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  2. Anthony, E. J., 1959, An experimental approach to the psychopathology of childhood autism, British Journal of Medical Psychology 32:18–37.Google Scholar
  3. Aronfreed, J., 1969, The concept of internalization, in “Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research” D. Goslin (ed.), Rand McNally, Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, B., 1954, Accuracy of social perceptions of psychopathic and non-psychopathic prison inmates, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C. P., Hilton, I. M., and Lambert, N. W., 1969, The measurement of social expectations and their development in children, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 34: (4, Serial No. 128).Google Scholar
  6. Baldwin, C. P., and Baldwin, A. L., 1970, Children’s judgments of kindness, Child Development, 41: 29–47.Google Scholar
  7. BearisonD. J., 1974, The construct of regression: A Piagetian approach, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly20:21–30.Google Scholar
  8. Bigner, J. J., 1974, A Wernerian developmental analysis of children’s descriptions of siblings, Child Development 45: 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borke, H., 1971, Interpersonal perception of young children: Egocentrism or empathy?, Developmental Psychology 5: 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borke, H., 1972, Chandler and Greenspan’s “Ersatz egocentrism”: A rejoinder, Developmental Psychology 7:107–109.Google Scholar
  11. Borke, H., 1973, The development of empathy in Chinese and American children between the ages of three and six years of age: A cross-culture study, Developmental Psychology 9: 102–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Botkin, P. T., 1966, Improving communication skills in sixth-grade students through train-Google Scholar
  13. ing in role-taking, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester. Bowers, K. S., 1973, Situationism in psychology: An analysis and a critique, Psychologicai Review 80:307–336.Google Scholar
  14. Bowers, P., and London, P., 1965, Developmental correlates of role-playing ability, Child Development 36:499–508.Google Scholar
  15. BrierlyD. W., 1966, Children’s use of personality constructs, Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 19:72.Google Scholar
  16. Brunswik, E., 1956, “Perception and the Representive Design of Psychological Experiments” (2nd ed.), University of California Press, Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
  17. Bums, N., and Cavey, L., 1957, Age differences in empathic ability among children, Canadian Journal of Psychology 11:227–230.Google Scholar
  18. Cameron, N., 1947, “The Psychology of Behavior Disorders”, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  19. Chandler, M. J., 1971, Egocentrism and childhood psychopathology: The development and application of measurement techniques, paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  20. Chandler, M. J., 1972, Egocentrism in normal and pathological child development, in “Determinants of Behavioral Development” F. Monks, W. Hartup, and J. DeWitt (eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Chandler, M. J., 1973a, Egocentrism and antisocial behavior: The assessment and training of social perspective-taking skills, Developmental Psychology 9: 326–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chandler, M. J., 1973b, Role theory and developmental research, paper presented at the 81st Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Montreal.Google Scholar
  23. Chandler, M. J., 1974a, Accurate and accidental empathy, paper presented at the American Psychological Association Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  24. Chandler, M. J., 1974b, The picture arrangement subtest of the WAIS as an index of social egocentrism: A comparative study of normal and emotionally disturbed children, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1: 340–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chandler, M. J., and Greenspan, S., 1972, Ersatz egocentrism: A reply to H. Borke, Developmental Psychology 7: 104–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chandler, M. J., Helm, D., 1974, Developmental changes in the contribution of shared experience to social perspective-taking skills, paper presented at the Southeastern regional meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Chandler, M. J., Greenspan, S., and Barenboim, C., 1973, Judgments of intentionality in response to videotaped and verbally presented moral dilemmas: The medium is the message, Child Development 44: 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chandler, M. J., Greenspan, S., and Barenboim, C., 1974, Assessment and training of role-taking and referential communication skills in institutionalized emotionally disturbed children, Developmental Psychology 10: 546–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cobliner, W. L., 1967, Psychoanalysis and the Geneva School of genetic psychology:Paralleles and counterparts, International Journal of Psychiatry 3: 82–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, B. D., 1974, Referent communication disturbances in acute schizophrenia, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83:1–13.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen, B. D., Nachmani, G., and Rosenberg, S., 1974, Referential communication disturbances in acute schizophrenia, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83 (1): 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooke, G. E., 1971, Conceptual learning in young children: A comparison of the effects of role, principle, and guided discovery strategies on conceptualization in first grade children, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  33. Cooke, G. E., 1971, Conceptual learning in young children: A comparison of the effects of role, principle, and guided discovery strategies on conceptualization in first grade children, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  34. Cottrell, L. W., and Dymond, R. F., 1949, The empathic response—a neglected field for research, Psychiatry 12:355–359.Google Scholar
  35. Cowan, P. A., 1966, Cognitive egocentrism and social interaction in children, American Psychologist 21: 623.Google Scholar
  36. Cowan, P. A., 1967, The link between cognitive structures and social structures in two-child verbal interactions, paper presented at meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development.Google Scholar
  37. Crockett, W. H., 1965, Cognitive complexity and impression formation, in “Progress in Experimental Personality Research” (Vol. 2 ), B. A. Maher (ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Crockett, W. H., 1965, Cognitive complexity and impression formation, in “Progress in Experimental Personality Research” (Vol. 2 ), B. A. Maher (ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. DeVries, R., 1970, The development of role-taking as reflected by behavior of bright, average, and retarded children in a social guessing game, Child Development 41: 759–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dimitrovsky, L., 1964, The ability to identify the emotional meaning of vocal expression at successive age levels, in “The Communication of Emotional Meaning” J. R. Davitz (ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Dinnerstein, D., 1951, A study of the development of certain cognitive structures, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, New School for Social Research.Google Scholar
  42. Dunham, H. W., 1944, The social personality of the catatonic-schizophrenic, American Journal of Sociology 49:508–518.Google Scholar
  43. Dymond, R. F., Hughes, A. S., and Raabe, V. L., 1952, Measureable change in empathy with age, Journal of Consulting Psychology 16: 202–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dysinger, W. S., and Ruckmick, D., 1933, “The Emotional Responses of Children to the Motion Picture Situation,” Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Feffer, M. H., 1959, The cognitive implications of role-taking behavior, Journal of Personality 27: 152–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Feffer M. H., 1970, A developmental analysis of interpersonal behavior, Psychological Review 77:197–214.Google Scholar
  47. Feffer, M. H., and Gourevitch, V., 1960, Cognitive aspects of role-taking in children, Journal of Personality 28: 383–396.Google Scholar
  48. Feffer, M. H., and Suchotliff, L., 1966, Decentering implications of social interaction, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4:415–422.Google Scholar
  49. Feshbach, N. D., 1973, Empathy: An interpersonal process, paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal.Google Scholar
  50. Feshbach, N. D., and Feshbach, S., 1969, The relationship between empathy and aggression in two age groups, Developmental Psychology 1 (2): 102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feshbach N. D., and Roe, K., 1968, Empathy in six and seven-year-olds, Child Development 39:133–145.Google Scholar
  52. Filer, A. A., 1972, Piagetian cognitive development in normal and emotionally disturbed children, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester.Google Scholar
  53. Flapan, D., 1968, “Children’s Understanding of Social Interaction,” Teacher’s College Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Flavell, J. H., 1970, Concept development, in “Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology” (Vol. 1 ) P. H. Mussen (ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 983–1059.Google Scholar
  55. Flavell, J. H., 1973, The development of inferences about others, in “Understanding Other Persons” T. Mischel (ed.), Blackwell, Basil & Mott, Oxford, England, pp. 66–116.Google Scholar
  56. Flavell, J., and Wohlwill, J., 1969, Formal and functional aspects of cognitive development, in “Studies in Cognitive Development,” D. Elkind and J. Flavell: Essay in honor of Jean Piaget, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Flavell, J. H., Botkin, P. T., Fry, C. L., Wright, J. W., and Jarvis, P. E., 1968, “The Development of Role-taking and Communication Skills in Children,” Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Furth, H. G., 1969, “Piaget and Knowledge: Theoretical Foundations,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  59. Gates, G. S., 1923, An experimental study of the growth of social perception, Journal of Educational Psychology 14:449–462.Google Scholar
  60. Gilbert, D., 1%9, The young child’s awareness of affect, Child Development 39:619–636. Glucksberg, S., and Krauss, R. M., 1%7, What do people say after they have learned to talk?, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 13: 309–316.Google Scholar
  61. Glucksberg, S., Krauss, R. M., and Weisberg, R., 1966, Referential communication in nursery school children: Methods and some preliminary findings, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 3: 333–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldschmid, M. L., 1968, The relation of conservation to emotional and environmental aspects of development, Child Development 39: 579–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gollin, E. S., 1951, Forming impressions of personality: A study of social perception, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Clark University.Google Scholar
  64. Gollin, E. S., 1958, Organizational characteristics of social judgment: A developmental investigation, Journal of Personality 26: 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gough, H. G., 1948, A sociological theory of psychopathy, American Journal of Sociology 53: 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gough, H. G., and Peterson, D. R., 1952, The identification and measurement of predispositional factors in crime and delinquency, Journal of Consulting Psychology 16: 207212.Google Scholar
  67. Gratch, G., 1964, Response alternation in children: A developmental study of orientations to uncertainty, Vita Humana 7: 49–60.Google Scholar
  68. Greenspan, S., 1973, The child’s response to distress in others: A review of the experimental literature, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  69. Greenspan, S., and Chandler, M. J., 1973, The effects of referential communication training on cognitive egocentrism and social behavior in emotionally disturbed children, paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  70. Greenspan, S., Barenboim, C., and Chandler, M. J., 1974, Children’s affective judgments in response to videotaped stories, paper presented at the Southeastern Regional meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  71. Greenspan, S., Barenboim, C., and Chandler, M. J., 1974, Children’s affective judgments in response to videotaped stories, paper presented at the Southeastern Regional meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  72. Guardo, C. J., and Bohan, J. B., 1971, Development of a sense of self-identity in children, Child Development 42: 1909–1921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Heider, F., 1958, “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations,” Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Hoffman, M. L., 1974, Empathy, role-taking, guilt, and development of altruistic motives, in “Man and Morality” T. Likona (ed.), Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Iannotti, R. J., and Meacham, J. A., 1974, The nature, measurement, and development of empathy, paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychology Association, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  76. Kagan, J., and Moss, H., 1960, Conceptual style and the use of affect labels, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 6: 40.Google Scholar
  77. Keasey, C. B., 1971, Social participation as a factor in the moral development of preadolescence, Developmental Psychology 15: 216–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Klein, R., 1970, Some factors influencing empathy in six and seven-year-old children varying in ethnic background, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California.Google Scholar
  79. Kohlberg, L., 1958, The development of modes of moral thinking and choice in the yearsten to sixteen, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  80. Krauss, R. M., and Glucksberg, S., 1969, The development of communication: Compe-tence as a function of age, Child Development 40: 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Langer, J., 1969, “Theories of Development,” Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Little, B. R., 1968, Age and sex differences in the use of psychological, role, and physicalistic constructs, Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 21: 34.Google Scholar
  83. Livesley, W. J., and Bromley, D. B., 1973, “Person Perception in Childhood and Adolescence,” Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Looft, W. R., 1972, Egocentrism and social interaction across the life span, Psychological Bulletin 78:73–92.Google Scholar
  85. Martin, M., 1968, A role-taking theory of psychopathology, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  86. Masangkay, Z. S., McCluskey, K. A., McIntyre, C. W., Sims-Knight, J., Vaughn, B. E., and Flavell, J. H., 1974, The early development of inferences about the visual percepts of others, Child Development 45: 357–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mood, D., Johnson, J., and Shantz, C. U., 1973, Young children’s understanding of the affective states of others, paper presented at the Southeast Regional meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development.Google Scholar
  88. Murphy, L. B., 1937, “Social Behavior and Child Personality: An Exploratory Study of Some Roots of Sympathy,” Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Neale, J. M., 1966, Egocentrism in institutionalized and non-institutionalized children, Child Development 37: 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Odier, C., 1956, “Anxiety and Magical Thinking,” International University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Olshan, K., 1970, The multidimensional structure of person perception in children, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers-The State University.Google Scholar
  92. Osborn, D. K., and Endsley, R. C., 1971, Emotional reactions of young children to T.V. violence, Child Development 42: 321–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Peevers, B. H., and Secord, P. F., 1973, Developmental changes in attribution of descrip-tive concepts to persons, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27: 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Piaget, J., 1970, Piaget’s theory, in “Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology,” Wiley,New York, pp. 703–732.Google Scholar
  95. Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B., 1956, “The Child’s Conception of Space,” Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  96. Rogers, C., 1952, “Client-Centered Therapy,” Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  97. Rosenbach, D., 1968, Some factors affecting reconciliation of contradictory information on impression formation: An ontogenetic study of person perception, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Clark University.Google Scholar
  98. Rosenberg, S., and Cohen, B. D., 1966, Referential processes of speakers and listeners, Psychological Review 73: 208–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rothenberg, B. B., 1970, Children’s social sensitivity and their relationship to interpersonal competence and intellectual level, Developmental Psychology 2: 335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rubin, K. H., 1973, Egocentrism in childhood: A unitary construct? Child Development 44: 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ruderman, D. L., 1961, An exploration of empathic ability in children and its relationship to several variables, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University. Sarbin, T. R., 1954Google Scholar
  102. Role theory, in “Handbook of Social Psychology” G. Lindzey (ed.),Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  103. Scarlett, H. H., Press, A. N., and Crockett, W. H., 1971, Children’s descriptions of peers: A Wernerian developmental analysis, Child Development 42: 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Selman, R. L., 1971, Taking another’s perspective: Role-taking development in early childhood, Child Development 42:1721–1734.Google Scholar
  105. Shantz, C. U., and Watson, J. S., 1971, Spatial abilities and spatial egocentrism in the young child, Child Development 42: 171–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shantz, C. U., and Wilson, K. E., 1972, Training communication skills in young children, Child Development 43: 693–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sigel, I. E., 1964, The attainment of concepts, in “Review of Child Development Research” (Vol. 1 ) M. L. Hoffman and L. W. Hoffman (eds.), Russell Sage Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Snow, C. P., 1959, “The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  109. Staub, E., 1970, A child in distress: The effect of focusing responsibility on children on their attempts to help, Developmental Psychology 2: 152–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Staub, E., 1971, A child in distress: The influence of nurturance and modeling on children’s attempts to help, Developmental Psychology 5: 124–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sternback, R. A., 1962, Assessing differential autonomic patterns in emotions, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 6:87–91.Google Scholar
  112. Stotland, E., 1969, Exploratory investigations of empathy, in “Advances in Experimental Social Psychology” (Vol. 4 ) L. Berkowitz (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 271–313.Google Scholar
  113. Sullivan, E. V., and Hunt, D. E., 1967, Interpersonal and objective decentering as a function of age and social class, Journal of Genetic Psychology 110:199–210. Sullivan, H. S., 1953, “The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry,” Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Supnik, L., 1967, Source of information as a factor affecting the impression of others,unpublished doctoral dissertation, Clark University.Google Scholar
  115. Thompson, L. A., 1968, Role playing ability and social adjustment in children, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  116. Van Den Daele, L., 1969, Qualitative models in development analysis, Developmental Psychology 1:303–310.Google Scholar
  117. Warren, M. Q., 1965, The community treatment project: An integration of theories of causation and correctional practice, paper read at the annual conference of the Illinois Academy of Criminology, Chicago.Google Scholar
  118. Watts, A., 1944, “The Language and Mental Development of Children,” Heath, Boston. Werner, H., 1961, “Comparative Psychology of Mental Development,” Science Editions, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Whiteman, M., 1967, Children’s conceptions of psychological causality Child Development 38:143–155.Google Scholar
  120. Wispe, L. G., 1968, Sympathy and empathy, International Encyclopedia of the Social SciencesVol. 15, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Wolfe, R., 1963, The role of conceptual systems in cognitive functioning at varying levels of age and intelligence, Journal of Personality 31:108–123.Google Scholar
  122. Woodworth, R. S., and Schlosberg, H., 1960, “Experimental Psychology: Revised Edition,” Holt, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Yarrow, M. R., and Campbell, J. D., 1963, Person perception in children, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 9:57–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Chandler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations