Advertisement

Hormones and Aging

  • Nicola Fabris
Part of the Comprehensive Immunology book series (COMIMUN, volume 1)

Abstract

A number of investigations, reviewed in other chapters of this book, have documented the decline in immune function that occurs with advancing age.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Hormonal Balance Dwarf Mouse Lymphoid System Thymic Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambrose, C.T., 1964, The requirement for hydrocortisone in antibody-forming tissue cultivated in serum free medium, J. Exp. Med. 119:1027–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose, C. T., 1970, The essential role of corticosteroids in the induction of the immune response in vitro, in: Hormones and Immune Response, Ciba Study Group No. 36 (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 100–116, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, J. A., Gorden, P., Gavin III, J. R., Lesniak, M. A., and Roth, J., 1973, Insulin receptors in human circulating lymphocytes: application to the insulin resistance in man, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36:627–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrembrecht, S., 1974, Specific binding of growth hormone to thymocytes, Nature 252:255–257.Google Scholar
  5. Bach, J. F., and Dardenne, M., 1973, Studies on thymus products. II. Demonstration of a circulating thymic hormone, Immunology 25:353–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bach, J. F., Dardenne, M., Papiernik, M., Barois, A., Lavasseur, P., and Le Brigand, H., 1972, Evidence for a serum-factor secreted by the human thymus, Lancet ii:1056–1058.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, D. W. H., Ford, C. E., and Loutit, J. E., 1959, Grèffes en serie de moélle osseuse chez des souris irradiées, Sang. 30:762–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes, E. W., Loudon, N. B., MacCuish, A. C., Jordan, J., Irvine, W. J., 1974, Phytohaemagglutinininduced lymphocyte transformation and circulating autoantibodies in women taking oral contraceptives, Lancet i:898–900.Google Scholar
  9. Bellamy, D., 1968, Long-term action of prednisolone phosphate on a strain of short-lived mice, Exp. Gerontol. 3:327–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentley, H. P., Hughes, E. R., and Peterson, R. D. A., 1974, Effect of hypophysectomy on a virusinduced T-cell leukaemia, Nature 252:747–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Besedowski, H. O., and Sorkin, E., 1974, Thymus involvement in female sexual maturation, Nature 249:356–358.Google Scholar
  12. Bianchi, E., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Cytological changes in the mouse anterior pituitary after neonatal thymectomy: a light and electron microscopcal study, J. Endocrin. 51:1–6.Google Scholar
  13. Bielschowsky, F., and Bielschowsky, M., 1959, Carcinogenesis in the pituitary dwarf mouse. The response to methylcholanthrene injected subcutaneously, Brit. J. Cancer 13:302–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bielschowsky, F., and Bielschowsky, M., 1960, Carcinogenesis in the pituitary dwarf mouse. The response of 2-aminofluorene, Brit. J. Cancer 14:195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Braun, W., Yajima, Y., and Ishizuka, T., 1970, Synthetic polynucleotides as restorers of normal antibody forming capacity in aged mice, RES (N.Y.), 7:418–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burnet, M., 1970, Immunological Surveillance, Pergamon Press, Australia.Google Scholar
  17. Dauphinee, M. J., Talal, N., Goldstein, A. L., and White, A., 1974, Thymosine corrects the abnormal DNA synthetic response of NZB mouse thymocytes, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 71:2637–2641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dardenne, M., and Bach, J. F., 1973, Studies on thymus products. I. Modification of rosette-forming cells by thymic extracts. Determination of target RFC subpopulation, Immunol. 25:343–352.Google Scholar
  19. Dilman, V. M., 1971, Age-associated elevation of hypothalamic threshold to feed-back control, and its role in development, ageing, and disease, Lancet i:1211–1217.Google Scholar
  20. Dougherty, T. F., 1952, Effect of hormones on lymphatic tissue, Physiol. Rev. 32:379–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duquesnoy, R. J., 1975, The pituitary dwarf mouse: a model for study of endocrine immunodeficiency disease, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth Defects, Original Article Series, Vol. XI, No. 1 (D. Bergsma, ed.) pp. 536–543, Sinauer Assoc. Inc., Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  22. Duquesnoy, R. J., and Good, R. A., 1971, Prevention of immunologic deficiency in pituitary dwarf mice by prolonged nursing, J. Immunol. 6:1553–1558.Google Scholar
  23. Duquesnoy, R. J., Mariani, T., and Good, R. A., 1969, Effect of hypophysectomy on the immunological recovery from X-irradiation, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 132:1176–1178.Google Scholar
  24. Eidinger, D., and Garrett, T. J., 1972, Studies on the regulatory effects on the sex hormones on antibody formation and stem cell differentiation, J. Exp. Med. 136:1098–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eliott, E. V., and Sinclair, C., 1968, Effect of cortisone acetate on 19s and 75s haemolysin antibody. A time course study, Immunology 15:643–652.Google Scholar
  26. Ernström, U., and Larsson, B., 1966, Thymic and thoracic duct contribution to blood lymphocytes in normal and thyroxin treated guinea-pig, Acta Physiol. Scand. 66:189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fabris, N., 1973a, Immunodepression in thyroid-deprived animals, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 15:601–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fabris, N., 1973b, Immunological reactivity during pregnancy in the mouse, Experientia 29:610–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fabris, N., and Sorkin, E., 1975, Relation of lymphoid system and hormones to aging, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth Defects Original Article Series, Vol. XI, No. 1 (D. Bergsma ed.) pp. 533–536, Sinauer Assoc, Mass.Google Scholar
  30. Fabris, N., and Piantanelli, L., 1976, Effect of chorionic gonadotropins on humoral and cell-mediated immunity, in: Immune Reactivity of Lymphocytes (M. Feldman and A. Globerson, eds.), pp. 635–638, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Fabris, N., and Piantanelli, L., Contributions of hypopituitary dwarf and athymic nude mice to the study of the relationships among thymus, hormones, and aging, in: Genetic Effects on Aging (D. E. Harrison, ed.), Birth Defects Original Article Series, Sinauer Assoc, Sunderland, Mass., in press.Google Scholar
  32. Fabris, N., and Piantanelli, L., Differential effect of pancreatectomy on humoral and cell-mediated immunity, Clin. Exp. Immunol., submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  33. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Hormones and the immune response, in: Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure (J. Sterzi and I. Riha, eds.) pp. 79–87, Czechoslovak Academy Press, Prague.Google Scholar
  34. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E. 1971a, Hormones and the immunological capacity. III. The immunodeficiency diseases of the hypopituitary Snell-Bagg dwarf mouse, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9:209–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1971b, Hormones and the immunological capacity. IV. Restorative effects of developmental hormones or of lymphocytes on the immunodeficiency syndrome of the dwarf mouse, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9:227–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1972, Lymphocytes, hormones and ageing, Nature 240:557–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fabris, N., Piantanelli, L., and Muzzioli, M., Differential effect of pregnancy and gestagens on humoral and cell-mediated immunity, Clin. Exp. Immunol., submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  38. Fachet, J., Stark, E., Palkovits, M., and Valient, K., 1963, Der Einfluss der Thymectomie auf die Leberregeneration nach partielle Hepatektomie, Z. Zellforsch. 60:609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Friedman, D., Keiser, V., and Globerson, A., 1974, Reactivation of immunocompetence in spleen cells of aged mice, Nature 251:545–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gardner, W. U., 1953, Hormonal aspects of Experimental Tumorigegenesis, in: Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 1 (J. P. Greenstein and A. Haddow eds.), pp. 173–232, Academic Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
  41. Gavin III, J. R., Roth, J., Neville, D. M., DeMeyts, P., and Buell, D. N., 1974, Insulin-dependent regulation of insulin receptors concentrations: a direct demonstration in cell culture, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:84–88.Google Scholar
  42. Gerbase-DeLima, M., Wilkinson, J., Smith, G. S., and Walford, R. L., 1974, Age-related decline in thymic-independent immune function in a long-lived mouse strain, J. Geront. 29:261–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gershon, R. K., 1974, T cell control of antibody production, in: Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology (M. D. Cooper and N. L. Warner, eds.), pp. 1–40, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Goldstein, G., 1974, Isolation of bovine thymin: a polypeptide hormone of the thymus, Nature 247:11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldstein, A. L., Guha, A., Zatz, M. M., Hardy, M. A., and White, A., 1972, Purification and biological activity of thymosin, a hormone of the thymus gland, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 69:1800–1803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goodman, S. A., and Makinodan, T., 1975, Effect of age on cell-mediated immunity in long-lived mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 19:533–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gunn, A., Lance, E. M., Medawar, P. B., and Nehlsen, S. L., 1970, Synergism between Cortisol anti antilymphocyte serum, in: Hormones and Immune Response, Ciba Study Group, No 36 (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.) pp. 66–95, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  48. Hadden, J. W., Hadden, E. M., Wilson, E. E., Good, R. A., and Coffey, R. G., 1972, Direct action of insulin on plasma membrane ATPase activity in human lymphocytes, Nature N.B. 235:174–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayflick, L., 1966, Cell culture and the aging phenomenon, in: Topics in the Biology of Aging (P. L. Krohn, ed.), pp. 83–100, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Heidrick, M. L., and Makinodan, T., 1972, Nature of cellular deficiencies in age-related decline of the immune system, Gerontologia 18:305–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hollander, U. P., Takakura, K., and Yamada, H., 1968, Endocrine factors in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors, Recent Progress Horm. Res. 24:81–137.Google Scholar
  52. Hoshino, K., and Gardner, W. U., 1967, Transplantability and life-span of mammary gland during serial transplantation in mice, Nature 213:193–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kanugo, M. S., Patnaik, S. K., and Koul, O., 1975, Decrease in 17-β-oestradiol receptor in brain of ageing rats, Nature 253:366–367.Google Scholar
  54. Kaplan, H. S., Nagareda, C. S., and Brown, M. B., 1954, V. The role of hormones in blood and blood-forming organs. Endocrine factors and radiation-induced lymphoid tumors of mice, Recent Progress Horm. Res. 10:293–333.Google Scholar
  55. Komuro, K., and Boyse, E. A., 1973, In vitro demonstration of thymic hormone in the mouse by conversion of precursor cells into lymphocytes, Lancet i:740–743.Google Scholar
  56. Krohn, P. L., 1966, Transplantation and aging, in: Topics in the Biology of Aging (P. L. Krohn, ed.) pp. 125–173, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Krug, U., Krug, F., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1972, Emergence of insulin receptors on human lymphocytes during in vitro transformation, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 9:2604–2608.Google Scholar
  58. Jost, A., Vigier, B., Prepin, J., and Perchellet, J. P., 1973, Studies on sex differentiation in mammals, Rec. Progr. Hormone Res. 29:1–36.Google Scholar
  59. Lichtenstein, L. M., and Henney, C. S., 1974, Adenylate cyclaselinked hormone receptors: an important mechanism for the immunoregulation of leucocytes, in: Progress in Immunology, Vol 2 (L. Brent and J. Holborrow, eds.), pp. 73–83, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  60. Liu, R. K., and Walford, R. L., 1972, The effect of lowered body temperature on life-span and immune and nonimmune processes, Gerontologia 18:363–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu, R. K., and Walford, R. L., 1975, Mid-life temperature-transfer effects on life-span of annual fish, J. Geront. 30:129–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lundin, P. M., 1958, Anterior pituitary gland and lymphoid tissue growth, Acta Endocrinol., Suppl. Vol. 40.Google Scholar
  63. Lundin, P. M., and Angervall, L., 1970, Effect of insulin on rat lymphoid tissue, Path. Europ. 3:273–278.Google Scholar
  64. McCay, C. M., 1952, Chemical aspects of aging and the effect of diet upon aging, in: Cowdry’s Problems of Ageing (L. I. Lansing, ed.), pp. 139–202, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  65. Metcalf, D., 1966, The thymus, in: Recent Result in Cancer Research Monog. No 5, Springer-Verlag, N.Y.Google Scholar
  66. Moon, H. D., Simpson, M. E., Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M., 1952, Effect of pituitary growth hormone in mice, Cancer Res. 12:448–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Munroe, J. S., 1971, Progesteroids as Immunosuppressive agents, J. Reticuloendothelial Society 9:361–375.Google Scholar
  68. Nishizuka, Y., and Sakakura, T., 1969, Thymus and reproduction: sex-linked dysgenesia of the gonad after neonatal thymectomy in mice, Science 166:753–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nossal, J. V., Bussard, A. E., Lewis, H., and Mazie, J. C., 1970, Formation of hemolitic plaques by peritoneal cells in vitro. I: a new technique enabling micromanipulation and yielding higher plaque numbers, in: Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure ( Riha and Sterzi, eds.), p. 655–670 Czecoslovak Academic Press, Prague.Google Scholar
  70. Osoba, D., and Miller, J. F. A. P., 1963, Evidence for a humoral thymus factor responsible for maturation of immunological faculty, Nature 199:653–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pandian, M. R., and Talwar, G. P., 1971, Effect of growth hormone on the metabolism of thymus and on the immune response against sheep erythrocytes, J. Exp. Med. 134:1095–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pantalouris, E. M., 1973, Athymic development in the mouse, Differentiation 1:437–450.Google Scholar
  73. Phillips, S. M., and Wegman, T. G., 1973, Active suppression as a possible mechanism of tolerance in tetraparental mice, J. Exp. Med. 137:291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Piantanelli, L. and Fabris, N., 1975a, Decreased rate of DNA synthesis in submandibular glands of thymusless nude mice after isoproterenol stimulation, in: FEBS Abstract, 10th FEBS meeting, Abs. No. 1595, Société de Chimie Biologique, Paris.Google Scholar
  75. Pierpaoli, W., and Besedowski, H. O., 1975, Role of the thymus in programmation of neuroendocrine functions, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 20:323–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pierpaoli, W., Fabris, N., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Developmental hormones and immunological muturation, in: Hormones and the immune response, Ciba Study Group No. 36 (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 126–143, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  77. Pierpaoli, W., Fabris, N., and Sorkin, E., 1971, The effects of hormones on the development of the immune capacity, in: Cellular Interactions in the Immune Response, 2nd Int. Convoc. Immunol., Buffalo, pp. 25–30, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  78. Pierpaoli, W., and Haran-Ghera, N., 1975, Prevention of induced leukaemia in mice by immunological inhibition of adenohypophysis, Nature 254:334–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1967, Relationship between thymus and hypopysis, Nature 215:834–837.Google Scholar
  80. Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1969, A study on anti-pituitary serum, Immunol. 16:311–318.Google Scholar
  81. Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1972, Alterations of adrenal cortex and thyroid in mice with congenital absence of the thymus, Nature N. B. 28:282–284.Google Scholar
  82. Price, G. B., and Makinodan, T. 1972a, Immunologic deficiencies in senescence. I. Characterization of intrinsic deficiencies, J. Immunol 108:403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Price, G. B., and Makinodan, T., 1972b, Immunologic deficiencies in senescence. II. Characterization of extrinsic deficiencies, J. Immunol. 108:413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rembiesa, R., Rak, W., and Bubak, M., 1974, The immuno-suppressive effects of mouse placental steroids, Experientia 30:82–83.Google Scholar
  85. Roberts-Thomson, I. C., Whittingham, S., Youngchaiyud, U., and Mackay, I. R., 1974, Ageing, immune response and mortality, Lancet ii:368–370.Google Scholar
  86. Roth, G. S., and Adelman, R. C., 1975, Age related changes in hormone binding by target cells and tissues; possible role in altered adaptive responsiveness, Exp. Geront. 10:1–11.Google Scholar
  87. Rowley, M. J., and Mackay, I. R., 1969, Measurement of antibody-producing capacity in man. I. The normal response to flagellen from Salmonella adelaide, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 5:407–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sara, V. R., and Lazarus, L., 1974, Prenatal action of growth hormone on brain and behaviour, Nature 250:257–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Solomon, G. F., Levine, S., and Kraft, J. K., 1968, Early experience and immunity, Nature 220:821–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Spiegel, P. M., 1972, Theories of aging, in: Developmental Physiology and Aging (P. S. Timiras, ed.), pp. 564–580, MacMillan Co., N.Y.Google Scholar
  91. Sproul, E. E., Grinberg, R., and Werner, S. C., 1963, Lymphoid hyperplasia and neoplasia associated with a mouse pituitary thyrotropic tumor, Cancer Res. 23:1090–1096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stavy, L., 1974, Stimulation of rat lymphocyte proliferation by hydrocortisone during the induction of cell-mediated immunity in vitro, Transplantation 17:173–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Stockmann, G. D., and Humford, D. H., 1974, The effect of prostaglandins on the in vitro blastogenic response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Exp. Hematol. 2:65–79.Google Scholar
  94. Stuchlíková, E., Juríková-Horáková, M., and Deyl, Z., 1975, New aspect of dietary effect on life prolongation in rodents. What is the role of obesity in aging?, Exp. Gerontol. 10:141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Szemberg, A., 1970, Influence of testosterone on the primary lymphoid organs of the chicken, in: Hormones and Immune Responses, Ciba Study Group No. 36, (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 42–45, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  96. Terres, G., Morrison, S. L., and Habicht, G. S., 1968, A quantitative difference in the immune response between male and female mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127:664–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thompson, G., 1967, Enhancing effect of insulin on the tuberculin reaction of the albino rat, Nature 215:748–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Timiras, P. S., 1972, Decline in Homeostatic regulation, in: Developmental Physiology and Aging (P. S. Timiras, ed.), pp. 542–563, MacMillan Co., N.Y.Google Scholar
  99. Timiras, P. S., and Meisami, E., 1972, Changes in gonadal function in: Developmental Physiology and Aging (P. S. Timiras, ed.) pp. 527–541, MacMillan Co., N.Y.Google Scholar
  100. Toh, Y. C., 1973, Physiological and biochemical reviews of sex differences and carcinogenesis with particular reference to the liver, in: Advances in Cancer Research (G. Klein and S. Weinhouse, eds.) pp. 155–209, Academic Press, N.Y.Google Scholar
  101. Trainin, N., Carnaud, C., and Ilfeld, D., 1973, Inhibition of in vitro autosensitization by a thymic humoral factor, Nature N.B. 245:253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Trainin, N., and Small, M., 1970, Conferment of immunocopetence on lymphoid cells by a thymic humoral factor, in: Hormones and Immune Responses (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 24–36, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  103. Turolla, E., 1960, Attecchimento e sviluppo del tumore di Ehrlich e del Sarcoma 180 in topi con nanismo ipofisario, Tumori 46:20–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ultman, J. E., Hyman, G. A., and Burton Calder, G. A., 1963, The occurrence of lymphoma in patients with long-standing hyperthyroidism, Blood 21:282–293.Google Scholar
  105. Walford, R. L., 1969, The Immunological Theories of Aging, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  106. Walford, R. L., 1974, The immunological theory of aging: current status, Fed. Proc. 33:2020–2027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Walford, R. L., Liu, R. K., Mathies, M., Gerbase-DeLima, M., and Smith, G. S., 1973, 1974, Long term dietary restriction and immune function in mice, Response to sheep red blood cells and to mitogens, Mech. Ageing Develop. 2:447–454.Google Scholar
  108. Waltman, S. R., Burde, R. M., and Berrios, J., 1971, Prevention of corneal homograft rejection by estrogens, Transplantation 11:194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. White, A., and Goldstein, A. L., 1970, Thymosin, a thymic hormone influencing lymphoid cell immunological competence, in: Hormones and Immune Responses, Ciba Study Group No. 36 (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 3–18, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  110. Whitfield, J. F., 1970, Potentiation by antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) of the ability of parathyroid hormone to stimulate the proliferation of rat thymic lymphocytes, Horm. Metab. Res. 2:233–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wilkinson, P. C., Singh, H., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Serum immunoglobulin levels in thymus deficient pituitary dwarf mice, Immunol. 18:437–441.Google Scholar
  112. Williamson, A. R., and Askonas, B. A., 1972, Senescence of an antibody-forming cell clone, Nature 238:337–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wortis, H. H., 1975, Pleiotropic effects of the nude mutation, in: Immunodeficiency in man and animals, Birth Defects Original Article Series, vol. XI, No. 1 (D. Bergsma, ed.), pp. 528–530, Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  114. Yunis, E. J., Fernandes, B. S., and Greenberg, L. J., 1975, Immune deficiency, autoimmunity and aging, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth Defects, original Article Series, vol XI, No. 1 (D. Bergsma, ed.), pp. 185–192, Sinauer Assoc, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Fabris
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental Gerontology CenterINRCAAnconaItaly

Personalised recommendations