Biology of Aging: Retrospect and Prospect

  • Takashi Makinodan
Part of the Comprehensive Immunology book series (COMIMUN, volume 1)


Aging can be defined as a time-dependent process whereby one’s body can no longer cope with environmental stress and change as easily as it once could. Hence loss of physiological adaptability is one of the hallmarks of aging. Suffice it to say, aging is rapidly becoming the most critical issue socioeconomically and biomedically on this planet. It is not surprising, therefore, that in recent years increasing attention is being given to biomedical gerontology, as attested by the creation in 1974 of the National Institute on Aging in the United States.


Life Span Time Clock Average Life Span Maximum Life Span Physiological Adaptability 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Makinodan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Baltimore City HospitalsBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Administration Wadsworth Hospital CenterUSA
  3. 3.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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