Advertisement

On the Reciprocal Relationship Between Previous Experience and Processing in Determining Learning Outcomes

  • Ernst Z. Rothkopf
Part of the Nato Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 5)

Abstract

The learning process is complex and incompletely understood. Despite this, the general factors that appear relevant to the measured success of instruction are small in number. At least at the first level of approximation, they can be simply described, first there are those factors that determine that students will come in physical proximity of instructive events. In the case of written material, these factors include the incidence of instructive events in the text, and compliance by students with reading assignments and/or suggestions. The second class of factors are those that determine whether an instructive event, once it has been encountered, will be perceived and internally represented in instructionally appropriate ways. The third factor primarily determines test performance. This factor is related to (a) the semantic and structural disparity between instructive events and the test, as well as (b) forgetting. Whether the required skills are learned is determined by the opportunities for encounters with suitable instructive events, as well as by the likelihood of sufficient internal representation. The disparity and forgetting factor determines whether acquired competence is translated into appropriate test performance.

Keywords

Test Item Reciprocal Relationship Processing Level Experience Level Instructive Event 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Note

  1. 1.
    Rothkopf, E. Z., & Billington, M. J. Goal-guided learning from written discourse: Inspection time and eye movement measures as indicators of underlying learning processes. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1977.Google Scholar

References

  1. Bobrow, S. A., & Bower, G. H. Comprehension and recall of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 80, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. Level of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hyde, T. S., & Jenkins, J. J. Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rothkopf, E. Z. Some theoretical and experimental approaches to problems in written instruction. In J. D. Krumboltz (Ed.), Learning and the educational process. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Rothkopf, E. Z. Experiments on mathemagenic behavior and the technology of written instruction. In E. Z. Rothkopf & P. E. Johnson (Eds.), Verbal learning research and the technology of written instruction. New York: Columbia University Teachers College Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  6. Rothkopf, E. Z. Structural text features and the control of processes in learning from written material. In R. O. Freedle & J. B. Carroll (Eds.), Language comprehension and the acquisition of knowledge. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston & Sons, 1972. (a)Google Scholar
  7. Rothkopf, E. Z. Variable adjunct question schedules, interpersonal interaction, and incidental learning from written material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, 63, 87–92. (b)Google Scholar
  8. Rothkopf, E. Z., & Billington, M. J. A two-factor model of the effect of goal-descriptive directions on learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 692–704. (a)Google Scholar
  9. Rothkopf, E. Z., & Billington, M. J. Relevance and similarity of text elements to descriptions of learning goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 645–750. (b)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernst Z. Rothkopf
    • 1
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

Personalised recommendations