Biofeedback as Treatment for Cardiovascular Disorders: A Critical Review

  • Bernard T. Engel
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 2)


Cardiovascular disorders are the most significant causes of human morbidity and mortality in western society. Annual deaths from cardiovascular diseases exceed all other causes combined. The range of cardiovascular disorders is great; and the number of disorders toward which biofeedback efforts have been directed is few. Furthermore, even with respect to specific problems where biofeedback has been tried, the conditions under which treatment has been tested are limited and the number of patients who have been studied is small. In addition, there is considerable variability in methodology among the various studies, and none of them was designed to permit one to make direct comparisons among methods.


High Blood Pressure Operant Conditioning Cardiovascular Disorder Sinus Tachycardia Learn Control 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard T. Engel
    • 1
  1. 1.Gerontology Research Center National Institute of AgingBaltimore City HospitalsUSA

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