Visceral Learning: Cardiovascular Conditioning in Primates

  • Alan H. Harris
  • David S. Goldstein
  • Joseph V. Brady
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 2)


Behavior science developments over the past decade (Honig & Staddon, 1976), coupled with rapid advances in techniques for monitoring the circulation (Obrist, Black, Brener, & DiCara, 1974) have contributed substantially to the systematic experimental analysis of interacting cardiovascular-behavioral processes which define psychophysiological aspects of stress, anxiety, and emotional arousal. The results of rapidly expanding laboratory investigative efforts in this complex domain appear to reflect the emergence of two general models for the experimental analysis of such psychophysiological relationships (Brady & Harris, 1976). The first and more traditional concurrent model emphasizes the effects of antecedent or concurrent behavioral interactions upon the elicitation of physiological responses and has provided a productive framework for laboratory studies since at least the time of Pavlov (1879) and Cannon (1929). The second and more contemporary contingent model, in contrast, focuses upon the controlling effects of environmental-behavioral consequences which follow such physiological changes and bear a close temporal relationship to their occurrence.


Blood Pressure Elevation Operant Conditioning Conditioning Procedure Conditioning Session Avoidance Conditioning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D. E., & Brady, J. V., Preavoidance blood pressure eleva- tions accompanied by heart rate decreases in the dog. Science, 1971, 172, 595–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. E., & Brady, J. V., Differential preparatory cardiovascular responses to aversive and appetitive behavioral conditioning. Conditional Reflex, 1972, 7, 82–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, D. E., & Brady, J. V., Effects of beta blockade on cardiovascular responses to avoidance performance in dogs. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1973, 35, 457.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, D. E., Yingling, J., & Brady, J. V., Effects of alpha adrenergic blockade upon cardiovascular responses of the dog to avoidance contingencies. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 1975, 9, 173.Google Scholar
  5. Ahlquist, R. P., A study of the adrenotropic receptors. American Journal of Physiology, 1948, 153, 585–600.Google Scholar
  6. Axelrod, J., Mueller, R. A., Henry, J. P., et al. Changes in enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of noradrenaline and adrenaline after psychosocial stimulation. Nature (London), 1970, 225, 1059–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benson, H., Herd, J. A., Morse, W. H., & Kelleher, R. T., Behavioral inductions of arterial hypertension and its reversal. American Journal of Physiology, 1969, 217, 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson, H., Shapiro, D., Tursky, B., & Schwartz, G. E., Decreased systolic blood pressure through operant conditioning techniques in patients with essential hypertension. Science, 1971, 173, 740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergamaschi, M., & Longoni, A. M., Cardiovascular events in anxiety: Experimental studies in the conscious dog. American Heart Journal, 1973, 86, 385–394.Google Scholar
  10. Birk, L., (Ed.) Biofeedback: Behavioral medicine. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1973.Google Scholar
  11. Brady, J. V., Endocrine and autonomic correlates of emotional behavior. In P. Black (Ed.), Physiological correlates of emotion. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  12. Brady, J. V., & Harris, A. H., The experimental production of altered physiological states: Concurrent and contingent behavioral models. In W. Honig & J. E. R. Staddon (Eds.), Handbook of operant behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, in press.Google Scholar
  13. Brady, J. V., Kelly, D., & Plumlee, L., Autonomic and behavioral responses of the rhesus monkey to emotional conditioning. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1969, 159, 959–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brod, J., Fenel, V., Hejl, Z., & Jirka, J., Circulatory changes underlying blood pressure elevation during acute emotional stress (mental arithmetic) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical Science, 1959, 18, 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cannon, W. B., Bodily changes in pain, fear, hunger and rage ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1929.Google Scholar
  16. Cannon, W. B., & De La Paz, D., Emotional stimulation of adrenal secretion. American Journal of Physiology, 1911, 27, 64.Google Scholar
  17. Charvat, J., Dell, P., & Folkow, B., Mental factors in cardiovascular disease. Cardiologia, 1964, 44, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dews, P. B., & Herd, J. A., Behavioral activities and cardiovascular functions: Effects of hexamethonium on cardiovascular changes during strong sustained static work in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1974, 189, 12–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DiCara, L. V., Learning in the autonomic nervous system. Scientific American, 1970, 222 (1), 30–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DiCara, L., & Miller, N. E., Instrumental learning of vasomotor responses by rats: Learning to respond differentially in the two ears. Science, 1968, 159, 1485–1486.Google Scholar
  21. DiCara, L., & Miller, N. E., Changes in heart rate instrumentally learned by curarized rats as avoidance responses. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eich, R. H., Cuddy, R. P., Smulyan, H., & Lyons, R. H., Hemodynamics in labile hypertension: A follow-up study. Circulation, 1966, 34, 299.Google Scholar
  23. Eich, R. H., Peters, R. J., Cuddy, R. P., Smulyan, H. I., & Lyons, R. H., Hemodynamics in labile hypertension. American Heart Journal, 1962, 63, 188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Engelman, K., & Braunwald, E., Hypotension and the shock syndrome. In M. M. Wintrobe, G. W. Thorn, R. D. Adams, E. Braunwald, K. J. Isselbacher, & R. G. Petersdorf (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. Engel, B. T., & Gottlieb, S. H., Differential operant conditioning of heart rate in the restrained monkey. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970, 73 (2), 217–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Engel, B. T., & Melmon, K. L., Operant conditioning of heart rate in patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Conditioned Reflex, 1968, 3, 130.Google Scholar
  27. Fields, C., Instrumental conditioning of the rat cardiac control systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1970, 65 (2), 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Findley, J. D., Brady, J. V., Robinson, W. W., & Gilliam, W. J., Continuous cardiovascular monitoring in the baboon during long-term behavioral performances. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 1971, 6, 49–58.Google Scholar
  29. Findley, J. D., Robinson, W. W., & Gilliam, W. J., A restraint system for chronic study of the baboon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1971, 15, 69–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finkielman, S., Worcel, M., & Agrest, A., Hemodynamic patterns in essential hypertension. Circulation, 1965, 31, 356–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Folkow, B., & Rubinstein, E. H., Cardiovascular effects of acute and chronic stimulations of the hypothalamic defense area in the rat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 1966, 68, 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forsyth, R. P., Blood pressure and avoidance conditioning. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1968, 39 (1), 125–138.Google Scholar
  33. Forsyth, R. P., Blood pressure responses to long-term avoidance schedules in the restrained rhesus monkey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1969, 31, 300–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Forsyth, R. P., Regional blood-flow changes during 72-hour avoidance schedules in the monkey. Science, 1971, 173, 546–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Forsyth, R. P., Sympathetic nervous system control of distribution of cardiac output in unanesthetized monkeys. Federation Proceedings, 1972, 31 (4), 1240–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Forsyth, R. P., & Harris, R. E., Circulatory changes during stressful stimuli in rhesus monkeys. Circulation Research, 1970, 27 (Suppl.), 1–13.Google Scholar
  37. Forsyth, R. P., Hoffbrand, B. I., & Melmon, K. L., Hemodynamic effects of angiotensin in normal and environmentally stressed monkeys. Circulation, 1971, 44, 119–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Forsyth, R. P., & Rosenblum, M. A., A restraining device and procedure for continuous blood pressure recordings in monkeys. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1964, 7 (5), 367–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Frankenhaeuser, M., Behavior and circulating catecholamines. Brain Research, 1971, 31, 241–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frohlich, E. D., Kozul, V. J., Tarazi, R. C., & Dunstan, H. P., Physiological comparison of labile and essential hypertension. Circulation Research, 1970 (Suppl. 1), 26 & 27, 1–55.Google Scholar
  41. Goodman, L. S., & Gilman, A., The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: Macmillan, 1970.Google Scholar
  42. Harris, A. H., & Brady, J. V., Animal learning: Visceral and autonomic conditioning. Annual Review of Psychology, 1974, 25, 107–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris, A. H., & Brady, J. V., Long-term studies of cardiovascular control in primates. In G. E. Schwartz & J. Beatty, (Eds.), Biofeedback: Theory and research. San Francisco: Academic Press, 1976, in press.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, A. H., Findley, J. D., & Brady, J. V., Instrumental conditioning of blood pressure elevations in the baboon. Conditioned Reflex, 1971, 6, 215–226.Google Scholar
  45. Harris, A. H., Gilliam, W. J., & Brady, J. V., Operant conditioning of heart rate in the baboon. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 1976, in press.Google Scholar
  46. Harris, A. H., Gilliam, W. J., Findley, J. D., & Brady, J. V., Instrumental conditioning of large magnitude daily 12-hour blood pressure elevations in the baboon. Science, 1973, 183, 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Henry, J. P., & Cassel, J. C., Psychosocial factors in essential hyper- tension. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1969, 90, 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Henry, J. P., Stephens, P. M., Axelrod, J., & Mueller, R. A., Effect of psychosocial stimulation on the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1971, 33, 227–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Herd, J. A., Morse, W. H., Kelleher, R. T., & Jones, L. G., Arterial hypertension in the squirrel monkey during behavioral experiments. American Journal of Physiology, 1969, 217, 24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Higgins, C. B., Vatner, S. F., & Braunwald, E., Parasympathetic control of the heart. Pharmacological Reviews, 1973, 25, 119–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Honig, W., & Staddon, J. E. R., (Eds.) Handbook of operant behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1976, in press.Google Scholar
  52. Julius, S., & Conway, J., Hemodynamic studies in patients with borderline blood pressure elevation. Circulation, 1968, 38, 282–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Katkin, E. S., & Murray, E. N., Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior: Theoretical and methodological issues. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 70, 52–68.Google Scholar
  54. Kelleher, R. T., Morse, W. H., & Herd, J. A., Effects of propranolol, phentolamine, and methyl atropine on cardiovascular functions in the squirrel monkey during behavioral experiments. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1972, 183, 204–217.Google Scholar
  55. Klose, K. J., Augenstein, J. S., Schneiderman, N., Manas, K., Abrams, B., & Bloom, L. J., Selective autonomic blockade of conditioned and unconditioned cardiovascular changes in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 810–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Korner, P. I., Integrative neural cardiovascular control. Physiological Reviews, 1971, 51, 312–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Luetscher, J. A., Boyers, D. G., Cuthbertson, J. C., & McMahon, D. F., A model of the human circulation. Circulation Research, 1973, Suppl. Ito Vols. 32–33, I-84 - I - 97.Google Scholar
  58. Mason, J. W., et al. Organization of psychoendocrine mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1968, 30, 565–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McCubbin, J. W., DeMoura, R. S., Page, I. H., & Olmsted, F., Arterial hypertension elicited by subpressor amounts of angiotensin. Science, 1966, 149, 1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCutcheon, E. P., (Ed.) Chronically implanted cardiovascular instrumentation. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  61. McGraw, A. P., & Sim, A. K., Clinical biochemistry of the baboon. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1973, 82, 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller, N. E., Learning of visceral and glandular responses. Science, 1969, 163, 434–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller, N. E., & Banuazizi, A., Instrumental learning by curarized rats of a specific visceral response, intestinal or cardiac. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, N. E., & DiCara, L., Instrumental learning of heart rate changes in curarized rats: Shaping and specificity to discriminative stimulus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967, 63, 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nathan, M. S., & Smith, O. A., Jr., Differential conditional emotional and cardiovascular responses–A training technique for monkeys. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968, 11, 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nickerson, M., Adrenergic receptors. Circulation Research, 1973, Suppl. I to Vols. 32–33, I-53 - I - 59.Google Scholar
  67. Obrist, P. A., Black, A. H., Brener, J., & DiCara, L. V., (Eds.) Cardiovascular psychophysiology. Chicago: Aldine, 1974.Google Scholar
  68. Page, I. H., & McCubbin, J. W., Renal hypertension. Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1968.Google Scholar
  69. Pavlov, I. P., Uber die normalen. blutdruckshwanjungen beim hunde. Archiv Fur die Gesampte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere, 1879, 20, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pickering, G. W., The nature of essential hypertension. London: J & A Churchill, 1961.Google Scholar
  71. Plumlee, L. A., Operant conditioning of blood pressure increases and decreases in the monkey. Psychophysiology, 1968, 4, 507.Google Scholar
  72. Plumlee, L. A., Operant conditioning of increases in blood pressure. Psychophysiology, 1969, 6, 283–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Randall, D. C., & Smith, O. A., Jr., Ventricular contractility during controlled exercise and emotion in the primate. American Journal of Physiology, 1974, 226, 1951–1959.Google Scholar
  74. Saslow, G., & Blackly, P. H., Introduction. In Timberline Conference on Psychophysiologic Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1964, 26, 409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Schwartz, G. E., Shapiro, D., & Tursky, B., Learned control of cardiovascular integration in man through operant conditioning. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1971, 33, 57–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Shapiro, D., Schwartz, G. E., & Tursky, B., Control of diastolic blood pressure in man by feedback and reinforcement. Psychophysiology, 1971, 8, 262.Google Scholar
  77. Shapiro, D., Tursky, B., & Gerson, E., Effects of feedback and reinforcement on the control of human systolic blood pressure. Science, 1969, 163, 588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shapiro, D., Tursky, B., & Schwartz, G., Control of blood pressure in man by operant conditioning. Circulation Research, 1970 (Suppl. 1), 26 & 27, 1.Google Scholar
  79. Sidman, M., Avoidance conditioning with brief shock and no exteroceptive warning signal. Science, 1953, 118, 157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Skinner, B. F., Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan, 1953.Google Scholar
  81. Stephens, J., Harris, A. H., & Brady, J. V., Large magnitude heart rate changes in subjects instructed to change their heart rates and given exteroceptive feedback. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9, 283–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Swinnen, M. E. T., Blood pressure digitizer. Proceedings Annual Conference Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 1968, 10, 18. 4.Google Scholar
  83. Varma, S., Johnson, S. D., Sherman, D. E., & Youmans, M. D., Mechanisms of inhibition of heart rate by phenylephrine. Circulation Research, 1960, 8, 1182–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Weber, H. W., Brede, H. D., Retief, F. P., & Melby, E. C., Jr., The baboon in medical research: Baseline studies in fourteen hundred baboons and pathological observations. Defining the laboratory animal, National Academy of Science, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  85. Weiss, T., & Engel, B. T., Operant conditioning of heart rate in patients with premature ventricular contractions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1971, 33, 301–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Werdegar, D., Johnson, D. G., & Mason, J. W., A technique for continuous measurement of arterial blood pressure in unanesthetized monkeys. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1964, 19, 519.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan H. Harris
    • 1
  • David S. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Joseph V. Brady
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Behavioral Biology Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations