Advertisement

Effects of Sensorimotor EEG Feedback Training on Sleep and Clinical Manifestations of Epilepsy

  • M. B. Sterman
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 2)

Abstract

The formal application of behavioral conditioning techniques for therapeutic purposes in epilepsy is of relatively recent origin. A comprehensive review of this area of investigation is currently being prepared for publication by Mostofsky and Balaschak at Boston University. One of the first definitive papers on this subject, however, appeared in the mid-50s when Efron reported the interruption and eventual elimination of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in one female patient with a 26-year history of the disorder. This patient experienced a well-developed aura which was inevitably followed by a grand mal seizure. When a specific sensory stimulus (strong, unpleasant odor) was applied early in the aura, Efron (1956) reported that further seizure development was consistently prevented. Application of the stimulus late in the aura resulted either in a partial seizure or a failure to abort. In further studies on this patient, Efron (1957) successfully paired the olfactory stimulus to a nonspecific visual stimulus consisting of a silver bracelet. Staring at this bracelet for several moments soon became effective in preventing seizure development, and eventually simply thinking about it was sufficient. This patient remained free of clinical seizures for 14 months. During the later months of this follow-up period the incidence of warning auras had sharply decreased, also, in spite of complete withdrawal of anticonvulsant medication.

Keywords

Sensorimotor Cortex Clinical Neurophysiology Sleep Spindle Spindle Activity Feedback Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen, P., & Andersson, S. A. Physiological basis of the alpha rhythm. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Babb, M. I., & Chase, M. H. Masseteric and digastric reflex activity during conditioned sensorimotor rhythm. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1974, 36, 357–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berti Ceroni, G., Sabattini, L., Gambi, D., & Lugaresi, E. Effetti della “sleep deprivation” in epilettici. Riv. Neurol., 1967, 37, 56-Google Scholar
  4. Bickford, R., Billinger, T. W., Fleming, N., & Steward, L. The compressed spectral array (CSA): A pictorial EEG. Proceedings of the Biomedical Symposium, San Diego, 1972, 3, 365–370.Google Scholar
  5. Buchwald, J. S., & Eldred, E. Relations between gamma-efferent discharge and cortical activity. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1961, 13, 234.Google Scholar
  6. Chase, M. H., & Harper, R. M. Somatomotor and visceromotor corre-lates of operantly conditioned 12–14 c/sec sensorimotor cortical activity. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1971, 31, 85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chase, M. H., McGinty, D. J., & Sterman, M. B. Cyclic variation in the amplitude of a brainstem reflex during sleep and wakefulness. Experentia, 1968, 24, 47–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Efron, R. The effect of olfactory stimuli in arresting unicate fits. Brain, 1956, 79, 267–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Efron, R. The conditioned inhibition of unicate fits. Brain, 1957, 80, 251–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Efron, R. The conditioned inhibition of unicate fits. Brain, 1957, 80, 251–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Efron, R. The conditioned inhibition of unicate fits. Brain, 1957, 80, 251–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finley, W. W., Smith, H. A., & Etherton, M. D. Reduction of seizures and normalization of the EEG in a severe epileptic following sensorimotor biofeedback training: Preliminary study. Biological Psychology, 1975, 2, 189–203.Google Scholar
  13. Forster, F. M. Conditioning in sensory evoked seizures. Conditioned Reflex, 1966, 1, 224–234.Google Scholar
  14. Forster, F. M. Conditional reflexes and sensory evoked epilepsy: The nature of the therapeutic process. Conditioned Reflex, 1969, 4, 103114.Google Scholar
  15. Forster, F. M., Ptacek, L. J., & Peterson, W. G. Auditory clicks in extinction of stroboscope induced seizures. Epilepsia, 1965, 6, 217–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gastaut, H. Comments on “Biofeedback in epileptics: Equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction” by Bonnie Kaplan, Epilepsia, 16: 477–485, 1975. Epilepsia, 1975, 16, 487490.Google Scholar
  17. Guerrero-Figueroa, R., Barros, A., & DeBalbian Verster, F. Some inhibitory effects of attentive factors on experimental epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1963, 4, 225–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hauri, P., Phelps, P. J., & Jordan, J. B. Biofeedback as a treatment for insomnia. Proceedings of the Biofeedback Research Society, Seventh Annual Meeting, Colorado Springs, 1976, p. 34. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  19. Hongo, T. K. Kubota, K., & Shimazu, H. EEG spindle and depression of gamma motor activity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1963, 26, 568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Howe, R. C., & Sterman, M. B. Somatosensory system evoked potentials during waking behavior and sleep in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1973, 34, 605–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, L. C., Hanson, K., & Bickford, R. G. Effect of flurazepam on sleep spindles and k-complexes, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1976, 40, 67–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan, B. J. Biofeedback in epileptics: Equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction. Epilepsia, 1975, 16, 477–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaplan, B. J. Biofeedback in epileptics: Equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction. Epilepsia, 1975, 16, 477–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lubar, J. F., & Bahler, W. W. Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm. Journal of Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1976, 1, 77–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lucas, E. A., & Sterman, M. B. The polycyclic sleep-wake cycle in the cat: Effects produced by sensorimotor rhythm conditioning. Experimental Neurology, 1974, 42, 347–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jason, J. R. Continuous Fast Fourier transform. DECUS 12–23, Digital Equipment Users Society, 1970.Google Scholar
  27. Mattson, R. H., Lerner, E., & Dix, G. Precipitating and inhibiting factors in epilepsy: A statistical study. Epilepsia, 1974, 15, 271–272.Google Scholar
  28. Mattson, R. H., Pratt, K. L., & Calverley, J. R. Electroencephalograms of epileptics following sleep deprivation. Archives of Neurology, 1965, 13, 310–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pratt, K. L., Mattson, R. H., Weikers, N. J., & Williams, R. EEG activation of epileptics following sleep deprivation: A prospective analysis of 114 cases. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1968, 24, 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rechtschaffen, A., & Kales, A. Manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.Google Scholar
  31. Roth, S. R., Sterman, M. B., & Clemente, C. D. Comparison of EEG correlates of reinforcement, internal inhibition, and sleep. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1967, 23, 509520.Google Scholar
  32. Rougeul, A., Letalle, A., & Corvisier, J. Activite rhythmique du cortex somesthesizue primaire en relation avec l’immobilite chez le chat libre eveille. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1972, 33, 23–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rouse, L. O. Conditioned inhibition of audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice. In S. Franklin (Ed.), Varieties of psychology. Fresno, California: Fresno State College, 1971.Google Scholar
  34. Seifert, A. R., & Lubar, J. F. Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training. Biological Psychology, 1975, 3, 157–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sterman, M. B. Effects of brain surgery and EEG operant conditioning on seizure latency following monomethylhydrazine in the cat. Experimental Neurolo y, 1976, 50, 757–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sterman, M. B., & Friar, L. Suppression of seizures in an epileptic following sensorimotor EEG feedback training. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1972, 33, 89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sterman, M. B., Howe, R. C., & Macdonald, L. R. Facilitation of spindle-burst sleep by conditioning of electroencephalographic activity while awake. Science, 1970, 167, 1146–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sterman, M. B., Knauss, B. A., Lehmann, D., & Clemente, C. D. Circadian sleep and waking patterns in the laboratory cat. Electroen-cephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1965, 19, 509–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sterman, M. B., LoPresti, R. W., & Fairchild, M. D. Electroencephalographic and behavioral studies of monomethylhydrazine toxicity in the cat. Technical Report AMRL-TR-69–3, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Air Systems Command, 1969.Google Scholar
  40. Sterman, M. B., LoPresti, R. W., & Fairchild, M. D. Electroencephalographic and behavioral studies of monomethylhydrazine toxicity in the cat. Technical Report AMRL-TR-69–3, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Air Systems Command, 1969.Google Scholar
  41. Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R., & Stone, R. K. Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor EEG rhythm in man: Effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1974, 15 395–416.Google Scholar
  42. Sterman, M. B., & Wyrwicka, W. EEG correlates of sleep: Evidence for separate forebrain substrates. Brain Research, 1967, 6, 143–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sterman, M. B., Wyrwicka, W., & Roth, S. R. Electrophysiological correlates and neural substrates of alimentary behavior in the cat.In J. P. Morgane & M. Wayner (Eds.), Neural regulation of food and water intake. New York: Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1969.Google Scholar
  44. Stevens, J. R. Electroencephalographic studies of conditional cerebral responses in epileptic subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1960, 12, 431–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stevens, J. R. Endogenous conditioning to abnormal cerebral electrical transients in man. Science, 1962, 137, 974–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stevens, J. R., Milstein, V. M., & Dodds, S. A. Endogenous spike discharges as conditioned stimuli in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1967, 23, 57–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wyler, A. R., Fetz, E. E., & Ward, A. A., Jr. Effects of operantly conditioning epileptic unit activity on seizure frequencies and electrophysiology of neocortical experimental foci. Experimental Neurology, 1974, 44, 113–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wyler, A. R., Lockard, J. S., Ward, A. A., Jr., & Finch, C. A. Con-ditioned EEG desynchronization and seizure occurrence in patients.Google Scholar
  49. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, in press. Wyrwicka, W., & Sterman, M. B. Instrumental conditioning of sensori-motor cortex EEG spindles in the waking cat. Physiology & Beha-vior, 1968, 3, 703–707.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. B. Sterman
    • 1
  1. 1.Sepulveda Veterans Administration Hospital Departments of Anatomy and PsychiatryUniversity of California at Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations