Advertisement

Holtzman Inkblot Technique

  • Wayne H. Holtzman

Abstract

For several generations the most used psychodiagnostic technique in clinical assessment has been the Rorschach. Working with mental patients in Switzerland, Rorschach developed a system of analysis for inkblots which, in its broad outlines, still stands today. The ten inkblots constituting the Rorschach test are the same today as they were over 50 years ago when first published following Rorschach’s death in 1922. Until the early 1940s, the mainstream of academic psychology looked askance at the Rorschach movement, criticizing its cultist character and lack of scientific discipline. Primarily working outside of academic circles, the Rorschach practitioners developed their own ideas and interpretive systems, relying mainly on intuitive insights and clinical confirmation rather than on hard scientific evidence. World War II changed this situation rather dramatically when the sudden urgent need for new devices for personality assessment and clinical diagnosis arose in the armed services. By 1945, the Rorschach was firmly established as the leading clinical instrument for psychodiagnosis.

Keywords

Personality Assessment Summary Sheet Initial Standardization External Correlate Barrier Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bock, D. R., Haggard, E. A., Holtzman, W. H., Beck, A. G., & Beck, S. J. A comprehensive psychometric study of the Rorschach and Holtzman Inkblot techniques. Chapel Hill: Psychometric Laboratory, University of North Carolina, 1963.Google Scholar
  2. Chasey, W. C., Swartz, J. D., & Chasey, C. G. Effect of motor development on body image scores in institutionalized mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1974, 78, 440–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Clark, C. M., Veldman, D. J., & Thorpe, J. S. Convergent and divergent thinking abilities of talented adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1965, 56, 157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coleman, K. A. The significance of eye responses on the Holtzman Inkblot Technique as measured by the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. Springfield College Studies, 1966, 1, 41Google Scholar
  5. Conners, C. K. Effects of brief psychotherapy, drugs, and type of disturbance on Holtzman Inkblot scores in children. Proceedings of the 73rd annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 1965, pp. 201–202.Google Scholar
  6. Cook, P. E., Iacino, L. W., Murray, J., & Auerbach, S. M. Holtzman Inkblot anxiety and shading scores related to state and trait anxiety. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1973, 37, 337–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Currie, S. F., Holtzman, W. H., & Swartz, J. D. Early indicators of personality traits viewed retrospectively. Journal of School Psychology, 1974, 12, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darby, J. A. Alteration of some body image indexes in schizophrenics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 35, 116–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Endicott, N. A. The Holtzman Inkblot Technique content measures of depression and suspiciousness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1972, 36, 424–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fehr, L. A. Construct validity of the Holtzman Inkblot anxiety and hostility scores. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1976, 40, 483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernald, P. S., & Stolurow, K. A. Projected eye responses and sensitivity to the opinion of others. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1971, 27, 258–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fisher, S. Body experience in fantasy and behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  13. Fisher, S., & Cleveland, S. E. Body image and personality (2nd rev. ed.). New York: Dover, 1968.Google Scholar
  14. Gamble, K. R. The Holtzman Inkblot Technique: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 1972, 77, 172–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gorham, D. R. Validity and reliability studies of computer-based scoring system for inkblot responses. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorham, D. R. Cross-cultural research based on the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. International Congress of the Rorschach and Other Projective Techniques, 1970, 7, 158–164.Google Scholar
  17. Gorham, D. R., Moseley, E. C., & Holtzman, W. H. Norms for the computer scored Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Perceptual and Motor Skills Monograph Supplement, 1968, 26, 1279–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenberg, R. P., & Fisher, S. A muscle awareness model for changes in Rorschach human movement responses. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1973, 37, 512–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harrower-Erickson, M. R., & Steiner, M. E. Large scale Rorschach techniques. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herron, E. W. Psychometric characteristics of a thirty-item version of the group method of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1963, 19, 450–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill, E. F. Affect aroused by color, a function of stimulus strength. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 1966, 10, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hill, E. F. The Holtzman Inkblot Technique: A handbook for clinical application. San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1972.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, E. F., & Peixotto, H. E. Workbook for the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. Holtzman, W. H. The Holtzman Inkblot Technique. In A. I. Rabin (Ed.), Introduction to modern projective techniques. New York: Springer, 1968, pp. 136–170.Google Scholar
  25. Holtzman, W. H. New developments in Holtzman Inkblot Technique. In P. McReynolds (Ed.), Advances in psychological assessment (Vol. 3 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Holtzman, W. H., Diaz-Guerrero, R., & Swartz, J. D. Personality development in two cultures. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  27. Holtzman, W. H., & Gorham, D. R. Automated scoring and interpretation of the group-administered Holtzman Inkblot Technique by computer. Proceedings of the 80th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 1972.Google Scholar
  28. Holtzman, W. H., Moseley, E. D., Reinehr, R. C., & Abbott, E. Comparison of the group method and the standard individual version of the Holtzman Technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1963, 19, 441–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holtzman, W. H., Santos, J. F., Bouquet, S., & Barth, P. The Peace Corps in Brazil: An evaluation of the Sao Francisco Valley project. Austin: International Office, University of Texas, 1966.Google Scholar
  30. Holtzman, W. H., Swartz, J. D., & Thorpe, J. S. Artists, architects, and engineers: Three contrasting modes of visual experience and their psychological correlates. Journal of Personality, 1971, 39, 432–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holtzman, W. H., Thorpe, J. S., Swartz, J. D., & Herron, E. W. Inkblot perception and personality. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  32. Iacino, L.W., & Cook, P. E. Threat of shock, state anxiety, and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1974, 38, 450–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Insua, A. M. The Holtzman movement variable in relation to problem-solving processes of college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 199–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kamen, G. B. A second look at the effects of a stress-producing film on adult test performance. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1971, 27, 465–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lerner, B. Rorschach movement and dreams: A validation study using druginduced dream deprivation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1966, 71, 75–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Megargee, E. I., & Velez-Diaz, A. A profile sheet for the clinical interpretation of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1971, 35, 545–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mendelsohn, M. B., & Linden, J. D. The atypical response scale: An objective assessment of form inappropriateness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moseley, E. C. Psychodiagnosis on the basis of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 1963, 27, 86–91.Google Scholar
  39. Moseley, E. C., Gorham, D. R., & Hill, E. Computer scoring of inkblot perceptions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1963, 17, 498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mueller, W. J., & Abeles, N. The components of empathy and their relationship to the projection of human movement responses. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 1964, 28, 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nichols, D. C., & Tursky, B. Body image, anxiety, and tolerance for experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1967, 29, 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Overall, J. E., & Gorham, D. R. Organicity versus old age in objective and projective test performance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 39, 98–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Palmer, J. O. Alterations in Rorschach’s experience balance under conditions of food and sleep deprivation: A construct validity study. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 1963, 27, 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenstiel, L. v. Zur Frage der Angst-and Feindseligkeitsinhalte in Formdeutverfahren. Zeitschrift fur experimentelle and angewandte Psychologie, 1966, 8, 611–631.Google Scholar
  45. Sanders, J. L. Aggression and autonomy as correlates of the space response on Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976, 42, 1049–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shukla, T. R. Pathological verbalization on inkblots and psychodiagnosis. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1976, 3, 17–21.Google Scholar
  47. Stone, J. B. Structured-objective Rorschach test. Los Angeles: Test Bureau, 1958.Google Scholar
  48. Swartz, J. D. Pathognomic verbalization in normals, psychotics, and mental retardates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1970, 30, 5703–5704.Google Scholar
  49. Swartz, J. D., & Holtzman, W. H. Group method of administration of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1963, 19, 433–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Swartz, J. D., Witzke, D. B., Holtzman, W. H., & Bishop, C. Holtzman Inkblot Technique annotated bibliography (revised). Austin, Tex.: Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, 1978.Google Scholar
  51. Swartz, J. D., Witzke, D. B., & Megargee, E. I. Normative item statistics for the group form of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1970, 31, 319–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thorpe, J. S., & Swartz, J. D. Level of perceptual development as reflected in responses to the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 1965, 29, 380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Velez-Diaz, A. Schizophrenic vs. brain-damaged performance on the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1976, 32, 177–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zubin, J. Failures of the Rorschach technique. Journal of Projective Techniques, 1954, 18, 303–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne H. Holtzman
    • 1
  1. 1.Hogg Foundation for Mental HealthThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations