Advertisement

Diagnosing Brain Impairment

  • Thomas J. Boll

Abstract

While the brain has long been recognized as the organ of behavior, subserving intelligence, cognition, and emotional responses, specific attempts to elucidate brain-behavior relationships with measurements based on formal psychological testing represent a relatively recent effort. Until recently these efforts have not made great contributions, principally because so many factors over and beyond recognized brain damage are significant determinants of psychological status. As a consequence, it has been difficult to devise an approach and psychological evaluation that would have specific significance with regard to the condition of the human brain. The problems in making progress in this area have related principally to the complexity of human behavior on one hand and the complexity of the pathological conditions that involve the human brain on the other. Finally, procedural requirements in correlating brain and behavioral findings have contributed another problem. (Reitan, 1973)

Keywords

Head Injury Brain Damage Brain Impairment Show Item Clinical Neuropsychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Accord, L. D., & Barker, D. D. Hallucinogenic drugs and cerebral deficits. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1973, 156, 281–283.Google Scholar
  2. Alajouanine, T., & Lhermitte, F. Acquired aphasia in children. Brain, 1965, 86, 653–662.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, A. L. The effect of laterality localization of brain damage on Wechsler-Bellevue indices of deterioration. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1950, 6, 191–194.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, A. L. The effect of laterality localization of focal brain lesions on the Wechsler-Bellevue subtests. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1951, 7, 149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Annett, M. Laterality of childhood hemiplegia and the growth of speech and intelligence. Cortex, 1973, 9, 4–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Archibald, Y. M., Wepman, J. M., & Jones, L. V. Non-verbal cognitive performance in aphasic and non-aphasic brain-damaged patients. Cortex, 1967, 3, 275–294.Google Scholar
  7. Bender, L. Visual Motor Gestalt Test and its clinical use. American Orthopsychiatric Research Monograph, 1938.Google Scholar
  8. Bender, L. Instructions for the use of the Visual Motor Gestalt Test. New York: American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1946.Google Scholar
  9. Bender, M. D. Perceptual interactions. Modern Trends in Neurology, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Benton, A. L. Review of the Visual Motor Gestalt Test. In O. K. Burros (Ed.), The fourth mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  11. Benton, A. L. The Revised Visual Retention Test. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. Benton, A. L. Differential behavioral effects in frontal lobe disease. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 53–60.Google Scholar
  13. Benton, A. L. Behavioral changes in cerebrovascular disease. In R. P. Siekert (Ed.), Cerebrovascular survey report. Washington D.C.: Joint Councils Subcommittee on Cerebrovascular Disease, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. Binet, A., & Henri, V. La psychologie individuelle. Anne Psychologie, 1895, 2, 441–463.Google Scholar
  15. Binet, A., & Simon, T. Mthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intllectuel des anormaux. Anne Psychologie, 1905, 11, 191–244.Google Scholar
  16. Black, F. W. Patterns of cognitive impairment in children with suspected and documented neurological dysfunction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1974, 39, 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Black, F. W. Learning problems and seizure disorders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1976, 1, 32–35.Google Scholar
  18. Boll, T. J. Correlation of WISC with motor speed and strength for brain-damaged and normal children. Journal of Psychology, 1971, 77, 169–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boll, T. J. Conceptual vs. perceptual vs. motor deficits in brain-damaged children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 157–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boll, T. J. The effect of age at onset of brain damage on adaptive abilities in children. Paper presented at American Psychological Association, Montreal, 1973.Google Scholar
  21. Boll, T. J. Behavioral correlates of cerebral damage in children aged 9–14. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston and Sons, 1974. (a)Google Scholar
  22. Boll, T. J. Psychological differentiation of patients with schizophrenia versus lateralized cerebrovascular, neoplastic or traumatic brain damage. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 456–458. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boll, T. J. Right and left cerebral hemisphere damage and tactile perception: Performance of the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the body. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 235–238. (c)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Boll, T. J., & Berent, S. Psychosocial aspects of coping with epilepsy. Paper presented at American Psychoogical Association, San Francisco, August 1977.Google Scholar
  25. Boll, T. J., Berent, S., & Richards, H. Tactile-perceptual functioning as a factor in general psychological abilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1977, 44, 535–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boll, T. J., Heaton, R., & Reitan, R. M. Neuropsychological and emotional correlates of Huntington’s chorea. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, 158, 61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Boll, T. J., & Reitan, R. M. Comparative ability interrelationships in normal and brain-damaged children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 152–156. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Boll, T. J., & Reitan, R. M. The comparative intercorrelations of brain-damaged and normal children on the Trail Making Test and the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 491–493. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Boll, T. J., & Reitan, R. M. Motor and tactile-perceptual deficits in brain-damaged children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1972, 34, 343–350. (c)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Boll, T. J., & Reitan, R. M. Effect of age on performance on the Trail Making Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1973, 36, 691–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brain, W. R., & Walton, J. N. Brain’s diseases of the nervous system. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  32. Brewer, C., & Perrett, L. Brain damage due to alcohol consumption: An air-encephalographic, psychometric and electroencephalographic study. British Journal of Addiction, 1971, 60, 170–182.Google Scholar
  33. Brink, J. D., Garrett, A. L., Hale, W. R., Woo-Sam, J., & Nickel, V. L. Recovery of motor and intellectual function in children sustaining severe head injuries. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1970, 12, 565–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Broca, T. Sur la facult du langage articul. Bulletin de la Socit d’Anthropologie, 1865, 6, 493.Google Scholar
  35. Bruell, J. H., & Albee, G. W. Higher intellectual functions in a patient with hemispherectomy for tumors. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1962, 15, 281–285.Google Scholar
  36. Burkland, C. W., & Smith, A. Factors in prognosis following cerebral infarctions and long-term neuro-psychological studies following surgical excisions of focal cerebral lesions, cited in Smith, A.: Neuro-psychological testing in neurological disorders. Advances in Neurology, 1975, 7, 52–110.Google Scholar
  37. Butters, N., & Cermak, L. S. Neuropsychological studies of alcoholic Korsakoff patients. In G. Goldstein and C. Neuringer (Eds.), Empirical studies in alcoholism. Cambridge: Ballinger, 1976, pp. 153–193.Google Scholar
  38. Butters, N., Cermak, L. S., Montgomery, K., & Adinolfi, A. Some comparisons of the memory and visuoperceptive deficits of chronic alcoholics and patients with Korsakoff’s disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1977, 1, 73–80.Google Scholar
  39. Butters, N., Samuels, I., Goodglass, H., & Brody, B. Short-term visual and auditory memory disorders after parietal and frontal lobe damage. Cortex, 1970, 6, 440–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Canter, A. The BIP Bender Test for the detection of organic brain disorder: Modified scoring method and replication. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 522–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cattell, J. Mck. Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 1890, 15, 373–380.Google Scholar
  42. Chapman, L. F., & Wolff, H. G. The cerebral hemispheres and the highest integrative functions of man. Archives of Neurology, 1959, 1, 357–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cobb, S. A salute from neurologists. In F. A. Beech, D. O. Hebb, C. T. Morgan, & H. W. Nissen (Eds.), The neuropsychology of Lashley. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.Google Scholar
  44. Cottrell, S. S., and Wilson, S. A. K. Affective symptomatology of disseminated sclerosis. Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, 1926–1927, 7, 1–30.Google Scholar
  45. Critchley, M. Arterio-sclerotic parkinsonism. Brain, 1929, 52, 23–83.Google Scholar
  46. Culver, C. M., & King, F. W. Neuropsychological assessment of undergraduate marijuana and LSD users. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 31, 707–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Davison, L. A. Current status of clinical neuropsychology. In R. M. Reitan & L. A. Davison (Eds.) Clinical neuropsychology: current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, 325–362.Google Scholar
  48. DeJong, R. N. The neurologic examination. New York: Hoeber, 1967.Google Scholar
  49. Dencker, S. J. A follow-up study of 128 closed head injuries in twins using co-twins as controls. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica, 1958, 33, Suppl. 123.Google Scholar
  50. Dikmen, S., & Matthews, C. G. Effect of major motor seizure frequency upon cognitive-intellectual functions in adults. Epilepsia, 1977, 18, 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Doehring, D. G., Reitan, R. M., & Klove, H. Changes in patterns of intelligence test performance associated with homonymous visual field defects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1961, 132, 227–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Emhart, C. B., Graham, F. K., Eichman, P. L., Marshall, J. M., & Thurston, D. Brain injury in the preschool child: Some developmental considerations: II. Comparison of brain-injured and normal children. Psychological Monographs, 1963, 77 (whole No. 574), 17–33.Google Scholar
  53. Fedio, P., & Mirsky, A. F. Selective intellectual deficits in children with temporal lobe or centrancephalic epilepsy. Neuropsychologia, 1969, 7, 287–300.Google Scholar
  54. Ferrer, S. Complicaciones neurologicas cronicas del alcoholismo. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, S.A., 1970.Google Scholar
  55. Fields, F. R. J., & Fullerton, J. R. Influence of heroin addiction on neuropsychological functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fields, F. R. J., & Whitmyre, J. W. Verbal and performance relationships with respect to laterality of cerebral involvement. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1969, 30, 177–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Filskov, S. B., & Goldstein, S. G. Diagnostic validity of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 42, 383–388.Google Scholar
  58. Finlayson, M. A. J., Johnson, K. A., & Reitan, R. M. Relationship of level of education to neuropsychological measures in brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 536–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fitzhugh, K. B., Fitzhugh, L. D., & Reitan, R. M. Psychological deficits in relation to acuteness of brain dysfunction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1961, 25, 61–66.Google Scholar
  60. Fitzhugh, K. B., Fitzhugh, L. D., & Reitan, R. M. Wechsler-Bellevue comparisons in groups of “chronic” and “current” lateralized and diffuse brain lesions. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1962, 26, 306–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Flavell, J. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1963.Google Scholar
  62. Fritsch, G., & Hitzig, E. On the electrical excitability of the cerebrum. In G. von Bonin (Ed.), Some papers on the cerebral cortex. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1960 (translation of German paper, 1870).Google Scholar
  63. Furth, H. G. Thinking without language. New York: Free Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  64. Gall, F. J. Critical review of some anatomical-physiological works, with an explanation of a new philosophy of the moral qualities and intellectual faculties (Vol. 6). Boston: Marsh, Capen and Lyon, 1835.Google Scholar
  65. Galton, F. Inquiries into human faculty and its development. London: Macmillan, 1893.Google Scholar
  66. Gardner, W. J. Removal of the right hemisphere for infiltrating glioma. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1932, 28, 470.Google Scholar
  67. Geschwind, N. Disconnection syndromes in animals and man. Brain, 1963, 88, 237–295.Google Scholar
  68. Geschwind, N. The apraxias: neural mechanisms of disorders of learned movement. American Scientist, 1973, 53, 188–195.Google Scholar
  69. Goldstein, G. and Halperin, K. M. Neuropsychological differences among subtypes of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977, 86, 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Goldstein, K. Human nature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940.Google Scholar
  71. Goldstein, K. The effects of brain damage and personality. Psychiatry, 1952, 15, 245–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Goldstein, S. G., Deysach, R. E., & Kleinknecht, R. A. Effect of experience and amount of information on identification of cerebral impairment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 41, 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Goodglass, H., Quadfasel, F. A., & Timberlake, W. H. Phrase length and the type of severity of aphasia. Cortex, 1964, 1, 133–153.Google Scholar
  74. Graham, F. K., Emhart, C. B., Craft, M., & Berman, P. W. Brain injury in the preschool child: Some developmental considerations. I. Performance of normal children. Psychological Monographs, 1963, 77 (whole No. 573), 1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Graham, F. K., & Kendall, B. S. Memory-for-Designs Test: Revised general manual. Perceptual and Motor Skills Monograph Supplement, No. 2-VII, 1960, 11, 147–188.Google Scholar
  76. Granick, S., & Friedman, A. S. The effect of education on the decline of psychometric test performance with age. Journal of Gerontology, 1967, 22, 191–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Grant, I., & Judd, L. I. Neuropsychological and EEG disturbances in polydrug users. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 1039–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Halstead, W. C. Brain and intelligence: A quantitative study of the frontal lobes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947.Google Scholar
  79. Halstead, W. C., & Wepman, J. M. The Halstead-Wepman Aphasia Screening Test. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1949, 14, 9–13.Google Scholar
  80. Harris, J. Depression and hysteria as symptoms of brain tumor. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 1965, 13, 457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hartlage, L. C., & Hartlage, P. L. Psychological testing in neurological diagnosis. In J. Youmans (Ed.), Neurological surgery. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1977.Google Scholar
  82. Haug, J. O. Pneumoencephalographic studies in mental disease. Norway: Scandinavian University Books, 1963.Google Scholar
  83. Heaton, R. K. The validity of neuropsychological evaluations in psychiatric settings. The Clinical Psychologist, 1976, 29, 10–11.Google Scholar
  84. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  85. Heilbrun, A. B. Psychological test performance as a function of lateral localization of cerebral lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1956, 49, 10–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Heilbrun, A. B. The Digit Span Test and the prediction of cerebral pathology. AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1958, 80, 228–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Heilbrun, A. B. Issues in the assessment of organic brain damage. Psychological Reports, 1962, 10, 511–515.Google Scholar
  88. Heimburger, R. F., & Reitan, R. M. Easily administered written test for lateralizing brain lesions. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1961, 18, 301–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Heiskanen, O., & Kaste, M. Late prognosis of severe brain injury in children. Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 1974, 16, 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Herbert, M. The concept and testing of brain damage in children: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1964, 5, 197–216.Google Scholar
  91. Hertzig, M. E., & Birch, H. G. Neurologic organization in psychiatrically disturbed adolescent girls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966, 15, 590–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hertzig, M. E., & Birch, H. G. Neurologic organization in psychiatrically disturbed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1968, 19, 528–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hook, O. Comments on rehabilitation of the brain-injured. In A. E. Walker, W. F. Caveness, & M. Critchley (Eds.), Effects of Head Injury. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1969.Google Scholar
  94. Hughes, J. Electroencephalography and learning. In H. Myklebust (Ed.), Progress in learning disabilities. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968.Google Scholar
  95. Hutt, M. The Hutt Adaptation of the Bender-Gestalt Test (2nd ed.). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1969.Google Scholar
  96. Kaldegg, A. Psychological observation in a group of alcoholic patients with analysis of Rorschach, Wechsler-Bellevue and Bender Gestalt Test results. Quarterly Journal for the Study of Alcoholism, 1956, 17, 608–628.Google Scholar
  97. Kleinknecht, R. A., & Goldstein, S. G. Neuropsychological deficits associated with alcoholism. Quarterly Journal of Studies in Alcoholism, 1972, 33, 999–1019.Google Scholar
  98. Klonoff, H., Fibiger, C. H., & Hutton, G. H. Neuropsychological patterns in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1970, 150, 291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Klonoff, H., & Low, M. Disordered brain function in young children and early adolescents: Neuropsychological and electroencephalographic correlates. In R. M. Reitan & L. A. Davison (Eds.) Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 121–178.Google Scholar
  100. Klonoff, H., & Paris, R. Immediate, short-term and residual effects of acute head injuries in children: Neuropsychological and neurological correlates. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 179–210.Google Scholar
  101. Kleve, H. Relationship of differential electroencephalographic patterns to distribution of Wechsler-Bellevue scores. Neurology, 1959, 9, 871–876.Google Scholar
  102. Kleve, H. Relationship between neuropsychologic test performance and neurologic status. Paper presented at the American Academy of Neurology, Minneapolis, 1963.Google Scholar
  103. Kleve, H. Validation studies in adult clinical neuropsychology. In R. M. Reitan & L. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 211–246.Google Scholar
  104. Kleve, H., & Cleeland, C. S. The relationship of neuropsychological impairment to other indices of severity of head injury. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1972, 4, 55–60.Google Scholar
  105. Kleve, H., & Fitzhugh, K. B. The relationship of differential EEG patterns to the distribution of Wechsler-Bellevue scores in a chronic epileptic population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1962, 18, 334–337.Google Scholar
  106. Kleve, H., & Matthews, C. G. Neuropsychological studies of patients with epilepsy. In R. M. Reitan & L. Davison (Eds.), Clinical Neuropsychologv: Current Status and Applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 247–266.Google Scholar
  107. Kleve, H., & Reitan, R. M. The effect of dysphasia and spatial distortion on Wechsler-Bellevue results. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1958, 80, 708–713.Google Scholar
  108. Kleve, H., & White, P. T. The relationship of degree of electroencephalographic abnormalities to the distribution of Wechsler-Bellevue scores. Neurology, 1963, 13, 423–430.Google Scholar
  109. Knights, R. M. Problems of criteria and diagnosis: A profile similarity approach. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1973, 205, 124–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kohn, B., & Dennis, M. Selective impairments of visuo-spatial abilities in infantile hemiplegics after right cerebral hemidecortication. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 505–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kolansky, H., & Moore, W. T. Toxic affects of chronic marijuana use. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1972, 222, 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kolb, J. E., & Heaton, R. K. Lateralized neurologic deficits and psychopathology in a Turner syndrome patient. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 1198–1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Koppitz, E. M. The Bender-Gestalt Test for Young Children. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1964.Google Scholar
  114. Korman, M., & Blumberg, S. Comparative efficiency of some tests of cerebral damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1963, 27, 303–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lenneberg, E. H. Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley, 1967.Google Scholar
  116. Levin, H. S., & Grossman, R. G. Storage and retrieval. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1976, 1, 38–41.Google Scholar
  117. Levin, H. S., Grossman, R. G., & Kelly, P. J. Short-term recognition memory in relation to severity of closed head injury. Cortex, 1976, 12, 175–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Levin, J. The relationship between lateralized electroencephalographic abnormalities and selected measures of intelligence and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities. Unpublished Master’s Major Paper, University of Windsor, 1971.Google Scholar
  119. Levitt, H., Sindberg, R., Massert, B., & Albaum, A. The laterality hypothesis assessment of localized brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1966, 30, 180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lezack, M. D. Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  121. Lievens, P. The organic psychosyndrome of early childhood and its effects on learning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1974, 7, 626–631.Google Scholar
  122. Lubin, B., Wallis, R. S., & Paine, C. Patterns of psychological test usage in the United States: 1935–1969. Professional Psychology, 1971, 2, 70–74.Google Scholar
  123. Luria, A. R. Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Science Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  124. Luria, A. R. Neuropsychological Studies in the U.S.S.R., Part I. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1973, 70, 959.Google Scholar
  125. Malamud, N. Psychiatric disorder with intracranial tumors of limbic system. Archives of Neurology, 1967, 17, 113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Marie, P. La troisi¨¨me circumvolution frontale gauche ne joue aucun rôle spcial dans la fonction du langage. Seminaires Medicale, 1906, 26, 241–247.Google Scholar
  127. Matarazzo, J. D. Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence, fifth and enlarged edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1972.Google Scholar
  128. Matarazzo, J. D., Matarazzo, R. G., Wiens, A. N., Gallo, A. E., & Klonoff, H. Retest reliability of the Halstead Impairment Index in a normal, a schizophrenic, and two samples of organic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1976, 32, 338–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Matarazzo, J. D., Wiens, A. N., Matarazzo, R. G., & Goldstein, S. G. Psychometric and clinical test-retest reliability of the Halstead Impairment Index in a sample of healthy, young, normal men. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, 158, 37–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Matthews, C. G. Applications of neuropsychological test methods in mentally retarded subjects. In R. M. Reitan & L. Davison (Eds.) Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 267–288.Google Scholar
  131. Matthews, C. G. Problems in the training of neuropsychologists, The Clinical Psychologist, 1976, 29, 11–13.Google Scholar
  132. Matthews, C. G., & Booker, H. E. Pneumoencephalographic measurements and neuropsychological test performance in human adults. Cortex, 1972, 8, 69–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Matthews, C. G., Cleeland, C. S., & Hopper, C. L. Neuropsychological patterns in multiple sclerosis. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1970, 31, 161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Matthews, C. G., Shaw, D. J., & KIOve, H. Psychological test performances in neurologic and “pseudo-neurologic” subjects. Cortex, 1966, 2, 244–253.Google Scholar
  135. McGlothlin, W. H., Arnold, D. O., & Freedman, D. X. Organicity measures following repeated LSD ingestion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969, 21, 704–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. McManis, D. L. Memory-For-Design performance of brain-damaged and non-damaged psychiatric patients. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1974, 38, 847–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Meier, M. J. Objective behavioral assessment in diagnosis and prediction. In A. L. Benton (Ed.), Behavioral change in cerebrovascular disease. New York: Hoeber, 1970, pp. 119–154.Google Scholar
  138. Meier, M. J. Some challenges for clinical neuropsychology. In R. M. Reitan & L. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 289–324.Google Scholar
  139. Meier, M. J., & Resch, J. A. Behavioral prediction of short-term neurologic change following acute onset of cerebrovascular symptoms. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 1967, 46, 641.Google Scholar
  140. Merritt, H. H. A textbook of neurology, fourth edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1967.Google Scholar
  141. Meyers, R. Relationship of “thinking” and language: An experimental approach using dysphasic patients. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1948, 60, 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Milner, B. Psychological defects produced by temporal lobe excision. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, Research Publications, 1958, 36, 244–257.Google Scholar
  143. Milner, B. Laterality effects in audition. In V. B. Mountcastle (Ed.), Interhemispheric relations and cerebral dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  144. Milner, B. Brain mechanisms suggested by studies of temporal lobes. In F. L. Darley (Ed.), Brain mechanisms underlying speech and language. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  145. Milner, B. Visual retention and recall after right temporal excision in man. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 191–210.Google Scholar
  146. Mirsky, A. F. Neuropsychological bases of schizophrenia. Annual Review of Psychology, 1969, 20, 321–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mjones, H. Paralysis agitans. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1949.Google Scholar
  148. Morin, S. EEG correlates of stuttering. EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1965, 18, 425–430.Google Scholar
  149. Mountcastle, V. B. Interhemispheric relations and cerebral dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  150. Norton, J. C., & Matthews, C. G. Psychological test performance in patients with subtentorial versus supratentorial CNS disease. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1972, 33, 312–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ombredane, A. Les troubles mentaux de la sclerose in plaques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1929.Google Scholar
  152. Parsons, O. A. Neuropsychology. Current topics in clinical and community psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  153. Parsons, O. A. Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics: Facts and fancies. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1977, 1, 51–56.Google Scholar
  154. Parsons, O. A., Vega, A., & Burn, J. Different psychological effects of lateralized brain damage. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 1969, 33, 551–557.Google Scholar
  155. Pascal, G. R., & Suttell, B. J. The Bender-Gestalt Test: Quantifications and validity for adults. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1951.Google Scholar
  156. Pennington, H., Galliani, C., & Voegele, G. Unilateral EEG dysrhythmia and children’s intelligence. Child Development, 1965, 35, 539–546.Google Scholar
  157. Pines, M. A renaissance researcher tackles a vital problem: can the brain renew itself? Psychology, 1977, 1, 16–19.Google Scholar
  158. Prigatano, G. P., & Parsons, O. A. Relationship of age and education to Halstead Test performance in different patient populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44, 527–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rapaport, D., Gill, M., & Schafer, R. Diagnostic psychological testing, volume 1. Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1945.Google Scholar
  160. Reed, H. B. C. Differentiated impairment on the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale as a function of type and laterality of cerebral pathology. Paper presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, 1962.Google Scholar
  161. Reed, H. B. C. Pediatric neuropsychology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1976, 1, 5–7.Google Scholar
  162. Reed, H. B. C., & Reitan, R. M. The significance of age on the performance of a complex psychomotor task by brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged subjects. Journal of Gerontology, 1962, 11, 193–196.Google Scholar
  163. Reed, H. B. C., & Reitan, R. M. Changes in psychological test performances associated with normal aging process. Journal of Gerontology, 1963, 18, 271–274. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Reed, H. B. C., & Reitan, R. M. A comparison of the effects of the normal aging process with the effects of organic brain damage on adaptive abilities. Journal of Gerontology, 1963, 18, 177–179. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Reed, H. B. C., & Reitan, R. M. Intelligence test performances of brain-damaged subjects with lateralized motor deficits. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1963, 27, 102–106. (c)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Reed, H. B. C., Reitan, R. M., & KlOve, H. Influence of cerebral lesions on psychological test performances of older children. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1965, 29, 247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Reed, J. C., & Reitan, R. M. Verbal and performance differences among brain-injured children with lateralized motor deficits. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1969, 29, 747–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Reitan, R. M. Certain differential effects of left and right cerebral lesions in human adults. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1955, 48, 474–477. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Reitan, R. M. The distribution according to age of a psychologic measure dependent upon organic brain functions. Journal of Gerontology, 1955, 10, 330–340. (b)Google Scholar
  170. Reitan, R. M. An investigation of the validity of Halstead’s measures of biological intelligence. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1955, 73, 28–35. (c)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Reitan, R. M. The relation of the Trail Making Test to organic brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1955, 19, 393–394. (d)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Reitan, R. M. Qualitative versus quantitative mental changes following brain damage. Journal of Psychology, 1958, 46, 339–346. (a)Google Scholar
  173. Reitan, R. M. Validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1958, 8, 271–276. (b)Google Scholar
  174. Reitan, R. M. The comparative effects of brain damage on the Halstead Impairment Index and the Wechsler-Bellevue scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1959, 15, 281–285. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Reitan, R. M. Impairment of abstraction ability in brain damage: Quantitative versus qualitative changes. Journal of Psychology, 1959, 48, 97–102 (b)Google Scholar
  176. Reitan, R. M. The significance of dysphasia for intelligence and adaptive abilities. Journal of Psychology, 1960, 50, 355–376.Google Scholar
  177. Reitan, R. M. Psychological deficits resulting from cerebral lesions in man. In J. M. Warren & K. Akert (Eds.), The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.Google Scholar
  178. Reitan, R. M. Problems and prospects in studying the psychological correlates of brain lesions. Cortex, 1966, 2, 127–154. (a)Google Scholar
  179. Reitan, R. M. A research program on the psychological effects of brain lesions in human beings. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation. New York: Academic Press, 1966, pp. 153–218. (b)Google Scholar
  180. Reitan, R. M. Psychological changes associated with aging and with cerebral damage. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 1967, 42, 653–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Reitan, R. M. The role of models in clinical psychology: The neurological model. Paper presented at American Psychological Association, San Francisco, September 1968.Google Scholar
  182. Reitan, R. M. Sensorimotor functions, intelligence and cognition, and emotional status in subjects with cerebral lesions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1970, 31, 275–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Reitan, R. M. Psychological testing in neurological diagnosis. In J. R. Youmans (Ed.), Neurosurgery: A comprehensive reference guide to the diagnosis and management of neurosurgical problems. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1973, pp. 423–440.Google Scholar
  184. Reitan, R. M. Methodological problems in clinical neuropsychology. In R. M. Reitan & L. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 19–46. (a)Google Scholar
  185. Reitan, R. M. Psychological effects of cerebral lesions in children of early school age. In R. M. Reitan & L. A. Davison (Eds.) Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974, pp. 53–90. (b)Google Scholar
  186. Reitan, R. M., & Boll, T. J. Intellectual and cognitive functions in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 37, 364–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Reitan, R. M., & Boll, T. J. Neuropsychological correlates of minimal brain dysfunction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1973, 205, 65–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Reitan, R. M., & Davison, L. Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1974.Google Scholar
  189. Reitan, R. M., Reed, J. C., & Dyken, M. L. Cognitive, psychomotor, and motor correlates of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1971, 153, 218–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Reynell, W. R. A psychometric method of determining intellectual loss following head injury. Journal of Mental Science, 1944, 90, 710.Google Scholar
  191. Rosenbaum, A. L. Neuropsychologic outcome of children born via the occiput posterior position. In C. R. Angle & E. A. Bering (Eds.), Physical trauma as an etiological agent in mental retardation. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970.Google Scholar
  192. Rourke, B. P. Brain-behavior relationships in children with learning disabilities. American Psychologist, 1975, 30, 911–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Rourke, B. P. Issues in the neuropsychological assessment of children with learning disabilities. Canadian Psychological Review, 1976, 17, 89–102.Google Scholar
  194. Rourke, B. P., MacDonald, G. W., & Daly, R. M. The relationship of lateralized electroencephalographic disturbance to selected neuropsychological abilities in children. Ontario Psychological Association, 1970.Google Scholar
  195. Rowe, S. N. Mental changes following the removal of the right cerebral hemisphere for brain tumor. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1937, 94, 604.Google Scholar
  196. Ruesch, J. Intellectual impairment in head injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1944, 100, 480.Google Scholar
  197. Russell, E. W. WAIS factor analysis with brain-damaged subjects using criterion measures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 39, 113–319.Google Scholar
  198. Russell, E. W. The effect of acute lateralized brain damage on Halstead’s biological intelligence factors. Journal of General Psychology, 1974, 90, 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Russell, E. W. Multiple scoring method for assessment of complex memory functions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 800–809. (a)Google Scholar
  200. Russell, E. W. Validation of a brain-damage versus schizophrenia MMPI. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1975, 31, 659–661. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Russell, E. W. The Bender-Gestalt and the Halstead-Reitan Battery: A case study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1976, 32, 355–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Russell, E. W. MMPI Profiles of brain-damaged and schizophrenic subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977, 33, 190–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Russell, E. W., Neuringer, C., & Goldstein, G. Assessment of brain damage: A neuropsychological key approach. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970.Google Scholar
  204. Russell, W. R., & Smith, A. Post-traumatic amnesia in closed head injury. Archives of Neurology, 1961, 5, 4–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sabatino, D. A., & Cramblatt, H. A longitudinal study of children with learning disabilities subsequent to hospitalizations for viral encephalitis. II. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1969, 2, 124–135.Google Scholar
  206. Samuels, I., Butters, N., & Fedio, P. Short-term memory disorders following temporal lobe removals in humans. Cortex, 1972, 8, 283–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Satz, P. A block rotation task: The application of multi-variate and decision theory analysis for the prediction of brain disorder. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 1966, 80, (whole No. 629), 1–29. (a)Google Scholar
  208. Satz, P. Specific and non-specific effects of brain lesions in man. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1966, 71, 65–70. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Satz, P., Fennell, E., & Reilly, C. Predictive validity of six neurodiagnostic tests: a decision theory analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 34, 357–381.Google Scholar
  210. Satz, P., Richard, W., & Daniels, A. The alteration of intellectual performance after lateralized brain-injury in man. Psychonomic Science, 1967, 7, 369–370.Google Scholar
  211. Schreiber, D. J., Goldman, H., Kleinman, K. M., Goldfader, P. R., & Snow, M. Y. The relationship between independent neuropsychological and neurological detection and localization of cerebral impairment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1976, 162, 360–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J. J., & Jiminez-Pabon, E. Aphasia in adults. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.Google Scholar
  213. Schwartz, M. S. Organicity and the MMPI 1–3–9 and 2–9 codes. Proceedings of the 77th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1969, 4, 519–520.Google Scholar
  214. Semmes, J. Hemispheric specialization: A possible clue to mechanism. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 11–26.Google Scholar
  215. Shaw, D. J. The reliability and validity of the Halstead Category Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1966, 22, 176–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Simpson, C. D., & Vega, A. Unilateral brain damage and patterns of age-corrected WAIS subtest scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1971, 27, 204–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Smith, A. Duration of impaired consciousness as an index of severity of closed head injuries. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1961, 22, 69.Google Scholar
  218. Smith, A. Psychodiagnosis of patients with brain tumors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1962, 135, 513–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Smith, A. Verbal and non-verbal test performances of patients with “acute” lateralized brain lesions (tumors). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1965, 141, 517–523.Google Scholar
  220. Smith, A. Certain hypothesized hemisphere differences in language and visual functioning in human adults. Cortex, 1966, 2, 109–126.Google Scholar
  221. Smith, A. Dominant and non-dominant hemispherectomy, In W. L. Smith (Ed.) Drugs, development and cerebral function. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1972.Google Scholar
  222. Smith, A. Neuropsychological testing in neurological disorders. Advances in Neurology, 1975, 7, 49–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Smith, A., Champoux, R., Leri, J., London, R., & Muraski, A. Diagnosis, intelligence and rehabilitation of chronic aphasics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1972.Google Scholar
  224. Spreen, O., & Benton, A. L. Comparative studies of some psychological test for cerebral damage. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1965, 140, 323–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Szasz, T. Lecture at the University of Washington Child Development and Mental Retardation Center, Seattle, 1972.Google Scholar
  226. Tarter, R. E. Psychological deficit in chronic alcoholics: A review. International Journal of Addiction, 1975, 10, 327–368.Google Scholar
  227. Tarter, R. E., & Jones, B. N. Motor impairment in chronic alcoholics. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1971, 32, 632–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Teuber, H.-L. Effects of brain wounds implicating right or left hemisphere in man: Hemisphere differences and hemisphere interaction in vision, audition, and somesthesis. In E. B. Mountcastle (Ed.), Interhemispheric relations and cerebral dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962, pp. 131–157.Google Scholar
  229. Teuber, H.-L. & Rudel, R. G. Behavior after cerebral lesions in children and adults. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1962, 4, 3–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Tooth, G. On the use of mental tests for the measurement of disability after head injury. Journal of Neurolology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1947, 10, 1.Google Scholar
  231. Tsushima, W. T., & Towne, W. S. Neuropsychological abilities of young children with questionable brain disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 757–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Tymchuk, A. J., Knights, R. M., & Hinton, G. C. Neuropsychological test results of children with brain lesions, abnormal EEG’s and normal EEG’s. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 1970, 2, 322–329.Google Scholar
  233. Vega, A., & Parsons, O. Cross-validation of the Halstead-Reitan tests for brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31, 619–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Vega, A., & Parsons, O. A. Relationship between sensory-motor deficits and WAIS Verbal and Performance scores in unilateral brain damage. Cortex, 1969, 5, 229–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Victor, M., Adams, R. E., & Collins, G. H. The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1971.Google Scholar
  236. Vogel, W., Kun, K. J., Meshover, E., Broverman, D. M., & Klaiber, E. L. The behavioral significance of EEG abnormality in mental defectives. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. 1969, 75, 62–8.Google Scholar
  237. Watson, C. G., Thomas, R. W., Anderson, D., & Felling, J. Differentiation of organics from schizophrenics at two chronicity levels by use of the Reitan-Halstead organic test battery. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Watson, C. G., Thomas, R., Felling, J. & Anderson, D. Differentiation of organics from schizophrenics with Reitan’s sensory-perceptual disturbance test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1968, 26, 1191–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Watson, C. G., Thomas, R. W., Felling, J., & Anderson, D. Differentiation of organics from schizophrenics with the Trail Making, dynamometer, critical flicker fusion and light-intensity matching tests. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1969, 25, 130–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Watson, J. B. Behaviorism. New York: People’s Institute, 1924.Google Scholar
  241. Wechsler, D. The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1939.Google Scholar
  242. Wechsler, D. The measurement of adult intelligence, third edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1944.Google Scholar
  243. Wechsler, D. A standardized memory scale for clinical use. Journal of Psychology, 1945, 19, 87–95.Google Scholar
  244. Wechsler, D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1949.Google Scholar
  245. Wechsler, D. The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence, fourth edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1958.Google Scholar
  246. Wechsler, I. S. Clinical neurology, Philadelphia: Strauss, 1963.Google Scholar
  247. Wernicke, C. Der aphasische Symptomencomplex. Breslau: Max Cohn and Weigert, 1874.Google Scholar
  248. Wheeler, L., & Reitan, R. M. The presence and laterality of brain damage predicted from responses to a short aphasia screening test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1962, 15, 783–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Willerman, L. Fetal head position during delivery, and intelligence. In C. R. Angle & E. A. Bering (Eds.), Physical trauma as an etiological agent in mental retardation. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970. (a)Google Scholar
  250. Willerman, L. Maternal pelvic size and neuropsychological outcome. In C. R. Angle & E. A. Bering (Eds.), Physical trauma as an etiological agent in mental retardation. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970. (b)Google Scholar
  251. Williams, M. The measurement of memory in clinical practice. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 7, 19–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Wright, M., & Hogan, T. P. Repeated LSD ingestion and performance on neuropsychological tests. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1972, 154, 432–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Yates, A. J. The validity of some psychological tests of brain damage. Psychological Bulletin, 1954, 51, 359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Yates, A. J. Psychological deficit. Annual Review of Psychology, 1966, 17, 111–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Zimet, C. N., & Fishman, D. B. Psychological deficit in schizophrenia and brain damage. Annual Review of Psychology, 1970, 21, 113–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Zimmerman, S. F., Whitmyre, J. W., & Fields, F. R. J. Factor analytic structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in patients with diffuse and lateralized cerebral dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1970, 26, 462–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas J. Boll
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of Virginia Medical CenterCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations