The Measurement of the Self-Concept

  • Leonard D. Goodstein
  • Deborah Lee Doller

Abstract

The self is typically defined as the total, essential, or particular being of a single individual or person. That is, the self involves those qualities that differentiate or distinguish that person from other persons. The study of the self has been a continuing preoccupation for both philosophy and psychology.

Keywords

Depression Income Hunt Sorting Defend 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport, G. W. Letters from Jenny. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. Ashcraft, C., & Fitts, W. H. Self-concept change in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 1964, 1, 115–118.Google Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. Review of the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1972. (a)Google Scholar
  4. Bentler, P. M. Review of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1972, 366–367. (b)Google Scholar
  5. Bills, R. E. Index of adjustment and values. Manual. University, Alabama: Mimeographed, n.d.Google Scholar
  6. Bills, R. E. Rorschach characteristics of persons scoring high and low in acceptance of self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1953, 17, 36–38. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bills, R. E. A validation of changes in scores on the Index of Adjustment and Values as measures of changes in emotionality. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1953, 17, 135–138. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bills, R. E. Self-concepts and Rorschach signs of depression. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1954, 18, 135–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bills, R. E., Vance, E. L., & McLean, O. S. An index of adjustment and values. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1951, 15, 257–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Block, J. The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychiatric research. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bloxom, B. Review of the Personal Orientation Inventory. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1972, 290–292.Google Scholar
  12. Boshier, R. Self-esteem and first names in children. Psychological Reports, 1968, 22, 762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley, F. O., & Newhouse, R. C. Sociometric choice and self-perceptions of upper elementary school children. Psychology in the Schools, 1975, 12, 219–222.Google Scholar
  14. Bugenthal, J. T., & Zelen, S. L. Investigations into the self-concept. Journal of Personality, 1950, 18, 483–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butler, J. M., & Haigh, G. V. Changes in the relation between self-concepts and ideal concepts consequent upon client-centered therapy. In C. R. Rogers & R. F. Dymond (Eds.), Psychotherapy and personality change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, P. B. School and self-concept. Educational Leadership, 1967, 24, 510–515.Google Scholar
  17. Cartwright, R. D. Self-conception patterns of college students, and adjustment to college life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1963, 10, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castenada, A., McCandless, B. R., & Palermo, D. S. The children’s form of the Manifest Anxiety Scale. Child Development, 1956, 27, 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coan, R. W. Review of the Personal Orientation Inventory. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1972, 292–294.Google Scholar
  20. Comrey, A. L. Comrey Personality Scales. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1970Google Scholar
  21. Connell, D. M., & Johnson, J. E. Relationship between sex-role identification and self-esteem in early adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3, 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coopersmith, S. A method for determining types of self-esteem. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1959, 59, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coopersmith, S. The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman, 1967.Google Scholar
  24. Cowen, E. L., & Tongas, P. N. The social desirability of trait descriptive terms: Applications to a self-concept inventory. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1959, 23, 361–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crites, J. O. Test reviews: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1965, 12, 330–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dymond, R. F. An adjustment score for Q-sorts. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1953, 17, 339–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. The Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  28. Fitts, W. H. Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Test booklet. Nashville, Tenn.: Counselor Recordings and Tests, Department of Mental Health, 1964.Google Scholar
  29. Fitts, W. H. Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Manual. Nashville, Tenn.: Counselor Recordings and Tests, Department of Mental Health, 1965.Google Scholar
  30. Fox, J., Knapp, R. R., & Michael, W. B. Assessment of self-actualization of psychiatric patients: Validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1968, 28, 565–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freud, S. Formulations regarding the two principles in mental functioning. In P. Rieff (Ed.), General psychological theory. New York: Collier Books, 1963 (original 1911 ).Google Scholar
  32. Gordon, C. Sell conceptions: Configurations of content. In Gordon & K. Gergen (Eds.), The self in social interaction. New York: Wiley, 1968.Google Scholar
  33. Gough, H. G., & Heilbrun, A. B., Jr. Manual for the Adjective Check List. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  34. Gross, W. F., & Adler, L. O. Aspects of alcoholics’ self-concepts as measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Psychological Reports, 1970, 27, 431–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guardo, C. Sociometric status and self-concept in sixth graders. Journal of Educational Research, 1969, 62, 319–322.Google Scholar
  36. Hanlon, T. E., Hofstaetter, P., & O’Connor, J. Congruence of self and ideal self in relation to personality adjustment. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1954, 18, 215–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Havener, P. H., & Izard, C. E. Unrealistic self-enhancement in paranoid schizophrenics. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1962, 26, 65–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hebert, D. J. Reading comprehension as a function of self-concept. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1968, 27, 78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hilden, A. H. Q-sort correlation: Stability and random choice of statements. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1958, 22, 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Horowitz, F. D. The relationship of anxiety, self-concept, and sociometric status among fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, 65, 212–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. James, W. Psychology: The briefer course. New York: Holt, 1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jersild, A. T. In search of self: An exploration of the role of the school in promoting self-understanding. New York: Teachers College, 1952.Google Scholar
  43. Jourard, S. M., & Remy, R. M. Perceived parental attitudes, the self, and security. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1955, 19, 364–366.Google Scholar
  44. Knapp, R. R. Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1965, 29, 168–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Knapp, R. R. Handbook for the Personal Orientation Inventory. San Diego: Ed Its, 1976.Google Scholar
  46. Knapp, R. R., & Comrey, A. L. Further construct validation of a measure of self-actualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1973, 33, 419–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuhn, M. H., & McPartland, T. S. An empirical investigation of self-attitudes. American Sociological Review, 1954, 19, 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lefkowitz, J. Self-esteem of industrial workers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1967, 51, 521–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L., & Sears, P. Level of aspiration. In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders. New York: Ronald, 1944.Google Scholar
  50. Lipsitt, L. P. A self-concept scale for children and its relationship to the children’s form of the Manifest Anxiety Scale. Child Development, 1958, 29, 463–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Livson, N. H., & Nichols, T. F. Discrimination and reliability in Q-sort personality descriptions. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1956, 52, 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mann, P. H., Beaber, J. D., & Jacobson, M. D. The effect of group counseling on educable mentally retarded boys’ self-concepts. Exceptional Children, 1969, 35, 359–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mattocks, A. L., & Jew, C. C. Comparison of self-actualization levels and adjustment scores of incarcerated male felons. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1974, 34, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mayer, C. L. The relationship of early special class placement and the self-concepts of mentally handicapped children. Exceptional Children, 1966, 33, 77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayer, C. L. Relationships of self-concepts and social variables in retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, 72, 267–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McDougall, W. Introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen, 1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mead, G. H. Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  58. Michael, W. B., & Smith, R. A. The factorial validity of the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale for each of three samples of elementary, junior high, and senior high school students in a large metropolitan school district. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1975, 35, 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mitchell, J. V., Jr. An analysis of the factorial dimensions of the Bills’ Index of Adjustment and Values. Journal of Social Psychology, 1962, 58, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Phillips, E. L., Raiford, A., & El-Batrawi, S. The Q-sort reevaluated. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1965, 29, 422–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Piers, E. V. Manual for the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (The way I feel about myself). Nashville, Tenn.: Counselor Recordings and Tests, 1969.Google Scholar
  62. Piers, E. V., & Harris, D. B. Age and other correlates of self-concept in children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1964, 55, 91–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reese, H. W. Relationships between self-acceptance and sociometric choices. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1961, 62, 472–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rentz, R. R., & White, W. F. Factors of self-perception in the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1967, 24, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roberts, G. E. A study of the validity of the Index of Adjustment and Values. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1952, 16, 302–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers, C. R. A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relations, as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Volume III. Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959, 184–258.Google Scholar
  67. Rogers, C. R., & Dymond, R. F. (Eds.). Psychotherapy and personality change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.Google Scholar
  68. Shlien, J. M. Toward what level of abstraction in criteria? University of Chicago Counseling Center Discussion Papers,1961, 6,No. 16.Google Scholar
  69. Shlien, J. M., Mosak, H. H., & Dreikurs, R. Effect of time limits: A comparison of two psychotherapies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1962, 9, 31–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shostrom, E. L. An inventory for the measurement of self-actualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1964, 24, 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shostrom, E. L., & Knapp, R. R. The relationship of a measure of self-actualization (POI) to a measure of pathology (MMPI) and to therapeutic growth. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1966, 20, 193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Spilka, B. Social desirability: A problem of operational definition. Psychological Reports, 1961, 8, 149–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stimson, R. C. Factor analytic approach to the structural differentiation of description. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1968, 15, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Suinn, R. M. Review of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press, 1972, 367–369.Google Scholar
  75. Trowbridge, N. Effects of socio-economic class on self-concept of children. Psychology in the Schools, 1970, 7, 304–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vacchiano, R. B., & Strauss, P. S. The construct validity of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1968, 24, 323–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vincent, J. An exploratory factor analysis relating to the construct validity of self-concept labels. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1968, 28, 915–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Winkler, R. C., & Myers, R. A. Some concomitants of self-ideal discrepancy measures of self-acceptance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1963, 10, 83–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wise, G. W., & Davis, J. E. The Personal Orientation Inventory: Internal consistency, stability, and sex differences. Psychological Reports, 1975, 36, 847–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wolff, W. W. The expression of personality. New York: Harpers, 1943.Google Scholar
  81. Wylie, R. C. The present status of self-theory. In E. F. Borgatta & W. W. Lambert (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968.Google Scholar
  82. Wylie, R. C. The self-concept. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard D. Goodstein
    • 1
  • Deborah Lee Doller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations