Advertisement

Clinical Contributions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

  • Joel Allison

Abstract

The emergence of a psychoanalytic ego psychology secured a firm place in clinical diagnosis for the Wechsler Scales and solidified the substantial efforts already begun in exploring the nonintellective aspects of intelligence. The Wechsler Scales were well suited to the ego-psychological program to provide an integrated theory of personality organization that would include normal as well as abnormal activity, that would include not only the expression of wishes and fears associated with varying psychosexual levels but also the individual’s various skills, aptitudes, and achievements and his processes of perceiving, conceptualizing, remembering, and judging. If the major task of projective testing until then was to probe into the lower depths of personality, into highly personalized fantasies and imagery, the task now also included the more “surface” aspects of personality, and aimed to provide a “general psychology.” Various assets or functions which until then had been exclusively the province of a cognitive psychology of normal persons now became of increased interest and were systematized into a broad theory. And, in particular, it was the development of ego psychology that supplied the basis for this broad theory, beginning with Hartmann’s conceptualization of structures of primary or secondary autonomy, structures, that is, which either are relatively free of drives and conflicts from the outset or develop that way over time (Hartmann, 1958).

Keywords

Digit Span Intelligence Test Digit Symbol Adult Intelligence Scale Subtest Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, J., Blatt, S. J., amp; Zimet, C. N. The interpretation ofpsrchological tests. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.Google Scholar
  2. Apfelbaum, B. On ego psychology: A critique of the structural approach to psycho-analytic theory. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1966, 47, 451–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanck, G., & Blanck, R. Ego psychology: Theory and practice. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Blatt, S. J., & Allison, J. The intelligence test in personality assessment. In A. I. Rabin (Ed.), Projective techniques in personality assessment. New York: Springer, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. Blatt, S. J., Wild, C. M., & Ritzier, B. A. Disturbances of object representations in schizophrenia. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science, 1975, 4, 235–288.Google Scholar
  6. Bleuler, E. Dimentia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. New York: International Universities Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  7. Boyer, L. B. Comparisons of the Shamans and pseudo-Shamans of the Apaches of the Mescalero Indian Reservation: A Rorschach study. Journal of Projective Techniques, 1964, 28, 173–180.Google Scholar
  8. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1968.Google Scholar
  9. Gunderson, J. G., & Mosher, L. R. (Eds.). Psychotherapy of schizophrenia. New York: Jason Aronson Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Hartmann, H. Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York: International Universities Press, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klein, G. S. Psychoanalytic theory: An exploration of essentials. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. Mayman, M., Schafer, R., & Rapaport, D. Interpretation of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and personality appraisal. In H. H. Anderson & G. L. Anderson (Eds.), An introduction to projective techniques. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951.Google Scholar
  13. McFie, J. Assessment of organic intellectual impairment. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. Rapaport, D. The autonomy of the ego. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 1951, 15, 113–124.Google Scholar
  15. Rapaport, D. The theory of ego autonomy: A generalization. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 1958, 22, 13–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Rapaport, D., Gill, M., & Schafer, R. Diagnostic psychological testing (Vol. 1 ). Chicago: Year Book Publishers, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rapaport, D., Gill, M., & Schafer, R. Diagnostic psychological testing (Vol. 2 ). Chicago: Year Book Publishers, 1946.Google Scholar
  18. Schachtel, E. G. Experiential foundations of Rorschach’s test. New York: Basic Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. Schafer, R. The clinical application of psychological tests. New York: International Universities Press, 1948.Google Scholar
  20. Schafer, R. Psychoanalytic interpretation in Rorschach testing. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1954.Google Scholar
  21. Schafer, R. The mechanisms of defense. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1968, 49, 49–62.Google Scholar
  22. Schafer, R. Action: Its place in psychoanalytic interpretation and theory. The Annual of Psychoanalysis 1973, 1, 159–196.Google Scholar
  23. Shapiro, D. Special problems of testing borderline psychotics. Journal of Projective Techniques, 1954, 18, 387–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shapiro, D. Neurotic styles. New York: Basic Books, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. Shapiro, D. Motivation and action in psychoanalytic psychiatry. Psychiatry, 1970, 33, 329–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Talland, N. Deranged memory. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  27. Tarachow, S. An introduction to psychotherapy. New York: International Universities Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  28. Waite, R. R. The intelligence test as a psychodiagnostic instrument. Journal of Projective Techniques, 1961, 25, 90–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wechsler, D. The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Allison
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations