Research in Clinical Diagnosis

  • Joseph Zubin


By its very nature, the process of clinical diagnosis simulates a research process since it involves the testing of a variety of plausible hypotheses before a final decision is reached. Thus, in a sense, every clinical diagnosis is a research undertaking. Despite this, formal research into clinical diagnosis is of relatively recent vintage. It has two aspects: research into the decision-making process—leading to a diagnosis and research into the results of this process—the diagnosis itself. While the decision-making process itself is now being investigated experimentally, we shall limit ourselves to research in diagnosis itself with special reference to its improvement.


Mental Disorder Scientific Model High Transmission Rate Morbid Anatomy Typological Classification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Burdock, E. I., & Hardesty, A. S. Structured clinical interview. New York: Springer, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. The Caraka Samhita. Jamnagar, India: Shree Gulab-Kuniverba Ayurvedic Library, 1949.Google Scholar
  3. Cooper, J. E., Kendell, R. E., Gurland, B. J., Sharpe, L., Copeland, J. R. M., & Simon, R. J. Psychiatric diagnosis in New York and London: A comparative study of mental hospital admissions (Maudsley Monograph No. 20 ). London: Oxford University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fieve, R. R., & Dunner, D. L. Unipolar and bipolar affective states. The nature and treatment of depression. In F. F. Flach, & S. C. Draghi (Eds.), New York: Wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. Fleiss, J. L., & Zubin, J. On the methods and theory of clustering. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1969, 4, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frank, J. D. Persuasion and healing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1973 (originally published 1961 ).Google Scholar
  8. Gottesman, I. L., & Shields, J. Schizophrenia and genetics. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Huxley, J. S. Introductory: Towards the new systematics. In J. S. Huxley (Ed.), The new systematics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.Google Scholar
  10. Kanfer, F. H., & Saslow, G. Behavioral diagnosis. In C. M. Franks (Ed.), Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.Google Scholar
  11. Katz, M. M., Cole, J. L., & Barton, W. E. The role and methodology of classification in psychiatry and psychopathology. Chevy Chase, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1967.Google Scholar
  12. Kety, S. S., Rosenthal, D., Wender, P. H., & Schulsinger, K. The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics. In D. Rosenthal & S. S. Kety (Eds.), The transmission of schizophrenia. Elmsford, N.Y., Pergamon Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  13. Langfeldt, G. The schizophreniform states. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1939.Google Scholar
  14. Leonhard, K. Die Defect schizophrenen krankheits Bilder. Leipzig: Thieme, 1936.Google Scholar
  15. Leonhard, K. Aufteilung der endogenen Psychose, (2nd ed.). Berline, 1959.Google Scholar
  16. Linder, R. Diagnosis: description or prescription? A case study in the psychology of diagnosis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1965, 20, 1081–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schneider, K. [Clinical psychopathology] (M. W. Hamilton, trans.). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1959.Google Scholar
  18. Spitzer, R. L., Burdock, E. I., & Hardesty, A. S. Mental Status schedule. New York: Biometrics Research Unit, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1964.Google Scholar
  19. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., Fleiss, J. L., & Cohen, J. The psychiatric status schedule, Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 23, 41–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Szasz, T. The myth of mental illness. New York: Hoeber-Harper, 1961.Google Scholar
  21. Sutton, S. Fact and artifact in the psychology of schizophrenia. In M. Hammer, K. Salzinger, & S. Sutton (Eds.), Psychopathology: Contributions from the social, behavioral, and biological sciences. New York: Wiley, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Wing, J., & Nixon, J. Discriminating symptoms in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 853–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wing, J. K., Birley, J. L. T., Cooper, J. E., Graham, P., & Isaacs, A. D. Reliability of a procedure for measuring and classifying present psychiatric state. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1967; 499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E., & Sartorius, N. The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. Wolf, A. Classification. Encyclopaedia Britannica (14th ed., vol. 5). London: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Co., 1929, p. 777. Quoted in M. Shepherd. Definition, classification and nomenclature: A clinical overview. In Kemali et al. (Eds.), Schizophrenia today. London: Pergamon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. World Health Organization. Report of the international pilot study of schizophrenia, Vol. 1. Geneva: WHO, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. Zubin, J. The program of the biometrics research unit. Reprinted from The Psychiatric Quarterly, 1972, 46 (3), 439–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zubin, J. Psychopathology and the social sciences. In O. Klineberg & R. Christie (Eds.), Perspectives in social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965.Google Scholar
  29. Zubin, J. Scientific models for psychopathology in the ‘70s. Seminars in Psychiatry, 1972, 4, 283–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zubin, J. Role of vulnerability in the etiology of schizophrenic episodes. In L. J. West & D. E. Flinn (Eds.), Treatment of schizophrenia: Progress and prospects. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1976, pp. 5–43.Google Scholar
  31. Zubin, J., & Gurland, B. J. The United States-United Kingdom project on diagnosis of the mental disorders. In L. L. Adler (Ed.), Issues in cross-cultural research. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 676–686.Google Scholar
  32. Zubin, J., & Spring, B. Vulnerability—A new view of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977, 86, 103–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zubin, J., Salzinger, K., Fleiss, J. et al. Biometric approach to psychopathology: Abnormal and clinical psychology-statistical, epidemiological, and diagnostic approaches. Annual Review of Psychology, 1975, 26, 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Zubin
    • 1
  1. 1.New York Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations