Conversion of Urea and Ammonia to Amino Acid Using Sequential Enzymatic Reaction with Microencapsulated Multi-Enzyme Systems

  • J. Cousineau
  • T. M. S. Chang


Adsorbents have been used in the artificial kidney and artificial liver in various forms. In chronic renal failure, adsorbents have been used effectively as a miniaturized hemo-perfusion system in series with a hemodialyser or an ultra-filtrator (1,2,3). Adsorbents have also been used as a dialysate regeneration system to decrease the volume of dialysate for hemodialysers (4,5). In the artificial liver, charcoal hemo-perfusion has been used as hepatic support (6,7). However, in these approaches using adsorbents, the removal of urea in chronic renal failure and the removal of ammonia in liver failure has yet to be optimized.


Glutamate Dehydrogenase Zirconium Phosphate Hepatic Coma Artificial Cell Ammonia Adsorbent 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Cousineau
    • 1
  • T. M. S. Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Artificial Organs Research Unit, Departments of Physiology and MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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