UV-A pp 241-256 | Cite as

Safety Measures and Protection against Ultraviolet Exposure

  • John A. Parrish
  • R. Rox Anderson
  • Frederick Urbach
  • Donald Pitts


There are potential biologic hazards associated with exposure to essentially every spectral region of the continuum of electromagnetic radiation. Exposure to microwave radiation is associated with heating of tissues, and possibly cataract formation and deleterious effects upon the central nervous system. Infrared energy may also cause destructive heating of the skin and eyes and cataract formation (“glass blower’s cataract”). Near infrared radiation and visible light focused on the retina may produce retinal burns. The shorter wavelengths of the visible light spectrum produce retinal damage at much lower irradiances than the longer visible and near-infrared wavelengths.1 The biologic effects and hazards of ultraviolet radiation on the skin and eyes of humans have been well recorded in the literature. Ionizing radiation (X rays and gamma rays) can cause tissue destruction and mutagenesis and can penetrate deeply into the body.


Exposure Dose Spectral Irradiance Minimal Erythemal Dose Near Infrared Radiation Ultraviolet Exposure 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Parrish
    • 1
  • R. Rox Anderson
    • 1
  • Frederick Urbach
    • 2
  • Donald Pitts
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolUSA
  2. 2.Skin and Cancer HospitalTemple University School of MedicineUSA
  3. 3.College of OptometryUniversity of HoustonUSA

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