Modes of Normal Conscious Flow

  • Eric Klinger
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)

Abstract

When we speak of consciousness we are referring to the sum total of events in awareness. The term by no means exhausts the realm of things psychological, but it does encompass all of an individual’s direct experience. When we speak of the flow of consciousness we are referring to the changes that take place in consciousness over time. The events of consciousness are, of course, extremely complex and varied. They embrace images in every sensory modality and in every degree of vividness, realism, and believability, including inner dialogue, hallucinations, reveries, and dreamlike sequences; and they also embrace qualities that are at the same time less figured and more pervasive than these—the affects. This chapter focuses on a broad class of these conscious contents. They do not contain the imagery of current perceptual activity but they contain imaginai qualities that one can describe in terms of forms, colors, sounds, words, smells, tastes, temperatures, and the like. I shall refer to this class as ”thought.” This chapter brings together ideas and data regarding ways to observe thought, the dimensions and forms of thought, and the factors that determine the content of thought as it changes from one moment to the next.

Keywords

Titration Dura Estima Prose 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antrobus, J. S., Singer, J. L., and Greenberg, S. Studies in the stream of consciousness: Experimental enhancement and suppression of spontaneous cognitive processes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1966, 23, 399–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aserinsky, E., and Kleitman, N. Regularly occurring periods of eye mobility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 1953, 118, 273–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J. W., and Birch, D. The dynamics of action. New York, N.Y.: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  4. Berlyne, D. E. Structure and direction in thinking. New York, N.Y.: Wiley, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Betts, G. H. The distribution and functions of mental imagery. New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Teachers College, 1909.Google Scholar
  6. Bloom, B. S., and Broder, L. J. Problem-solving processes of college students: an exploratory investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  7. Broadbent, D. E. The hidden preattentive processes. American Psychologist, 1977, 32, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cermak, L. S. Human memory: Research and theory. New York, N.Y.: Ronald, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Csikszentmihalyi, M., Larson, R., and Prescott, S. The ecology of adolescent activity and experience. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1977, 6, 281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeGroot, A. Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.Google Scholar
  11. Fiske, D. W. Observables and judgments: Their utilities in personality and behavioral science. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, in press.Google Scholar
  12. Foulkes, D., and Fleisher, S. Mental activity in relaxed wakefulness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 66–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freud, S. The interpretation of dreams (J. Strachey, Ed. and trans.). New York, N.Y.: Wiley, 1961. (Originally published, 1900.)Google Scholar
  14. Galton, F. Inquiries into human faculty. New York: Macmillan, 1883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giambra, L. Daydreaming across the lifespan: Late adolescent to senior citizen. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1974, 5, 115–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon, R. An investigation into some of the factors that favour the formation of stereotyped images. British Journal of Psychology, 1949, 39, 156–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Heckhausen, H. [The anatomy of achievement motivation] (K. F. Butler, R. C. Birney, and D. C. McClelland, trans.). New York, N.Y.: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  18. Heckhausen, H. Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model. Motivation and Emotion, 1977, 1, 283–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hilgard, E. R. Impulsive versus realistic thinking: An examination of the distinction between primary and secondary processes in thought. Psychological Bulletin, 1962, 59, 477–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958. (Originally published, 1651.)Google Scholar
  21. Hurlburt, R. T. Self-observation and self-control. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of South Dakota, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. Isaacs, I. Self reports of daydreaming and mindwandering: A construct validation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. Klinger, E. Structure and functions of fantasy. New York, N.Y.: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. Klinger, E. Utterances to evaluate steps and control attention distinguish operant from respondent thought while thinking out loud. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1974, 4, 44–45.Google Scholar
  25. Klinger, E. Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klinger, E. Meaning and void: Inner experience and the incentives in people’s lives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Klinger, E., Barta, S. G., Mahoney, T. W., et al. Motivation, mood, and mental events: Patterns and implications for adaptive processes. In G. Serban (Ed.), Psychopathology of human adaptation. New York, N.Y.: Plenum, 1976. Pp. 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorents, A. C. Faculty activity analysis and planning models in higher education. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. McKellar, P. Imagination and thinking. New York, N.Y.: Basic Books, 1957.Google Scholar
  30. Mintz, A. Schizophrenic speech and sleepy speech. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1948, 43, 548–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Morris, G. O., Williams, H. L., and Lubin, A. Misperception and disorientation during sleep deprivation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1960, 2, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Natsoulas, T. Concerning introspective knowledge. Psychological Bulletin, 1970, 73, 89–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York, N.Y.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  34. Pope, K. S. The stream of consciousness. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Yale University, 1977.Google Scholar
  35. Prescott, S., and Haertel, E. An ecology of the home: The experiential sampling approach. Unpublished manuscript, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. Prescott, S., Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Graef, R. Environmental effects on cognitive and affective states: The experiential time sampling approach. Unpublished manuscript, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. Richardson, A. Verbalizer-visualizer: A cognitive style dimension. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1977, 1, 109–125.Google Scholar
  38. Singer, J. L. Daydreaming: An introduction to the experimental study of inner experience. New York, N.Y.: Random House, 1966.Google Scholar
  39. Singer, J. L., and Antrobus, J. S. A factor-analytic study of daydreaming and conceptually-related cognitive and personality variables. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1963, 17, 187–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Skinner, B. F. Two types of conditioned reflex and pseudo type. Journal of General Psychology, 1935, 12, 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tippett, L. H. C. A snap reading method of making time studies of machines and operatives in factory surveys. Journal of the British Textile Institute Transactions, 1935, 26, 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Traynor, T. D. Patterns of daydreaming and their relationships to depressive affect. Unpublished masters thesis, Miami University, 1974.Google Scholar
  43. Varendonck, J. The psychology of daydreams. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan, 1921.Google Scholar
  44. Watkins, M. M. Waking dreams. New York, N.Y.: Gordon and Breach, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. Windelband, W. [A history of philosophy.] (J.H. Tufts, trans.) New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1958. (Originally published, 1901.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Klinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of the Social SciencesUniversity of MinnesotaMorrisUSA

Personalised recommendations