A Search for the Sources of the Stream of Consciousness

  • Jack R. Strange
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (EPPS)


After a behavioristic hiatus of over half a century, American psychologists in the 1960s began, at first tentatively, to return consciousness to its former central position of concern. Because of this long period during which the use of the term was not allowed, we lost contact with the historical roots of the several different, but legitimate, definitions of consciousness. Today, we find psychologists of a wide variety of orientations using this word and assuming that its meaning is the same for others as it is for them. As William James pointed out in his Pragmatism (1907), many interminable quarrels continue because a key word in the dispute has two meanings that are incompatible. In most cases this incompatibility is quite real, for, as James says, the ”practical consequences” may be entirely different according to which meaning is followed.


Mental Activity Material World Transpersonal Psychologist Metaphysical Assumption Pure Consciousness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angell, J. R. Psychology. New York: Henry Holt, 1908.Google Scholar
  2. Broadbent, D. E. The Hidden Preattentive Processes. American Psychologist, 1977, 32, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boring, E. G. A history of experimental psychology (2nd Ed.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950.Google Scholar
  4. Fay, J. W. American psychology before William fames. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1939.Google Scholar
  5. Freud, S. A general introduction to psychoanalysis, London: Boni and Liveright, 1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Freud, S. Formulations regarding the two principles in mental functioning. Organization and pathology of thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  7. Freud, S. The origins of psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1954.Google Scholar
  8. Freud, S. A general selection from the works of Sigmund Freud. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1957.Google Scholar
  9. Georgi, A. Psychology as a human science. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Grof, S. Varieties of transpersonal experiences: Observations from LSD psychotherapy. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1972, 4, 45–80.Google Scholar
  11. Holt, R. R. On the nature and generality of mental imagery. In P. W. Sheehan (Ed.), The function and nature of imagery. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. Hunter, W. S. Anthroponomy and psychology. In C. Murchison, Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, Massachusetts: Clark University Press, 1930.Google Scholar
  13. James, W. The principles of psychology. New York: Henry Holt, 1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. James, W. Psychology (briefer course). New York, Henry Holt, 1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. James, W. Pragmatism. New York: Longmans, Green, 1907.Google Scholar
  16. James, W. Essays in radical empiricism. New York: Longmans, Green, 1912.Google Scholar
  17. James, W. The varieties of religious experience. New York: Mentor Books, 1958.Google Scholar
  18. Jung, C. Analytical psychology, its theory and practice. New York: Vintage, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. McCosh, J. Psychology: The cognitive Powers. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1886.Google Scholar
  20. McGeoch, J. The formal criteria of a systematic psychology. Psychological Review, 1933, 40, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McKeller, P. Imagery from the standpoint of introspection. In P. W. Sheehan (Ed.), The function and nature of imagery. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. Morgan, L. Emergent evolution. London: Williams and Norgate, 1923.Google Scholar
  23. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  24. Penfield, W. The mystery of the mind. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  25. Perry, R. B. The thought and character of William James. New York: George Braziller, 1954.Google Scholar
  26. Peters, R. S. Brett’s history of psychology. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1953.Google Scholar
  27. Prince, M. The unconscious. New York: Macmillan, 1914.Google Scholar
  28. Ring, K. A transpersonal view of consciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1974, 6, 125–156.Google Scholar
  29. Sartre, J. P. Being and nothingness. New York: Philosophical Library, 1956.Google Scholar
  30. Singer, J. L. Imagery and daydream methods in psychotherapy and behavior modification. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. Singer, J. The inner world of daydreaming. New York: Harper Colophon, 1975.Google Scholar
  32. Skinner, B. F. About behaviorism. New York: Knopf, 1974.Google Scholar
  33. Strange, J., and Taylor, E. A model of integrative levels useful in curriculum planning. (In preparation), 1978.Google Scholar
  34. Tart, C. T. Altered states of consciousness. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  35. Titchener, E. B. A text-book of psychology. New York: Macmillan, 1909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tolman, E. C. A behaviorist’s definition of consciousness. Psychological Review, 1927, 34, 433–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Watson, J. B. Behaviorism. New York: Norton, 1924.Google Scholar
  38. White, J. The highest state of consciousness. New York: Doubleday-Anchor, 1972Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack R. Strange
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations