During the past decade, rapid progress has been made in urolithiasis research. This advancement has encompassed four approaches: physical chemistry and biochemistry, physiology, mechanism of drug action, and diagnosis and management (Figure 1). The first approach seeks to isolate the specific physicochemical and biochemical properties of the urinary environment that predispose to formation of renal stones. The second approach focuses on physiological derangements or metabolic defects that might be etiologically important in stone formation. In other words, these two approaches address the causes of renal-stone formation in vitro and in vivo; specifically, they inquire into the nature of “stone-forming” urine and the reasons that certain patients are prone to form renal stones.
KeywordsPrimary Hyperparathyroidism Stone Formation Renal Stone Metabolic Defect Monosodium Urate
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