Recognitive Immunity in Colon Cancer

  • Norman T. Berlinger
Part of the Sloan-Kettering Institute Cancer Series book series (SKICS)


The possibility of controlling cancer by immunological means continues to provoke the interest and excitement of many workers. Such a possibility, however, is entirely dependent on the fact that tumors express antigens which are associated with those tumors. Efforts have been made to demonstrate tumor antigenicity by serological methods. As early as 1930, Witebsky produced in guinea pigs a putative antiserum to a human stomach cancer. After adsorption of this antiserum with extracts of normal human stomach, he found that it was still capable of producing a precipitation reaction with the cancer extract. This work suggested that an antigen was present in a cancerous stomach which was not present in a normal stomach. Other serological evidence followed. Graham and Graham (1955) claimed the ability to demonstrate positive complement fixation reactions for some patients using extracts of autologous tumors. Other claims were made (Finney et al., 1960) for the demonstration of precipitating antibody in the sera of cancer patients against extracts of their own tumors.


Migration Inhibitory Factor Tumor Antigen Leukocyte Migration Delay Hypersensitivity Reaction Sinus Histiocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ambus, U., Mavligit, G. M., Gutterman, J. U., McBride, C. M., and Hersh, E. M., 1974, Specific and non-specific immunologic reactivity of regional lymph node lymphocytes in human malignancy, Int. J. Cancer 14: 291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, V., Bendixen, G., and Schiodt, T., 1969, An in vitro demonstration of cellular immunity against autologous mammary carcinoma in man, Acta Med. Scand. 186: 101–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bach, F. H., 1974, Normal histocompatibility antigens as a model for tumors, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 62: 173–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, R. W., Price, M. R., and Robins, R. A., 1972, Blocking of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity for rat hepatoma cells by tumour-specific antigen-antibody complexes, Nature (London) New Biol. 238: 185–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, R. W., Embleton, M. J., and Price, M. R., 1973a, Inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity for human colon carcinoma by treatment with solubilized tumor membrane fractions, Int. J. Cancer 12: 84–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, R. W., Embleton, M. J., and Robins, R. A., 1973b, Cellular and humoral immunity to rat hepatoma-specific antigens correlated with tumour status, Int. J. Cancer 11: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barna, B., and Deodhar, S. D., 1975, The activity of regional nodes in the evolution of immune responses to allogeneic and isogeneic tumors, Cancer Res. 35: 920–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg, J. W., 1956, Sinus histiocytosis: A fallacious measure of host resistance to cancer, Cancer 9: 935–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg, J. W., 1959, Inflammation and prognosis in breast cancer, Cancer 12: 714–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berlinger, N. T., and Good, R. A., 1976, Concomitant immunopathology with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck regions,Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolatyngol. 82:ORL588–594.Google Scholar
  11. Berlinger, N. T., Lopez, C., and Good, R. A., 1976a, Facilitation or attenuation of mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness by adherent cells, Nature (London) 260: 145–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berlinger, N. T., Tsakraklides, V., Pollak, K., Adams, G. L., Yang, M., and Good, R. A., 1976b, Immunologic assessment of regional lymph node histology in relation to survival in head and neck carcinoma, Cancer 37: 697–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berlinger, N. T., Lopez, C., Vogel, J. E., Lipkin, M., and Good, R. A., 1977. Defective recognitive immunity in family aggregates of colon carcinoma, J. Clin. Invest. 59: 761–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1958, Sinus histiocytosis of lymph nodes in cancer, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 106: 163–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Black, M. M., Kerpe, S., and Speer, F. D., 1953, Lymph node structure in patients with cancer of the breast, Am. J. Pathol. 29: 505–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Black, M. M., Opler, S. R., and Speer, F. D., 1954, Microscopic structure of gastric carcinomas and their regional lymph nodes in relation to survival, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 98: 725–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloom, B. R., Bennett, B., Oettgen, H. F., McLean, E. P., and Old, L. J., 1969, Demonstration of delayed hypersensitivity to soluble antigens of chemically induced tumors by inhibition of macrophage migration,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64: 1176–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bolton, P. M., Mander, A. M., Davidson, J. M., James, S. L., Newcombe, R. G., and Hughes, L. E., 1975, Cellular immunity in cancer: Comparison of delayed hypersensitivity skin tests in three common cancers, Br. Med. J. 3: 18–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bone, G., and Camplejohn, R., 1973, The role of cellular immunity in control of neoplasia, Br. J. Surg. 60: 824–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bone, G., and Lauder, I., 1974, Cellular immunity, peripheral blood lymphocyte count, and pathological staging of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, Br. J. Cancer 30:215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buchanan, W. W., Anderson, J. R., Goudie, R. B., and Gray, K. G., 1958, A skin test in thyroid disease, Lancet 2: 928–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bull, D. M., Leibach, J. R., Williams, M. A., and Helms, R. A., 1973, Immunity to colon cancer assessed by antigen-induced inhibition of mixed mononuclear cell migration, Science 181: 957–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cantrell, E. G., 1969, Nephrotic syndrome cured by removal of gastric carcinoma, Br. Med. J. 2: 739–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carr, I., Underwood, J. C. E., McGinty, F., and Wood, P., 1974, The ultrastructure of the local lymphoreticular response to an experimental neoplasm, J. Pathol. 113: 175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chakravorty, R. C., Curutchet, H. P., Coppolla, F. S., Park, C. M., Blaylock, W. K., and Lawrence, Jr., W., 1973, The delayed hypersensitivity reaction in the cancer patient: Observations on sensitization by DNCB, Surgery 73: 730–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Costanza, M. E., Pinn, V. P., Schwartz, R. S., and Nathanson, L., 1973, Carcinoembryonic antigen-antibody complexes in a patient with colonic carcinoma and nephrotic syndrome,N. Eng. J. Med. 289: 520–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Couser, W. G., Wagonfeld, J. B., Spargo, B. H., and Lewis, E. J., 1974, Glomerular deposition of tumor antigen in membranous nephropathy associated with colonic carcinoma, Am. J. Med. 57: 962–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Creagan, E. T., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., 1973, Familial gastric cancer and immunologic abnormalities, Cancer 32: 1325–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DiRe, J. J., and Lane, N., 1963, The relation of sinus histiocytosis in axillary lymph nodes to the surgical curability of carcinoma of the breast, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 40: 508–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Eilber, F. R., and Morton, D. L., 1970, Impaired immunologic reactivity and recurrence following cancer surgery, Cancer 25: 362–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Elias, E. G., and Elias, L. L., 1975, Some immunologic characteristics of carcinoma of the colon and rectum, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 141: 715–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Epstein, W. L., Sagabeil, R., Spider, L., Wybran, J., Reed, W. B., and Blois, M. S., 1973, Halo nevi and melanoma, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 225: 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evans, R., 1972, Macrophages in syngeneic animal tumors, Transplantation 14: 468–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fass, L., Ziegler, J. L., Herberman, R. B., and Kiryabwire, J. W. M., 1970, Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to autologous extracts of malignant melanoma cells, Lancet 1: 116–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Finney, J. W., Byers, E. H., and Wilson, R. H., 1960, Studies in tumor auto-immunity, Cancer Res. 20: 351–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Froom, D. W., Franklin, W. A., Hano, J. E., and Potter, E. V., 1972, Immune deposits in Hodgkin’s disease with nephrotic syndrome, Arch. Pathol. 94: 547–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghosh, L., and Muehrcke, R. C., 1970. The nephrotic syndrome: A prodrome to lymphoma, Ann. Intern. Med. 72: 379–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Golub, S. H., O’Connell, T. X., and Morton, D. L., 1974, Correlation of in vitro and in vivo assays of immunocompetence in cancer patients, Cancer Res. 34: 1833–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Graham J. B., and Graham, R. M., 1955, Antibodies elicited by cancer in patients, Cancer 8: 409416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graham, R. M., and Graham, J. B., 1966, Mast cells and cancer of the cervix, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 123: 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Guillou, P. J., and Giles, G. R., 1973, Inhibition of leukocyte migration by tumor-associated antigens of the colon and rectum, Gut 14: 733–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guillou, P. J., Brennan, T. G., and Giles, G. R., 1975, A study of lymph nodes draining colorectal cancer using a two-stage inhibition of leukocyte migration technique, Gut 16: 290–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Han, T., and Takita, H., 1972, Impaired lymphocyte responses to allogeneic cultured lymphoid cells in patients with lung cancer, N. Eng. J. Med. 286: 605–606.Google Scholar
  44. Hawley, P. R., Westerholm, P., and Morson, B. C., 1970, Pathology and prognosis of carcinoma of the stomach, Br. J. Surg. 57: 877–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., Pierce, G. E., and Yang, J. P. S., 1968, Cellular and humoral immunity to different types of human neoplasms, Nature (London) 220: 1352–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hellströ I., Hellströ K. E., and Shepard, T. H., 1970, Cell-mediated immunity against antigens common to human colonic carcinomas and fetal gut epithelium, Int. J. Cancer 6: 346–351.Google Scholar
  47. Hellström, I., Hellström, K. E., Sjögren, H. O., and Warner, G. A., 1971a, Demonstration of cell-mediated immunity to human neoplasms of various histological types, Int. J. Cancer 7: 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hellström, I., Sjögren, H. O., Warner, G., and Hellström, K. E., 1971b, Blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity by sera from patients with growing neoplasms, Int. J. Cancer 7: 226–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Herberman, R. B., and Oren, M. E., 1969, Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to mem- brane extracts of human tumor cells, Clin. Res. 17: 403.Google Scholar
  50. Hollinshead, A., Glew, D., Bunnag, B., Gold, P., and Herberman, R., 1970, Skin-reactive soluble antigen from intestinal cancer cell membranes and relationship to carcinoembryonic antigens, Lancet 1: 1191–1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hollinshead, A., McWright, C. G., Alford, T. C., and Glew, D. H., 1972, Separation of skin reactive intestinal cancer antigen from the carcinoembryonic antigen of Gold, Science 177: 887–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. House, A. K., Wisniewski, S., and Woodings, T. L., 1975, Immunity in colonic tumor patients after operation: Determination of leukocyte migration inhibition, Dis. Col. Rect. 18: 100–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoy, W. E., and Nelson, D. S., 1969, Delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice after skin and tumour allografts and tumour isografts, Nature (London) 222: 1001–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hughes, L. E., and Lytton, B., 1964, Antigenic properties of human tumors: Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions, Br. Med. J. 1: 209–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hughes, L. E., and Mackay, W. D., 1965, Suppression of the tuberculin response in malignant disease, Br. Med. J. 2: 1346–1348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Inokuchi, K., Inutsuka, S. Furusawa, M., Soejima, K., and Ikeda, T., 1967, Stromal reaction around tumor and metastasis and prognosis after curative gastrectomy for carcinoma of the stomach, Cancer 20: 1924–1929.Google Scholar
  57. Jacobs, J. B., Edelstein, L. M., Snyder, L. M., and Fortier, N., 1975, Ultrastructural evidence for destruction in the halo nevus, Cancer Res. 35: 352–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kirchner, H. T. M., Chused, T. M., Herberman, R. B., Holden, H. T., and Laurin, D. H., 1974, Evidence of suppressor cell activity in spleens of mice bearing primary tumors induced by Moloney sarcoma virus, J. Exp. Med. 139: 1473–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Koffler, D., Agnello, V., Thoburn, R., and Kunkel, H. G., 1971, Systemic lupus erythematosus: Prototype of immune complex nephritis in man, J. Exp. Med. 134: 169s - 179s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kronman, B. S., Shapiro, H. M., and Localio, S. A., 1972, Newer concepts of cancer of the colon and rectum: Delayed hypersensitivity responses of patients with carcinoma of the colon and other solid tumors, Dis. Col. Rect. 15: 106–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee, J. C., Yamauchi, H., and Hopper, J., 1966, The association of cancer and the nephrotic syndrome, Ann. Intern. Med. 64: 41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lejtenyi, M. C., Freedman, S. O., and Gold, P., 1971, Response of lymphocytes from patients with gastrointestinal cancer to the carcinoembryonic antigen of the human digestive system, Cancer 28: 115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lerner, A. B., 1971, On the etiology of vitiligo and gray hair, Am. J. Med. 51: 141–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lewis, M. G., and Copeman, P. W. M., 1972, Halo naevus: A frustrated malignant melanoma, Br. Med. J. 2: 47–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis, M. G., Loughridge, L. W., and Phillips, T. M., 1971, Immunological studies in nephrotic syndrome associated with extrarenal malignant disease, Lancet 2: 134–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loughridge, L. W., and Lewis, M. G., 1971, Nephrotic syndrome in malignant diseases of non-renal origin, Lancet 1: 256–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lynch, H. T., 1974, Familial cancer prevalence spanning eight years, Arch. Intern. Med. 134: 931938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MacCarty, W. C., 1922, Factors which influence longevity in carcinoma, Ann. Surg. 76: 9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mehlman, D. J., Bulkley, B. H., and Wiermk, P. H., 1971, Serum alpha-fetoglobulin with gastric and prostatic carcinomas, N. Eng. J. Med. 285: 1060–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mellors, R. C., Aoki, T., and Huebner, R., 1968, Further implication of murine leukemia-like virus in the disorders of NZB mice, J. Exp. Med. 129: 1045–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mikulska, Z. B., Smith, S., and Alexander, P., 1966, Evidence for an immunological reaction of the host directed against its own actively growing primary tumor, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 36: 2935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller, C. L., and Mishell, R. F., 1975, Differential regulatory effects of accessory cells in the generation of cell-mediated immune reactions, J. Immunol. 114: 692–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Monafo, W. W., Jr., Krause, G. L., Jr., and Medina, J. G., 1962, Carcinoma of the stomach: Morphological characteristics affecting survival, Arch. Surg. 85: 754–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morrison, A. S., Lowe, C. R., MacMahon, B., Yuasa, S., and Warram, J. H., 1972, Survival of breast cancer patients related to incidence risk factors, Int. J. Cancer 9: 470–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morrison, A. S., Black, M. M., Lowe, C. R., MacMahon, B., and Yuasa, S., 1973, Some interna- tional differences in histology and survival in breast cancer, Int. J. Cancer 11: 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murgita, R. A., and Tomasi, Jr., T. B., 1975, Suppression of the immune response by alphafetoprotein. II. The effect of mouse alpha-fetoprotein on mixed lymphocyte reactivity and mitogen induced lymphocyte transformation, J. Exp. Med. 141: 440–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nairn, R. C., Nind, A. P. P., Guli, E. P. G., Davies, D. H., Rolland, J. M., McGiven, A. R., and Hughes, E. S. R., 1971, Immunological reactivity in patients with carcinoma of the colon, Br. Med. J. 4: 706–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oort, J., and Turk, J. L., 1965, A histological and autoradiographic study of lymph nodes during the development of contact sensitivity in the guinea pig, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 46: 147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Oppenheim, J. J., Wang, T., and Frei, E., 1965, The effect of skin homograft rejection on recipient and donor mixed leukocyte cultures, J. Exp. Med. 122: 651–654.Google Scholar
  80. Parrott, D. M. V., 1967, The response of draining lymph nodes to immunological stimulation in intact and thymectomized animals, Symp. Tissue Org. Transpl. Suppl. J. Clin. Pathol. 20: 456465.Google Scholar
  81. Patt, D. J., Brynes, R. K., Vardiman, J. W., and Coppelson, L. W., 1975, Mesocolic lymph node histology is an important prognostic indicator for patients with carcinoma of the sigmoid colon: An immunomorphologic study, Cancer 35: 1388–1397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pick, E., and Turk, J. L., 1972, The biological activities of soluble lymphocyte products, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 10: 1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pihl, E., Hughes, E. S. R., Nind, A. P. P., and Nairn, R. C., 1975, Colonic carinoma: Clinocopathological correlation with immunoreactivity, Br. Med. J. 3: 742–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pope, B. L., Whitney, R. B., Levy, J. G., and Kilburn, D. G., 1976, Suppressor cells in the spleens of tumor-bearing mice: Enrichment by centrifugation on hypaque-ficoll and characterixation of the suppressor population, J. Immunol. 116: 1342–1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rode, H. N., and Gordon, J., 1974, Macrophages in the mixed leukocyte culture reaction (MLC), Cell. Immunol. 13: 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schultz, R. M., Woods, W. A., and Chirigos, M. A., 1975, Detection in colorectal carcinoma patients of antibody cytotoxic to established cell strains derived from carcinoma of the human colon and rectum, Int. J. Cancer 16: 16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Scothorne, R. J., and McGregor, I. A., 1955, Cellular changes in lymph nodes and spleen following skin homografting in the rabbit, J. Anat. 89: 283–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Segall, A., Weiler, O., Genin, J., Lacour, J., and Lacour, F., 1972, In vitro study of cellular immunity against autochthonous human cancer, Int. J. Cancer 9: 417–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sherman, R. L., Susin, M., Weksler, M. E., and Becker, E. L., 1972, Lipoid nephrosis in Hodgkin’s disease, Am. J. Med. 52: 699–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sjögren, H. O., Hellströ I., Bansal, S. C., Warner, G. A., and Hellströ K. E., 1972, Elution of “blocking factors” from human tumors capable of abrogating tumor cell destruction by specifically immune lymphocytes, Int. J. Cancer 9: 274–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Soborg, M., 1967, In vitro detection of cellular hypersensitivity in man: Specific migration inhibi- tion of white blood cells from brucella-positive persons, Acta Med. Scand. 182: 167–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Straus, E., Vernace, S., Janowitz, H., and Paronetto, F., 1975, Migration of peripheral leukocytes in the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen: Studies in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine and carcinoma of the colon and pancreas, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 148: 494–497.Google Scholar
  93. Steiner, P. E., Maimon, S. N., Palmer, W. L., and Kirsner, J. B., 1948, Gastric cancer: Morphologic factors in 5-year survival after gastrectomy, Am. J. Pathol. 24: 947–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Stewart, T. H. M., 1969, The presence of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in patients toward cellular extracts of their malignant tumors, Cancer 23: 1368–1379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Takahashi, K., 1961, Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Stromal inflammatory cell infiltration as a prognostic factor, Cancer 14: 921–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Todaro, G. J., and Aaronson, S. A., 1969, Properties of clonal lines of murine sarcoma virus transformed Balb/3T3 cells, Virology 38: 174–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tsakraklides, V., Anastassiades, O. T., and Kersey, J. H., 1973, Prognostic significance of regional lymph node histology in uterine cervical cancer, Cancer 31: 860–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsakraklides, V., Olson, P., Kersey, J. H., and Good, R. A., 1974, Prognostic significance of regional lymph node histology in cancer of the breast, Cancer 34: 1259–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tsakraklides, V., Wanebo, H. J., Sternberg, S. S., Stearns, M., and Good, R. A., 1975, Prognostic evaluation of regional lymph node morphology in colorectal cancer, Am. J. Surg. 129: 174–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Twomey, J. J., 1974, Abnormalities in the mixed leukocyte reaction during infectious mononucleosis, J. Immunol. 112: 2278–2281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Twomey, J. J., and Sharkey, 0., 1972, An adaptation of the mixed leukocyte culture test for use in evaluating lymphocyte and macrophage function, J. Immunol. 108: 984–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Twomey, J. J., Sharkey, O., Jr., Brown, J. A., Laughter, A. H., and Jordan, P. H., Jr., 1970, Cellular requirements for the mitotic response in allogeneic mixed leukocyte cultures, J. Immunol. 104: 845–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Underwood, J. C. E., 1974, Lymphoreticular infiltration in human tumours: Prognostic and biological implications: A review, Br. J. Cancer 30: 538–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wagner, H., 1972, The correlation between the proliferation and cytotoxic responses of mouse lymphocytes to allogeneic cells in vitro, J. Immunol. 109: 630–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang, M., 1968, Delayed hypersensitivity to extracts from primary sarcomata in the autochthonous host, Int. J. Cancer 3: 483–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wartman, W. B., 1959, Sinus cell hyperplasia of lymph nodes regional to adenocarcinoma of the breast and colon, Br. J. Cancer 13: 389–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wolberg, W. H., and Goelzer, M. L., 1971, In vitro assay of cell mediated immunity in human cancer: Definition of leukocyte migration inhibitory factor, Nature (London) 229: 632–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yoon, I. L., 1959, The eosinophil and gastrointestinal carcinoma, Am. J. Surg. 97: 195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zöller, M., Price, M. R., and Baldwin, R. W., 1976, Inhibition of cell-mediated cytotoxicity to chemically induced rat tumours by soluble tumour and embryo cell extracts, Int. J. Cancer 17: 129–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Brent, L., Brown, J., and Medawar, P. B., 1958, Skin transplantation immunity in relation to hypersensitivity, Lancet 2: 561–564.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman T. Berlinger
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research AssociateMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Fellow, Clinical Immunology ServiceMemorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied DiseasesNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations