Lasers are unique with respect to the properties of high intensity and directivity. In addition lasers are an outstanding monochromatic light source. Unlike to classical light sources, laser can oscillate in a single spectral and spatial mode. It is quite natural to ask, whether the monochromaticity of a laser in single mode is unlimited or not. Of course it is not, considering the validity of the uncertainty principle, but there remain the questions about the processes responsible for a finite spectral line-width and about the amount of the residual broadening.


Pump Power Tuning Range Laser Surgery Path Difference Poynting Vector 


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Section 1

  1. 1.
    H.W.Schröder, H.Welling and B.Wellegehausen, Appl. Phys., 1, 343 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.K.Runge and R.Rosenberg, Ieee J. Quantum Electron, QE-8, 910 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.Wellegehausen, H.Welling and R.Beigang, Appl. Phys., 3, 387 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.E.Grove, F.Y.Wu, L.A.Hackel, D.G.Youmans and S.Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett., 23, 442 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H.Haken in Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. XXV/2c, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.D.Hemstead and M.Lax, Phys. Rev., 161 360 (1967).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.E.Siegman and R.Arrathoon, Phys. Rev. Lett., 20, 901 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.Arrathoon and A.E.Siegman, J. Appl. Phys., 40, 910 (1969). E.D.Hinkley and C.Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett., 23, 277 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.R.Manes and A.E.Siegman, Phys. Rev., A4, 373 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.Gerhardt, H.Welling and A.Güttner, Z. Physik, 253, 113 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.Grossmann and H.Richter, Z. Physik, 242 458 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.Güttner, K.H.Gericke, W.Seifert and H.Welling, to be published.Google Scholar

Section 2

  1. 1.
    M.J.Colles and C.R.Pidgeou, Report on Progress in Physics, Vol. 38, March 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.Kuhl and W.Schmidt, Appl. Phys., 3, 251 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W.Lahmann, K.Tibulski and H.Welling, Optics Comm., 17, 18 (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.Frölich, L.Stein, H.W.Schröder and H.Welling, App. Phys., 11, 97 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.Wellegehausen, D.Friede, H.Vogt and S.Shadin, Appl. Phys., to be published Nov. 1976.Google Scholar

Section 3

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    B.Grotelüschen, Laser in der operation Medizin, inaugural dissertation, Hannover 1974.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.Karbe et al, Experimental Surgery with NeodymiumGoogle Scholar
  3. Holmium, CO and CO Lasers, talk of E.Karbe at 1st Sympo-sium on Laser Surgery, 5/6 Nov. 1975, in: Laser Surgery, Ed. I.Kaplan, Jerusalem Press (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    F.Mullins, B.Jennings and L.Mc Clusky, Liver Resection with the Continuous Wave Carbon Dioxide Laser, The American Surgeon, 34, No. 10 (1968).Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    B.Grotelüschen, J.Buchholz and V.Bödecker, Leberteilresektionen mit einem Nd-YAG-Laser im Großtierversuch, Biomedizinische Technik 21, Nov. 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    J.Buchholz and H.Welling, Thermal Damage of Tissue Caused by Cutting with Laser Beam, talk of J. Buchholz, 5–9th July 1976, Lasers in Medicine and Biology, Gordon Research Conference, Meriden, N.H. USA.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    V.Bödecker, J.Buchholz, K.H.Drake and B.Grotelüschen, Influence of Thermal Effects on the Width of Necrotic Zones During Cutting and Coagulating with Laser Beams, talk of J. Buchholz at 1st Symposium on Laser Surgery, Tel Aviv 5/6 Nov. 1975, in: Laser Surgery, Ed. I.Kaplan Jerusalem Press (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    B.Grotelüschen, H.Reilmann, V.Bödecker and J.Buchholz, A High Power Nd-YAG-Laser (cw and Q-Switch) as a Cutting Tool in Experimental Surgery, talk of H.Reilmann at 1st Symposium on Laser Surgery 5/6 Nov. 1975 in: Laser Surgery, Ed. I.Kaplan, Jerusalem Press (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Welling
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Applied PhysicsTechnical University of HannoverGermany

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