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Needs in Alloy Design for Nuclear Applications

  • A. L. Bement
Part of the Battelle Institute Materials Science Colloquia book series (volume 31)

Abstract

In developing reactor-core alloys for current light-water-reactor systems, which operate at relatively low temperatures, primary consideration has been given to compatibility with the coolant environment, nuclear economy, reasonable strength at the operating temperature, and fabricability to both exacting product specifications and quality control standards. These criteria alone, however, have narrowly limited the choice of candidate alloy systems. Furthermore, thermal stability of the alloy system has not been a serious problem for these reactors, and it has been generally possible to design around radiation-induced changes in properties.

In advanced reactor systems, the alloy design requirements are more stringent because of higher operating temperatures; higher thermal cycles during off-normal reactor operation and shutdown; reduced compatibilities with coolants, fuel, and fission products; higher surface-to-volume ratios; and thinner sections for heat-transfer surfaces. Radiation-induced creep, growth, volume swelling, embrittlement, and atomic interchanges require special attention in the design analysis for these reactor systems.

For most alloys in metastable equilibrium, the thermodynamic relationships are often complex. Neutron radiation can affect alloy reactions through (1) destruction of order, (2) breakup of precipitates, (3) enhanced irradiation, (4) enhanced diffusion, and (5) retarded diffusion. Most efforts to date in alloy development to counter these effects have involved relatively modest changes in the composition, melt practice (residual element control), or thermal-mechanical treatments of commercially available alloys developed for other applications. However, new understandings of alloy behavior in neutron environments show promise of guiding the development of improved alloys which will have reduced susceptibilities to undesirable radiation effects.

Keywords

Austenitic Stainless Steel Radiation Creep Nuclear Application Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Vacancy Supersaturation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Bement
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA

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