Possible “New” Quantum Systems — A Review
The current status of the theory of the possible “new” quantum systems, helium-six and spin-aligned hydrogen, is given. Results of ground-state calculations are combined with finite temperature experimental data to give an over-all view of quantum systems which obey both Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. An essential feature of this work is the use of the quantum theorem of corresponding states, which allows one to treat the quantum parameter η = η2/mεσ2 as a “Conceptual” thermodynamic variable. In this context, the liquid-to-crystal and liquid-to-gas transitions are discussed for quantum systems and shown to be affected profoundly by the statistics. Further, the construction of the phase diagram for 6He and 6He-4He mixtures is reviewed and the possibility of detecting superfluid 6He is discussed. Finally, the predicted properties of spin-aligned hydrogen are reviewed and a brief discussion of the experimental problem of preparing it is given.
KeywordsQuantum System Quantum Parameter Fermi System Bose System Nuclear Spin State
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