Advertisement

Abstract

Fractures of vertebrae are often compared to compressive damage of the cranial bones. In 1752 Heister recommended laminectomy on the spinal column to decompress the spinal cord, in analogy to trepanation in treatment of injuries of the skull. In 1762 A. Louis performed successful surgery on the spinal column consisting in removal of bone fragments from a shot wound. The first laminectomy, attributed to R. Cline, had fatal outcome, as did similar operations by American and English surgeons. In 1829 Alban G. Smith (of Danville, Kentucky) performed the first successful operation followed by partial recovery from paralysis [83], [108], and similar results were subsequently reported by Maydl in 1882, Chipault in 1890, Lauenstein in 1888 and Dawborn in 1889 [116]. In a statistical series of 31 spinal operations published by Carl Wagner in 1879, only 6 patients survived, and none manifested neurologic improvement [108]. Successful decompression of the spinal cord was attributed to Sir Victor Horsley, who operated on a patient with a tumor of the spinal cord which had been localized and diagnosed before operation by Gowers. The first attempts to stabilize the spinal column were made by Hadra, Chipault , Wilkins, Lange and Henle, using metal wire, silver plates and celluloid [68], [108], [116], [135]–[137]. Lauenstein, Dawborn and Maydl used silk thread on the spinous processes. In 1945 Novak of Brno devised a method of stabilizing the spine by means of a wire loop (‘cerclage’) [10], [135], [136], [207]. Operative stabilization of the spinal column with wire loops in paraplegics greatly facilitates nursing of these patients and allows their earlier rehabilitation [207]. The method had many advocates and was widely used in many surgical centers. Fixation of an unstable spinal column by means of wire loops can be done in all segments of the column, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar; they may be associated with bone grafting. However, the follow-up is relatively disappointing because mechanical stabilization may result in secondary displacement; wire, being subject to the laws of fatigue of metals, often breaks. Too tight application of the wire loops may cause necrosis of the spinous processes. Nevertheless, the method won the approval of many Czech, Polish and French surgeons and was widely used in the 1960s [109], [135], [136].

Keywords

Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Nerve Root Spinal Canal Spinal Column 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Acosta-Rua, G. J., Perret, G. E. (1969) Local hypothermia: treatment of paraplegia secondary to spinal cord injuries. Prensa Med. Argent., 56, 1428–1429.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Adhins, E. W. O. (1965) Arthrodesis after laminectomy. J. Bone J. Suing., 37B, 208–223.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Albin, M. S., White, R. J., Yashon, D., Harris, L. D. (1969) Effects of localized cooling on spinal trauma. J. Trauma, 9. 1000–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Alexander, M., Katznelson, B. S. (1969) Stabilization of the spine in traumatic paraplegia. Paraplegia, 7, 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Anchelevich, V. D. (1966) [Total and partial rehabilitation of patients following closed injury to the spine and spinal cord]. Ort. Tram. Prot., 27, 23–26 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Assemnacher, D. R., Ducker, T. B. (1971) Experimental traumatic paraplegia. The vascular and pathological changes seen in reversible and irreversible spinal-cord lesiions. J. Bone J Sarg. (AM). 53, 671–680.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Babichenkov, E. J. (1967) [Open reduction of fracture dislocations of the thoracic and lumbar portions of the spine with injury to the spinal cord]. Ort. Tram,. Prot., 28, 9–13 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Bagchi. A. K. (1969) Spinal cord injuries: the changing concepts. J. Indian Med. Ass., 52, 119–122.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Bartsch, W. (1962) Paraplégie par lesion d’origine vasculaire. Rev. Neurol., 106, 722–730.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Bauer, J., Brandenbur, O. (1965) Acta Chir. Ortop. Traum. Czech., V, 32, 79–84.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Bazilevskaya, Z. V. (1970) [Clinical aspects and therapy of ligamental injuries of the spine and spinal cord]. Ort. l’racm. Prot., 31, 16–19 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Bazilevskaya, Z. V. (1966) [Indications and contraindications for laminectomy in spine and spinal cord injuries]. veste. Khir. Grekov, 96, 112–116 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Bedbrook, G. M. (1971) Stability of spinal fractures and fracture dislocations. Paraplegia, 9, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Bick, E. M., (1964) An essay on the history of spine fusion operations. Clinical orthopedics and related research. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 35, 9–13.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Blikara, G., Ringkjob, R. (1969) Fractures of spine with lesions of the spinal cord. Nord. Med., Feb. 13, 207–210.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Brooker. J. E. W. (1966) Die Wirbelsäulenleiden und ihre Differentialdiagnose. G. Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Burke, D. C. (1971) Spinal cord trauma in children. Paraplegia, 9, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Burke, M. H., Hicks, A. F., Rebius, M., Kasler, H. (1960) Survival of patients with injuries of the spinal cord. JAMA, 172, 121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Calandruccio, R. A., Benton, B. E. (1964) Anterior lumbar fusion. Clinical orthopedics and related research. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 35, 63–68.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Cantu, R. C. (1971) Value of myelography in thoracic spinal cord injuries. Int. Surg., 56, 23–26.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Cauwenberghe von, R. (1958) La paraplégie par traumatisme fermé de la colonne dorso-lombaire. Acta Orthop. Belg., 24, 217–223.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Cibeira, J. B. (1970) Some conclusions on a study of 365 patients with spinal cord lesions. Paraplegia, 7, 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Chrostowska, T., Kiwerski, J., Michalowska, B., Makowski, J. (1972) [Results of treatment of the lower part of the spinal column]. Chir. Nam. Ruchu Ortop. Pol.,37, 647–649, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Cloward, R. B. (1952) The treatment of ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs by vertebral-body fusion. Method of use banked bone. Ann. Surg., 136, 987–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Constantiovici, A. (1970) [Principles of therapy in a rehabilitation service for medullary patients]. Neurologia (Bucur.), 15, 272–277 (in Rumanian).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Comarr, A. E., (1959) Laminectomy in patients with injuries of the spinal cord. J. Intern. Coll. Surgeons, 31, 437–442.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Comarr, A. E., Kaufman, A. A., (1956) A survey of the nuerological results of 858 spinal cord injuries. A comparison of patients treated with and without laminectomy. J. Neurosurg., 13, 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28]
    Corbin, J. L. (1961) Recherches anatomique sur la vascularization arterielle de la moelle. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Covalt, D. A., Cooper, I. S., Hoen, T. I., Rusk, H.A. (1953) Early management of patients with spinal cord injury. JAMA, 151, 89–94.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Crenshaw, A. H. (1964) Traité de chirurgie orthopédique de la clinique Campbell. Maloine, Paris.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Davis, A. G. (1943) New aspects of spinal injuries. Arch. Surg., 46, 619–634.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Decolux, R., Soulier, A., Waghemacer, R. (1955) Paraplegie traumatique laminectomic en Wilson, Lille Chir., 10. 245–252.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Decolux, R, Rieunau, G. (1958) Les fractures du rachis dorsolumbaire sans troubles nerveux. Rapport du XXXIII Congrès de la société Française d’Ortopedie. Rev. Chir. Ortop., 44, 254–328.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Dejerine, J. (1914) Sémiologie des affections du système nerveux. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Demian, Y. K., White, R. J., Yashon, D., Kretchmar, H. E. (1971) Anaesthesia for laminectomy and localized cord cooling in acute cervical spine injury. Report of three cases. Brit. J. Anaesth., 43, 973–979.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Dick, I. L. (1953) The treatment of traumatic paraplegia in fractures of the lumbodorsal spine. Edinburgh Med. J. 60, 249–264.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Djindjan, R. (1970) L’angiographie de la moelle épinière, p. 1–26. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Donaghy, R. M. (1972) Neurologic surgery. Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 134, 269–270.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Dreyer, J., Walcher, K. (1967) Beitrag zu den Operationen nach Wirbelsäulenverletzungen. Arch. für Ortop. und UnfallChir., 62, 1, 44–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Dreyer, J., Georgi, P. (1972) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Skelett-Szintigraphie für die Orthopädie. Aktuelle Orthopadie, 4, 21–52.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Ducker, T. B., Hamit, H. F. (1969) Experimental treatments of acute spinal cord injury. J. Neurosurg., 30, 693–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Ducker, T. B., Kindt, G. W., Kempf, L. G. (1971) Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J. Neurosurg., 35, 700–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Elsberg, C. A. (1928) Fractures of spine and their treatment. Amount of disability. Indications for and results of operative interferences. Dept. of Labor, Bureau Labor Statistics, Washington.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Erkki, K. (1963) Injuries of the thoraco-lumbar spine with paraplegia. Acta Orthop. Scand., Suppl. No. 60, 1–41.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Fang, H. S. Y., Ong, G. B. (1964) Anterior spinal fusion: the operative approaches. Clinical and Related Research. J. B. Lippincott, Philàdelphia, 35, 9–13.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Favre, R. (1956) La place de la graffe vertébrale précose dans le traitment des fractures dorsolombaires récentes du rachis. Méms. Acad. Chir., 82, 58–62.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Fischer, H. (1970) Accidental injuries of the spinal cord and their sequelae. Review of the literature.Z. Allgemein. med., 46, 1080–1084.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Fleiss, A. N., Ingram, H. (1943) Cord compressing lesions with normal queckenstedt sign. J. Amer. Med. Ass., 123, 759–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Foltez, E. L. (1970) Neurologic surgery. Sing. Gynec. Obstet., 130, 301–302.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Fontaine, R. (1952) Le traitment des paraplégies traumatique. Rev. Neurol., 86, 416.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Frankel, H. L. (1969) Ascending cord lesion in the early stages following spinal injury. Paraplegia, 7, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Freeman, L. W. (1954) Injuries of the cord. Surg. Clin. N. Amer., 34, 1131–1146Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Freeman, L. W. (1949) Treatment of paraplegia resulting from trauma to the spinal cord. JAMA, 140, 949–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Frowein, R. A. (1969) Therapy of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Bibi Psychiatr. Neurol., 139, 649–677.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Geisler, W. O., Wynne-Jones, M. (1966) Early management of the patient with trauma to the spinal cord. Medical Services Journal, Canada, XXII, 7, 512–523.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Gergour, G. W, Wener, L., Di Chivo, G. (1972) Selective arteriography of the spinal cord in posttraumatic paraplegia. Neurology (Minneap.), 22, 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Gradisching, R. F. L., Jenker, H. (1967) Zur Frühlaminektomia bei traumatischer Quersschnittslas. Arch. für Ortop. und Unfall-Chir., 61, 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Gromov. A. P., Pyrlina, N. P., Antufev, I. I., Korzheniants, V. A., Buguslayskaya, T. B. (1970) [Modeling vertebral injuries during measured dynamic loads]. Sud. Med. Ekspert., 13, 6–12 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Gruca, A. (1966) Orthopedic Surgery. Vol. 2, pp. 222–225. PZWL, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Guillaume, J., Mazars, G., Janny, P. (1952) Remarques générales sur indications opératoires dans les paraplégies traumatique. Rev. Neurol., 86, 511–513.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Guillaume, J., Janny, P. (1955) A propos du traitement chirurgical des paraplégies traumatiques graves et récents. Press Med., 61, 1135.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Guttmann, L. (1964) Rehabilitation after injuries to the spinal cord and cauda equina. Brit. J. Physical Med., 9, 130–162.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Guttmann, L. (1946) Discussion on the treatment and prognosis of traumatic paraplegia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 40, 219–225.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Guttmann, L. (1953) Brit. Medical History of World War II, pp. 422–516. HM Stationary Office, London.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Guttmann, L. (1954) Initial treatment of traumatic paraplegia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 47, 1103–1109.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Guttmann, L. (1969) Spinal deformities in traumatic paraplegics and tetraplegics following surgical procedures. Paraplegia, 7, 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Guzman, H. (1968) Injuries of the nervous system. IV. Injuries of the spine and medulla. Gac. pled. Mex., 98, 1523–1526.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Hadra, B. E. (1891) Wiring of the vertebrae as a means of immobilization in fracture and Pott’s disease. Trans. Texas Med. Ass., 22–66.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Hardy, A. G. (1971) Surgery of trauma. II. The immediate management of paraplegia. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Edin., 48, 14.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Harmon, P. H. (1963) Anterior excision and vertebral body fusion operation for intervertebral disc syndromes of the lower lumbar spine. Three-to five-year results in 244 cases. Clin. Orthop., 26, 107–127.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Harris, P. (1963) Proc. Symnp. Spinal Injuries, p. 105. R. Coll. Sarg. Edin.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Harris, P. (1967) The diagnosis and early treatment of patients with spinal cord injury. Proc. Ann. Clin. Spinal Coati Inj. Conf., 16, 14–18.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Harris, P. (1967) The diagnosis and early treatment of patients with spinal cord injury. Proc. Ann. Clin Spina Cord Inj. Conf., 17, 14–18.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Harris, P. (1967) A spinal cord injury service. Proc. Ann. Clin. Spinal Cord Inj. Cont., 16, 50–53.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Harris, P., Whatmore, W. J. (1969) Spinal deformity after spinal cord injury. Paraplegia, 6, 232–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Haynes, W. G. (1946) Acute war wounds of the spinal cord. Analysis of 184 cases. Amer. J. Surg., 72, 424–433.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Heglestem, L. (1955) Late laminectomy in traumatic paraplegia. Acta Chir. Scand., 110, 210–226.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Heilporn, A., Noel, G. (1968) Reflections on the consciousness of disability and somatognosis in cases of acute spinal injuries. Paraplegia, 6, 122–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Heinz, E. R., Goldman, R. L. (1972) The role of gas myelography in neuroradiologie diagnosis Comments on a new and simple technique. Radiology, 102, 269–234.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Hirtzman, C. (1963) Prognostique neurologique des paraplégies par fractures et fractures luxation de la colonne dorsale et lombaire. Ann. Med. Phys., 6, 219–225.Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Holdsworth, F. W., Harday, A. C. (1953) Early treatment of paraplegia from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 35B, 540–550.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Holdsworth, F. W. (1963) Fractures, dislocations and fracture dislocations of the spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 45B, 6–20.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Howorth Beckett, M., Gordon, P. J. (1964) Injuries of the Spine, p. 343. The Williams Wilkins Comp., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Hudec, J., Steiner, P., Huraj, E., Kolektiv, A. (1970) [Traumatic Surgery], p. 2. Vydavatelstvo Osveta (in Czech).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Humpries, A. W., Hawk, W. A., Bernidt, A. L. (1961) Anterior interbody fusion of lumbar vertebrae: A surgical technique. Surg. Clin. North America, 41, 1685–1700Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Jacobson, S A., Bors, E. (1970) Spinal cord injury in Vietnamese combat. Paraplegia, 7, 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Jacson, R. W. (Harrington) (1966) Correction of spinal curvature in paraplegics by the method of Harrington fusion. Medical Services Journal, Canada, XXII, 7, 486–487.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    James, A., Nisbet, N. W. (1953) Posterior intervertebral fusion of the lumbar spine: Preliminary report of a new operation. J. Bone J. Surg., 35B, 181–187.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Jenzer, G. (1968) On the effect of surgical procedures on traumatic transverse lesions. Results in 29 cases of transverse paralysis. Folia Clin. Int. Bare., 19, 686–700.Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Kazakevich, I. E. (1959) [Hospitalization and Treatment of Obturated Injuries of Spinal Cord]. Medgiz., Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Keim, H. A. (1971) Spinal stabilization following trauma. Clin. Orthop., 81, 53–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    Kelly. P. L., Lassiter, J. R., Vongevirut, A., Smith, J. M. (1972) Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation and oxygen studies in experimental paraplegia. J. Neurosurg., 36, 425–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    Kerr, A. S. (1971) The immediate management of paraplegia. Neurological assessment. Ann. R. Coll. Engl., 48, 20–21.Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Key, A. G., Retief, P. J. (1970) Spinal cord injuries. An analysis of 300 new lesions. Paraplegia, 7, 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Kimura, M., Shibata, S., Tozawa, K. (1969) Various types of orthopedic surgery in spinal cord injury. Orthop. Surg., Tokyo, 20, 520–531.Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Kiwerski, J., Makowski, J., Chrostowska, T., Michalowska, B. (1973) [Causes and mechanisms of traumatic lesion of the lower part of the spinal column]. Chir. Nerz. Rucha Ortop. Pol., 38 122–125, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Klemperer, W. W. (1959) Spinal cord injuries in World War II. Operative findings and results in 201 patients. U.S. Armed Forces Med. J., 10, 701–714.Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Langer, F. (1971) Myelographic demonstration of lumbar root avulsions. Fortschr. Geb. Roentgenstr. Nuklearmed., 114. 566–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    Landau, B., Campbell, J. B., Ronshoff, J. (1966) Surgical reversal of the effects of long-standing traumatic lesions of the tonus medullaris and cauda equina. Proc. Ann. Clin. Spinal Cord Inj. Conf., 16, 27–33.Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Lane, J. D. Jr., Moore, E. S. Jr., (1948) Transperitoneal approach to intervertebral disc in the lumbar area. Ann. Surg., 127, 537–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Lanos, P., Weber, R. (1963) Fractures du rachis dorso-lumbaire, Rev. Pract., 13, 1551–1571.Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Lapidus, A. E. (1966) Treatment of spinal fracture with associated spinal cord injury. Veste. Khir. Grekov, 97, 105–110 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Lass, F. M. (1962) [Isotopic Myelography]. Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Lauseburg, G. (1970) Acute measures in spinal column injuries with and without spinal cord involvement. Langebecks Arch. Klin. Ch., 327, 981–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Lazorthes, G., Sougust, R., Anduze, H. (1952) Statistique sur 43 cas de traumatismes vertébromédullaires. Rev, Neurol., 86, 515–156.Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Lehtinen, W. (1955) Fractures and dislocations of vertebral spine, treatment and results. Ann. Chir. Gynec. Fenn. Supp. 1, 44.Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Lab, A. (1954) Die Wirbelsäulenverletzungen und ihre Ausheillung, p. 52. Georg Thieme. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Lossen, H. (1900) Lecture on Detailed Surgery,pp. 544–547. E. Wende edition.Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Lukasik, S. (1956) [Fractures and dislocations of spinal cord with paresis]. Chir. Narz. Ruchu Ortop. Pol.,21,623–668 Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    MacLean, A. J. (1935) Fractures of vertebrae with spinal cord lesions, indications for laminectomy. Northwest Med. 34, 84–89.Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Magnus, G. (1929) Die Behandlung und Begutachtung von Wirbelbrüchen. Munchen Med. Wchnsch., 76, 527–530.Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Magnus, G. (1938) Zur Behandlung der Wirbelbrüche. Langebeck Arch. Klin. Ch., 547–556.Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Makowski, J. (1971) [Values of double posterior alloplasty in rehabilitation of paraplegics]. Dissertation for Doctor’s Degree, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Makowski, J., Kiwerski, J., Chrostowska, T. (1972) [Long-time results of dynamic spondylodesis in management of spinal cord fractures with paresis]. Pamigtnik XIX Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Tow. Ortop. i raumatologicznego,Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Malawski, J. (1966) [Influence of Early and Late Lightening of Spinal Cord on Possibilities of Its Functional Compensation]. PAN, PZWL Edition, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Malgaine, I. E. (1855) Traités des fractures et des luxations. Vol. I: Des fractures, Vol. II: Des luxations. Paris.Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    Meierovsky, A. M. (1965) Neurological Surgery of Trauma. Office of the Surgeon General Department of the Army, Washington.Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Michel, J. C. (1959) Traitement précoce des complications médulaires des traumatismes rachidièns fermés. A propos 122 observations. Thèse 142. Faculté de Médicine et de Pharmacie de l’Université de Lyon.Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Mizuno, S. (1968) Operative technic for spinal cord injuries. Orthop. Surg. (Tokyo), 19, 437–444.Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Mizuno, S. (1969) Spinal dislocation-fracture and spinal cord injuries. Orthop. Surg. (Tokyo), 20, 515–519.Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    Mohoney, F. I. (1969) Rehabilitation of spinal cord injury patients. I. General Introduction. Maryland Med. J., 18. 113–116.Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Morgan, T. H., Wharton, G. W., Austin, G. N. (1971) The results of laminectomy in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia, 9, 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. [123]
    Moushovich, I. A. (1970) [Impairment of the spine stability after extended laminectomy]. Ort. Travm. Prot.. 6, 44–46 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    Munro, D. (1952) The Treatment of Injuries to the Nervous System. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Munro, D. (1943) Thoracic and lumbosacral cord injuries. A study of forty cases. JAMA, 122, 1055–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. [126]
    Munro, D. (1952) The treatment of injuries to the spinal cord and cauda equina. In: The Treatment of Injuries to the Nervous System. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    Meyer, P. (1966) Posterior dislocation of the L4 body accompanied by massive extrusion of the disc above and below. Proc. Ann. Clin. Spinal Cord Inj. Conf., 15, 89–90.Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Negrin, J. J. R. (1970) The hypothermostat. An instrument to obtain local hypothermia of the brain or spinal cord. I nt. Surg., 54, 93–106.Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Nicoll, E. A. (1946) Fractures of the dorso-lumbar spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 31B, 376.Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Nicoll, E. A. (1953) Injuries to the back. Brit. Med. J., No. 4815, pp. 879–880 and 928–929.Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    Nigst, H. (1972) Spezielle Fracturer, und Luxationslehre Band 1/2 Wirbelsaule Tetra-und Paraplegia. Bearbeitet von A. G. Hardy, E. Jonasch, A. Rossier. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    Nirnberg, K. G. (1965) [Analysis of Treatment of Patients with Lesions of Spinal Cord and Brain]. Medgiz., Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  133. [133]
    Nolan, R. T. (1969) Traumatic oedema of the spinal cord. Brit. Med. J., 1, 710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. [134]
    Norman, H., Harwitz, M. D., Hugo, V., Rizzolo, M. D. (1967) Postoperative Complications in Neurosurgical Practice. Baltimore.Google Scholar
  135. [135]
    Novak, V. (1952) [Inner fusion in spine injuries]. In: Sbornik prat VII Sjezdu SSR Chirurgickiej Spolecnosti,p. 694 Bratislava (in Czech).Google Scholar
  136. [136]
    Novak, V. (1965) [Operative stabilization of the spinal column in hyperextension]. In: Pamigtnik XI Zjazdu Pol. Tow. Ortop.,Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    Novak, V. (1956) [Alloplastic management of spine]. Acta Ortop. Traum. Cech., 23, 191–195 (in Czech).Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    Ollivier d’Angers, C. P. (1927) Traité de la moelle épinière et ses maladies. Vol. I, Paris.Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    Oplik, O. I., Orlov, V. K. (1965) [Experiences in treatment of spinal cord lesions and brain in national clinic. Trauma to spinal cord and brain]. Conference of neurosurgeons (1964), 3, 143–147, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    Orlovski, B. F., Khodov, A. M. (1970) [Operative treatment of closed uncomplicated spine fractures in the lower thoracic and lumbar sections]. Ort. Travm. Prot., 6, 6–7 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    Paollas, J. E., Bonnal, J. H. (1952) Résultats thérapeutiques dans une série opérative de 32 interventions pour traumatisme vértebromédullaire. Rev. Neurol., 87, 647–648.Google Scholar
  142. [142]
    Pfeifer, R. (1968) Ein nevies Verfahren der Behandlung fuscher Wirbelbrüche unter Anwendung eines Kunstharzes. Z. Orthop., 105, 122–123.Google Scholar
  143. [143]
    Pool. I. L. (1951) The Neurosurgical Treatment of Traumatic Paraplegia. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield Ill.Google Scholar
  144. [144]
    Pool. I. L. (1945) Gunshot wounds of the spine. Observations from an evacuation hospital. Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 81, 617–622.Google Scholar
  145. [145]
    Powiertowski, H., Leankowski, J. (1957) Neurosurgical treatment of fractures of the spine associated with cord injuries. Chir. Narz. Ruchu Ortop. Pol., 22, 373–376, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  146. [146]
    Ramikh, E. A. (1972) [Types of fractures of the vertebral bodies, clinico-roentgenographic characteristic]. Ort. Travm. Prot., 3, 27–37 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    Roaf, R. (1960) A study of the mechanics of spinal injuries. J. Bone J. Surg., 42B, 810–823.Google Scholar
  148. [148]
    Roaf, R. (1972) International classification of spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia, 10, 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. [149]
    Rostad, H., Solheim, K., Siewers, P., Lie, M. (1969) Fractures of the spine. Nord Med., 81, 211–215.Google Scholar
  150. [150]
    Römer, K. H. (1971) Spinal cord damage. Surgical interventions. Zentralbi. Chir. 93, 785–792.Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    Sacks, S. (1965) Anterior interbody fusion of the lumbar spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 47B, 211–223.Google Scholar
  152. [152]
    Sacks, S. (1970) Anterior interbody fusion of the lumbar spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 53B, 392–393.Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    Saegesser, M. (1953) Surgery, Vol. III, p. 44–67. PZWL edition, Warszawa (Syndr. Kümmel-Verneilo) (Polish translation from English ).Google Scholar
  154. [154]
    Schemeisser, G. J. R. (1970) Orthopedic aspects of spinal cord injuries. Maryland Med. J., 19, 95–99.Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    Schmorol, G., Junghans, J. (1968) Die gesunde und die Kranke Wirbelsäule in Röntgenbild und Klinik. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  156. [156]
    Schneider, R. C. (1962) Surgical indications and contrindications in spine and spinal cord trauma clinical neurosurgery. Congeress of Neuro-Surgeons, Chicago, March, 1960. The Williams Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  157. [157]
    Schueler, K. H., Pissarek, H. (1969) Experiences in the treatment of traumatic paraplegics. Beitr. Orthop. Traumatol. 16, 668–681.Google Scholar
  158. [158]
    Scott, M. (1968) Surgery of the spinal cord and spinal column. Progr. Neurol. Psychiat., 23, 371–380.Google Scholar
  159. [159]
    Scott, M. (1969) Surgery of the spinal cord and vertebra. Progr. Neurol. Psychiat., 24, 312–319.Google Scholar
  160. [160]
    Scott, M. (1970) Surgery of the spinal column and cord. Progr. Neurol. Psychiat., 25, 293–301.Google Scholar
  161. [161]
    Selker, R. G. (19 71) Icewater irrigation of the spinal cord. Surg. Forum., 22, 411–413.Google Scholar
  162. [162]
    Senger, A. (1956) [Operative stabilization in fractures of the spinal column by means of metal endo-orthoses]. Chic. Narz. Ruchu Ortop. l’ol., 21. 479–483, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  163. [163]
    Senger, A., Grybos, J. J., Jeske, W., Piechocki, K., Polkowski, L., Swiderski, G. (1957) [Importance of early operative stabilization in treatment of the spinal cord lesions with paralysis]. Chir. Narz. Ruchu Ortop. Pol., 22, 377–380, Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  164. [164]
    Shkolnikov, L. G., Selivanov, V. P., Nikitin, M. N. (1967) [Basic directions of unconservative treatment of latent uncomplicated paralysis of spinal cord]. Ortop. Travm. Prot., 28, 7, 3 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  165. [165]
    Sicard, A. Y., Lavarde, G. (1955) Les fractures isolé des apophyses articulaires lombaires. J. Chir., 71, 4692 (Paris).Google Scholar
  166. [166]
    Sicard, A. Y., Lavarde, G. (1968) Role of gas tomomyelography in spinal trauma. Acta Chir. Belg., 67, 898–905.Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    Sicard, A. Y., Lavarde, G. (1971) Is the early surgical treatment of traumatic tetraplegia and paraplegia justified ? J. Chir., 102, 7–20 (Paris).Google Scholar
  168. [168]
    Sicard, A. Y., Lavarde, G. (1971) The emergency treatment of the only chance for patients with spinal co injuries Bull. Acad. Nat. Med., 155, 452–456 (Paris).Google Scholar
  169. [169]
    Stanger, J. K. (1947) Fracture-dislocation of the thoracolumbar spine, with special reference to reduction by open and closed operation. J. Bone J. Surg., 29, 107–118.Google Scholar
  170. [170]
    Stejskal, L. K. (1967) Les fractures des vertébres D12–L1 accompagnées d’atteint de la moelle épinière. Les sens de l’intervention chirurgicale. Rev. Sém. Belges de Réad., 9 (2), 85–92.Google Scholar
  171. [171]
    Street, D. M. (1967) Traumatic paraplegia treated by vertebral resection. Excision of spinal cord lesion, suture of the spinal cord, and interbody fusion. Proc. Ann. Spinal Cord Inj. Conf., 16, 92–102.Google Scholar
  172. [172]
    Street, D. M. (1967) Traumatic paraplegia treated by vertebral resection. Excision of spinal cord lesion, suture of the spinal cord, and interbody fusion. Proc. Ann. Spinal Cord Inj. Conf., 17, 92–103.Google Scholar
  173. [173]
    Subbotin, A. V., Kovatenko, V. N., Apasova, N. A. (1970) [The clinical picture and differential diagnosis of spinal strokes].. Z. Xeuropatol. Psikhiatr., 70, 924–928 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  174. [174]
    McSweeney, T. (1971) Early management of paraplegia. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl., 48, 15–16.Google Scholar
  175. [175]
    Talbot, H. S. (1971) Spinal cord injury. Arch. Surg., 102, 539–540.Google Scholar
  176. [176]
    Tarlow, I. M. (1955) Spinal cord injuries early treatment. Surg. Clin. N. Amer., 35, 591–607.Google Scholar
  177. [177]
    Tarlow, I. M. (1957) Spinal Cord Compression. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  178. [178]
    Taylor, T. K, F. (1970) Anterior interbody fusion in the management of disorders of the lumbar spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 52B, 784.Google Scholar
  179. [179]
    Taylor, R. G. (1951) The mechanism of injury to spinal cord in the neck without damage to the vertebral column. J. Bone J. Surg., 33B, 543.Google Scholar
  180. [180]
    Tinkhurina, S. G., Ivanov, S. I. (1970) [Experience of the institute in the treatment of spinal fractures]. Ort. Travm. Prot., 6, 12–15 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  181. [181]
    Tisley, M. (1946) Compound injuries of the spinal cord. J. Neurosurg., 3, 306–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. [182]
    Truchet, P. (1950) Arthrodèse rachidienne suivant la technique de Wilson. Lyon Chir., 45, 575–582.Google Scholar
  183. [183]
    Tsivyan, I. L. (1966) [Surgery of the Spinal Column]. Meditsina, Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  184. [184]
    Tsivyan, I. L. (1972) [’Bursting’ fractures of the lumbar vertebral bodies]. Ort. Travm. Prot., 3, 21–24 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  185. [185]
    Tsivyan, I. L. (1971) Injuries to the Spinal Column, Meditsina, Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  186. [186]
    Tsyvkin, M. V., Grebeniuk, V. I. (1967) [Pneurnomyeolography in the diagnosis of injury to the spine and spinal cord]. Voenno-Medytsinski Zhurnal, 5, 63–65 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  187. [187]
    Ugryumov, B. M. (1957) [Current Problems of Surgical Management of the Spinal Cord Lesion]. Medgiz. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  188. [188]
    Ugryumov, B. M. (1961) [Injury to the Spine and Spinal Cord and their Surgical Management]. Medgiz. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  189. [189]
    Ugryumov, B. M. (1962) [Surgery of the Nervous Central System]. Vol. 2, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  190. [190]
    Ugryumov, B. M., Kruglyi, M. H. (1964) [Physical Exercises in Rehabilitation of Injuries to the Spinal Cord]. Medgiz. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  191. [191]
    Vladyka, V. (1971) Öesk. Neurol., 34, 315–324.Google Scholar
  192. [192]
    Vyborny, J., Poncarova, T. (1960) Acta Chir. Ortop. Trauma Cech., 27, 417–421.Google Scholar
  193. [193]
    Walsh, J. J. (1969) Notions pratiques sur la paraplégie, pp. 20 and 117. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  194. [194]
    Wannamaker, J. T. (1954) Spinal cord injuries. A review of the early treatment in 300 consecutive cases during the Korean conflict. J. Neurosurg., 11, 517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. [195]
    Watson—Jones R. (1949) Fracture of the spine. J. Bone J. Surg., 31B, 322.Google Scholar
  196. [196]
    Watson—Jones, R. (1957) Fractures and Joint Injuries. E.S. Livingstone, Edinburgh, London.Google Scholar
  197. [197]
    Weiss, M., Makowski, J., Kiwerski, J. (1972) [Compression spondylodesis]. X IX Zjazd Polskiego Tow. Ortop., Warszawa (in Polish).Google Scholar
  198. [198]
    Wertheimer, P., Sautot (1949) Réflexion sur statistique de chirurgie médullaire.Rev. Chir., 76, 321–322.Google Scholar
  199. [199]
    Wertheimer, P., Michel, J. C., (1961) A propos du traitement précoce des tetraplégies et paralysis traumatique. 63 Congrès Français de Chirurgie, 141–144. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  200. [200]
    Westerborn, A., Olsson, 0. (1951) Mechanics, treatment and prognosis of fractures of dorso-lumbrar spine. Acta Chir. Scand., 102, 59–83.Google Scholar
  201. [201]
    White, R. J., Albin, M. S., Harris, L. S., Yashon, D. (1969) Spinal cord injury: Sequential morphology and hypothermic stabilization. Surg. Forum, 20, 432, 434.Google Scholar
  202. [202]
    Wilson, P. D., Straub, L. R., (1947) Operative inidications in trauma to low back. Amer. J. Surg., 74, 270–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. [203]
    Wilson, C. B. (1971) Neurologic surgery. Surg. Gynec.. Obstet., 132, 225–228.Google Scholar
  204. [204]
    Yamada, K. (1968) Therapy of spinal cord injuries. J. Jap. Orthop. Ass., 42, 1067–1077.Google Scholar
  205. [205]
    Yashon, D., Jane, J. A., White, R. J. (1970) Prognosis and management of spinal cord and cauda equina bullet injuries in sixty-five civilians. J. Neurosurg., 32, 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. [206]
    Yumashev, G. S., Ermov, A. P., Dimitrev, A. E., Dirlina, N. P. (1970) [Whiplash injuries of the cervical and upper thoracic spine in the experiment and clinic]. Ortop. Travm. Prot., 6, 1–5 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  207. [207]
    Zadik, F. R. (1959) Fracture-dislocation of thoraco-lumbar spine. A new method of internal fixation. J. Bone J. Sorg., 41B, 772–773.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janusz Makowski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations