Computer Enhanced Chemical Education: Any Computer Can be Used

  • George Brubaker


During my formative years as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry, I had heard a great deal about computers in Chemistry. Under the influence of Peter Lykos and Audrey Companion, OCPE, CONDUIT, NCECS, and later PLATO, became familiar names; I had also heard of Harrison Shull, Joe Lagowski, Al Lata, Ron Crain, Ron Collins and Stan Smith, among others. Yet, except for occasional contact at a professional meeting, I did not know these men, and I had not seen, first hand, examples of their work.


Methyl Orange Machine Configuration Silver Chromate Computer Assist Instruction Question Bank 
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References and Notes

  1. 1.
    Professor William Hayles ORGX Department of Chemistry Rochester Institute of Technology 1 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, N.Y. 14623 USAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange Chemistry Building 204 Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401 USAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    CONDUIT P.O. Box 388 Iowa City, Iowa 52240 USA Computers at Oregon State University, North Carolina Educational Computing Service, Dartmouth College, The University of Iowa and the University of Texas at Austin, organized to promote computer based instruction and computer based instructional materials in several disciplines.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    PLATO IV Computer Based Educational Research Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 USAGoogle Scholar
  5. A brief description of PLATO and the TICCIT system (below) appears in “The Chronicle of Higher Education”, April 26, 1976; see also “Educational Uses of the PLATO Computer System”, S.G. Smith and B.A. Sherwood, Science, 192, 344 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    TICCIT (Time Shared, Interactive, Computer Controlled Information Television.) John Volk The Mitre Corporation McLean, Virginia 22101 USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    North Carolina Educational Computing Service Box 12035 Research Triangle Part, North Carolina 27709 USAGoogle Scholar
  8. NCECS is a program division of the University of North Carolina serving 55 organizations through 96 terminals. The University of North Carolina is comprised of the State’s sixteen senior institutions, and NCECS, as a program division/occupies a position roughly parallel to Research and Public Service. NCECS publishes periodic newsletters, from which some of the data presented in this manuscript are drawn.Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    The eighth issue of PALS (1975) is available from NCECS for a small fee. These documents are a treasury of resources for chemical computations.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    Joseph Denk, NCECS Newsletter ADM-NL-31, May, 1975 page 3.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    Stephen K. Lower Department of Chemistry Simon Fraser University Burnaby B.C. Canada V5A 156Google Scholar
  12. I quote from a manuscript distributed by the author in early 1976.Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    “Selected Bibliography of Computer Programs in Chemical Education”, Warren T. Zemke, J. Chem. Educ., 52, 592 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 10a.
    “Chemistry with a Computer.”, Paul A. Cauchon, Educomp, Hartford, Connecticut, 1976. This little book was published while the present manuscript was in preparation, and contains Paul’s complete program libraryGoogle Scholar
  15. 11.
    “CMI: A System for Developing Computer Managed Instructional Systems, Volume I.” Thomas A. Egan Computer Science Center West Chester State College West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 12.
    “Computer-Enriched Modules for Computer Illiterates and Paupers”, Harold Weinstock Department of Physics Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois 60616 USAGoogle Scholar
  17. 13.
    “Chem TIPS: Individualized Instruction in Undergraduate Chemistry Courses” Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, J. Chem. Educ., 52, 588 (1975).Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    “On The Use of Item Banks” W. Van Willis Department of Chemistry California State University Fullerton Fullerton, California 92634 USA and Oliver Seely, Jr. California State College Dominquez Hills Carson, California 90747 USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Presented at the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, July 30 — August 3, 1974, at Pennsylvania State University. This paper and other material describing the SOCRATES system are available from the authors.Google Scholar
  20. 15.
    See, for example, “General Chemistry Examination Questions” K.J. Johnson & L.M. Epstein Burgess Publishing Company Minneapolis, Minnesota USA 1975 Additional material relating to computer generated examinations and other topics in chemical education is available from the authors at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 USA.Google Scholar
  21. 16.
    “Introduction to Computer Programming for Chemists: BASIC version.” C.L. Wilkins, C.E. Kloptenstein, T. Isenhour & P. Jurs, Allyn and Bacon, 1974. One of several similar little books containing numerous simple, but instructive, programs for chemists with access to computation in the BASIC language. “BASIC in Chemistry: A Self Instructional Computing Course” Graham Beech, Sigma Technical Press, Albrighton, West Midlands, England, 1976, offers an alternative course with the same objectives.Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    “Digital Electronics and Laboratory Computer Experiments”. C.L. Wilkins, S.P. Perone, C.E. Kloptenstein, R.C. Williams & D.E. Jones, Plenum, 1975. For this discussion, we are particularly interested in the RTB operating systems.Google Scholar
  23. 18.
    Project Solo University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 USAGoogle Scholar
  24. The project director is Thomas A. Dwyer; the project publishes periodic “Solo Works” newsletters, the most recent of which in my possession is number 33. Professor A. Dirkzwager, of the Phychologisch Research Laboratorium, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, has applied some similar techniques.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Brubaker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry IllinoisInstitute of TechnologyChicagoUSA

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