Non-Ambient Temperature Microscopy

  • Robert Z. Muggli
  • Walter C. McCrone


One of the authors has been quoted as saying that any industrial process can be duplicated under the microscope. To achieve this requires, among other things, wide ranges of controlled temperature, both below and above room temperature in the specimen area. Temperature itself should not be a problem, however, since objects from liquid helium temperatures (−268.6°C) to flame temperatures (about 4500°C) can be studied microscopically. Even high DC arc and spark temperatures are available but, especially with flames, arcs and sparks, temperature control and read-out become a problem.


Platinum Resistance Thermometer Bismuth Telluride Cold Stage Additional Cool Equilibrium Melting Point 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Z. Muggli
  • Walter C. McCrone
    • 1
  1. 1.McCrone AssociatesChicagoUSA

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