Measuring with the Optical Microscope

  • M. Nahmmacher


The microscope was conceived as an instrument for seeing small things larger, as the name implies. But I would think that it took only a few hours before the user of the first microscope asked the question, “How small is it”? And with this question, a metamorphosis of the microscope from scope to meter began.


Image Point Reading Accuracy Interference Microscopy Knoop Hardness Fringe Width 
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    S. Flugge, Encyclopedia of Physics, Volume XXIX, Optical Instruments, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1967.Google Scholar
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    Krug, Rienetz, Schulz, Contributions to interference Microscopy, Hilgar & Watts, Ltd., London.Google Scholar
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    Rinne-Berek, Anieitung zur allgemeinen und Polarisations-Mikroskopie der Festkorper im Durchlicht, E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    The Leitz Texture Analyzer System, Theoretical Bases and Technical Realization, Scientific and Technical Information, Supplement I, 4, April 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Nahmmacher
    • 1
  1. 1.E. Leitz, Inc.RockleighUSA

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