Advertisement

Functional Anatomy of the Mammalian Chemoreceptor System

  • P. P. C. Graziadei

Abstract

The sensation of smell, which is elicited when odorous substances contact the receptor membranes, is perceived by the animal as a unitary experience affecting his behavior in one of two ways: attraction or withdrawal. However, if we study the anatomical substrate to this unitary experience which gives rise to specific behavioral responses, we find that more than one channel of sensory input is involved. The olfactory nerve itself is but one of these several channels. Each of the systems involved in odor perception is morphologically distinct having both its own peripheral distribution and discrete central projection.

Keywords

Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Receptor Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Nerve Functional Anatomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alcock, N. (1910). The histology of the nasal mucous membrane of the pig. Anat. Rec. 4: 123–136.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, A.C. (1953). The morphology of the olfactory system in the vertebrates. Biol. Rev. 28:195–244.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, A.C. and Warwick, R., T. Turner (1949). Quantitative observations of the olfactory system of the rabbit. Brain 72:186–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Altner, H. and Müller, W. (1968). Eletrophysiologische und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an der Riechschleimhaut des Jacobonsches Organs von Eidechsen (Lacerta). Z. vergl. Physiol. 60:151–155.Google Scholar
  5. Andres, K.H. (1966). Der Feinbau der regio olfactoria von Makrosmatikern. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 69:140–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnstein, C. (1887). Die Methylenblaufärbung als histologische Methode. Anat. Anz. 2:125–135.Google Scholar
  7. Babuchin, A. (1872). Das Geruchsorgan. Sticker, Handb. Lehre den Geweben. 2:964–976.Google Scholar
  8. Balboni, G.C. (1965). Sull’ ultrastrutura della mucosa olfattiva in condizioni fisiologiche e sperimentali. Studi Sassaresi 1: 5–30.Google Scholar
  9. Ballowitz, E. (1904). Die Riechzellen des Flussneunauges. Arch. mik. Anat. 65:78–95.Google Scholar
  10. Balogh, (1860). Das Jakobsonsche Organ des Schafes. Sitzungsber. d. Akad. Wien, Mathem.-naturw. 42:449–532.Google Scholar
  11. Bannister, L.H. (1965). The fine structure of the olfactory surface of teleostean fishes. Quart. J. Micr. Sci. 106:333–342.Google Scholar
  12. Bedford, E.A. (1904). The early history of the olfactory nerve in swine. J. Comp. Neurol. 14:390–410.Google Scholar
  13. Bowden, H.H. (1901). A bibliography of the literature on the organ and sense of smell. J. Comp. Neurol: 11:1–11.Google Scholar
  14. Bojsen-Moller, F. (1975). Demonstration of terminalis, olfactory, trigeminal and perivascular nerves in the rat nasal septum. J. Comp. Neurol. 159:245–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Breipohl, W., Mestres, P., and Meller, K. (1973). Licht und Elektronmikroskopische Befunde zur Differenzierung des Riechepithels der weissen Maus. Verh. Anat. Ges. 67:443–449.Google Scholar
  16. Brookover, C. (1908). Pinkus’ nerve in Amia and Lepidosteus. Science 27:193–194.Google Scholar
  17. Brookover, C. (1910). The olfactory nerve, the nervus terminalis and the pre-optic sympathetic system in Amia calva L. J. Comp. Neurol. 29:49–118.Google Scholar
  18. Brookover, C. (1914a). The development of the olfactory nerve and its associated ganglion in Lepidosteus. J. Comp. Neurol. 24: 113–130.Google Scholar
  19. Brookover, C. (1914b). The nervus terminalis in adult man. J. Comp. Neurol. 24:131–135.Google Scholar
  20. Brookover, C. (1917). The peripheral distribution of the nervus terminalis in an infant. J. Comp. Neurol. 28:349–360.Google Scholar
  21. Brookover, C. and Jackson, T. (1911). The olfactory nerve and the nervus terminalis of ameiurus. J. Comp. Neurol. 21:237–259.Google Scholar
  22. Bronstein, A.A. and Ivanov, V.P. (1965). Electron microscopic investigation of the olfactory organ of Lamprey. J. Evol. Biochem. and Physiol. 1:251–261.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, H.E. and Beidler, L.M. (1966). The fine structure of the olfactory tissue in the black vulture. Federation Proc. 25:329.Google Scholar
  24. Bruner, H.L. (1914). Jacobson’s Organ and the respiratory mechanism of amphibians. Gegenbarus Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 48:157–165.Google Scholar
  25. Brunn, A. von (1892). Beiträge zur mikroskopischen Anatomie der menschlichen Nasenhöhle. Arch. Mikr. Anat. 39:632–651.Google Scholar
  26. Bullock, T.H. and Horridge, G.A. (1965). Structure and Function in the Nervous System of Invertebrates. Vol II. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco and London.Google Scholar
  27. Cajal, S.R. (1911). Histologie du Systeme Nerveux de l’Homme et des Vertebres. Vol. II. Maloine, Paris.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, W.E. LeGros (1957). Inquiries into the antomical basis of olfactory discrimination. Proc. R. Soc., B 146:299–319.Google Scholar
  29. Cuschieri, A. and Bannister, L.H. (1975). The development of the olfactory mucosa in the mouse: electron microscopy. J. Anat. 119:471–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cuschieri, A. and Bannister, L.H. (1975). The development of the olfactory mucosa in the mouse: light microscopy. J. Anat. 119:277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. DeLorenzo, A.J. (1957). Electron microscopic observations of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory nerve. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3:839–850.Google Scholar
  32. DeLorenzo, A.J. (1960). Electron microscopy of the olfactory and gustatory pathways. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 69: 410–420.Google Scholar
  33. DeLorenzo, A.J. (1963). Studies on the ultrastructure and histophysiology of cell membranes, nerve fibers and synaptic junctions in chemoreceptors. In: Olfaction and Taste (Ed. Y. Zotterman), pp. 5–17. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  34. DeVries, E. (1905). Anatomy. Note on the Ganglion vomeronasale. Proc. K. Akad. W. Amsterdam. 7:704–708.Google Scholar
  35. Dieulafe, L. (1906). The morphology and embryology of the nasal fossae of vertebrates. Annal of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 15:512–559.Google Scholar
  36. Disse, J. (1897). Die erste Entwickelung des Riechnerven. Anat. Hefte Abt. 1, 255–300.Google Scholar
  37. Doellken, A. (1909). Ursprung und Zentren des Nervus terminalis. Monatsschr. f. Psych. u. Neurol. 26:10–33.Google Scholar
  38. Dogiel, A.S. (1887). Ueber den Bau des Geruchsorganes bei Ganoiden, Knochenfischen und Amphibien. Arch. mikrosk. Anat. 29: 74–139.Google Scholar
  39. Ecker, A. (1855). Ueber das Epithelium der Riechschleimhaut und die wahrscheinliche Endigung des Geruchnerven. Zeit. Wiss. Zool. 8:303–306.Google Scholar
  40. Eckhard, C. (1855). Ueber die Endigungsweise des Geruch-nerven. Beiträge Anat. Physiol. 1:77–84.Google Scholar
  41. Ehrlich, P. (1886). Ueber die Methylenblaureaction der lebenden Nervensubstanz. Deutsche med. Wochenschr. 12:49–52.Google Scholar
  42. Frisch, D. (1967). Ultrastructure of the mouse olfactory mucosa. Am. J. Anat. 121:87–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fritsch, G. (1878). Untersuchungen ueber den feineren Bau des Fischgehirns. Berlin. (As quoted by W.A. Locy, 1905).Google Scholar
  44. Gegenbaur, C. (1889). Traite d’Anatomie Humaine. C. Reinwald, Libraire-Editeu, Paris.Google Scholar
  45. Grassi, V. and Castronuovo, A. (1889). Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geruchsorgans des Hundes. Arch mikrosk. Anat. 34:385–390.Google Scholar
  46. Gray, H. (1975). Gray’s Anatomy, 35th British Ed., Saunders Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  47. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1965a). Sensory receptor cells and related neurons in Cephalopods. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 30:45–57.Google Scholar
  48. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1965b). Electron microscopic observations on the olfactory mucosa of the cat. Experientia 21:274.Google Scholar
  49. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1966). Electron microscope observation of the olfactory mucosa of vertebrates. In: Sixth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, Kyoto, p. 487.Google Scholar
  50. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1971a). Topological relations between olfactory neurons. Z. Zellforsch. 118:449–466.Google Scholar
  51. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1971b). The olfactory mucosa of vertebrates. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. IV. (Ed. L.M. Beidler). Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 27–58.Google Scholar
  52. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1973). Cell dynamics in the olfactory mucosa Tissue and Cell 5:113–131.Google Scholar
  53. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1975a). Structural evidence of functional units in the olfactory mucosa of mice. In: Neuroscience Abstracts Society for Neuroscience, 5th Annual Meeting New York City.Google Scholar
  54. Graziadei, P.P.C. (1975b). Neuronal Plasticity in the Vertebrate Olfactory Receptor Organ. In: 10th Int. Cong. Anat., Tokyo. p. 45.Google Scholar
  55. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Bannister, L.H. (1967). Some observations on the fine structure of the olfactory epithelium in the domestic duck. Z. Zellforsch. 80:220–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Tucker, D. (1970). Vomeronasal receptors in turtles. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 105:498–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Metcalf, J.F. (1971). Autoradiographic and ultrastructural observations of the frog’s olfactory mucosa. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 116:305–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Graziadei, P.P.C. and DeHan, R.S. (1973). Neuronal regeneration in frog olfactory sytem. J. Cell Biol. 59:525–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Gagne, H.T. (1973). Extrinsic innervation of olfactory epithelium. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 138:315–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Graziadei, G.A. Monti. (1976a). Olfactory epithelium of Necturus maculosus and Ambystoma tigrinum. J. Neurocytology 5:11–32.Google Scholar
  61. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Graziadei, G.A. Monti. (1976b). The primary olfactory neuron in the vertebrate nervous system. In: Neuroscience Abstracts, Vol. II, Part 1 & Part 2.Google Scholar
  62. Graziadei, P.P.C. and Graziadei, G.A. Monti. (In Press-1977). Continuous nerve cell renewal in the olfactory system. Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. IX (Ed. M. Jacobson). Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Herrick, C.J. (1909). The nervus terminalis (Nerve of Pinkus) in the frog. J. Comp. Neurol. 19:175–190.Google Scholar
  64. Herrick, C.J. (1921). The connections of the vomeronasal nerve, accessory olfactory bulb and amygdala in amphibia. J. Comp. Neurol. 33:213–280.Google Scholar
  65. Holmgren, N. (1918–1920). Zur Kenntnis des Nervus terminalis bei Teleostiern. Folia Neruobiol. 11:16–36.Google Scholar
  66. Huber, G.C. and Guild, S.R. (1913). Observations on the peripheral distribution of the nervus terminalis in mammalia. Anat. Rec. 7:253–272.Google Scholar
  67. Jagodowski, K.P. (1901). Zur Frage nach der Endigung der Geruch- snerven bei den Knochenfischen. Anat. Anz. 19:257–267.Google Scholar
  68. Jacobson, M. (1811). Description anat. d’un organe observe dans les Mammiferes. Ann. du mus. d’histoire nat. Paris 18:412–431.Google Scholar
  69. Johnston, J.B. (1913). Nervus terminalis in reptiles and mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 23:97–120.Google Scholar
  70. Johnson, J.B. (1914). The nervus terminalis in man and mammals. Anat. Rec. 8:185–198.Google Scholar
  71. Kallius, E. (1905). Geruchsorgan. Bardeleben, Handb. Anat. Menschen. 5:115–242.Google Scholar
  72. Kamon, K. (1904). Veber die “Geruchsknospen,” Arch. mikrosk. Anat. 64:653–664.Google Scholar
  73. Klein, E. (1881a). A further contribution to the minute anatomy of the organ of Jacobson in the Guinea pig. Quart. J. Mic. Sc., 21:103–118.Google Scholar
  74. Klein, E. (1881b). The organ of Jacobson in the rabbit. Quart. J. Mic. Sc., 21:549–578.Google Scholar
  75. Klein, E. (1882). The organ of Jacobson in the dog. Quart. J. Mic. Sc., 22:229–242.Google Scholar
  76. Koelliker, A. (1843). Über das Geruchsorgan von Amphioxus. Arch. Anat. u. Physiol wiss. Med. 1:33–35.Google Scholar
  77. Koelliker, A. (1856). Elements d’Histologie Humaine. Librairie de Victor Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  78. Kolmer, W. (1927). Geruchsorgan. In: Handbuch der mikroskopische Anatomie des Menschen, 3:192–249. Springer Berlin.Google Scholar
  79. Larsell, O. (1918). Studies on the nervus terminalis: Mammals J. Comp. Neurol. 30:3–68.Google Scholar
  80. Larsell, O. (1918–19). Studies on the nervus terminalis: Turtle. J. Comp. Neurol. 30:423–443.Google Scholar
  81. Larsell, O. (1950). The nervus terminalis. Ann. Otol. Laringol. 59: 414–438.Google Scholar
  82. Lenhossek, M. von, (1892). Die Nervensträn und Endigungen im Jacobson’schen Organ des Kaninchens. Anat. Anz. 7:628.Google Scholar
  83. Locy, W. A. (1905). On a newly recognized nerve connected with the forebrain of Selachians. Anat. Anz. 26:33–63.Google Scholar
  84. Masera, R. (1943). Sul’esistenza di un particolare organo olfattivo nel setto nasale della cavia e di altri roditori. Arch. It. Anat. Embriol. 48:157–212.Google Scholar
  85. Massa. (1536). (quoted by Sappey 1877).Google Scholar
  86. McCotter, R. E. (1912). The connection of the vomero - nasal nerves with the accessory olfactory bulb in the opossum and other mammals. Anat. Rec. 6:299–318.Google Scholar
  87. McCotter, R. E. (1913). The nervus terminalis in the adult dog and cat. J. Comp. Neurol. 23:145–152.Google Scholar
  88. McCotter, R. E. (1919). The vomero-nasal apparatus in Chrysemys punctat and Rana catesbiana. Anat. Rec. 13:51–67.Google Scholar
  89. McKibben, P. S. (1911). The nervus terminalis in urodele amphibia. J. Comp. Neurol. 21:261–309.Google Scholar
  90. McKibben, P. S. (1914). Ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis in the dogfish (Mustelus canis). J. Comp. Neurol. 24:431–443.Google Scholar
  91. Milne-Edwards, P. (1844). Histoire Naturelle., I. Partie, Anatomie et Physiologie. Librairie de Victor Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  92. Moulton, D.G. and Tucker, D. (1964). Electrophysiology of the olfactory system. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 116:380–428.Google Scholar
  93. Moulton, D.G. (1974). Dynamics of cell populations in the olfactory epithelium. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 237:52–61.Google Scholar
  94. Negus, V. (1958). The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses. Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  95. Okano, M. (1965). Fine structure of the canine olfactory hair-lets. Arch. Histol. Japan. 26:169–185.Google Scholar
  96. Okano, M., Weber, A.F., and Frommes, S.P. (1967). Electron microscopic studies of the distal border of the canine olfactory epithelium. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 17:487–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Parker, G.H. (1922). Smell, Taste and Allied Senses in the Vertebrates (J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia and London).Google Scholar
  98. Pearson, A.A. (1941). The development of the Olfactory nerve, the nervus terminalis, and the Vomeronasal nerve in man. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. and Laryngol. 51:317–332.Google Scholar
  99. Peter, K. (1901). Die Entwickelung des Geruchsorgans und Jacobsonschen Organs in der Reihe der Wirbeltiere. Hertwig. Handb. Entwick. Wirbeltiere. 2:1–82.Google Scholar
  100. Piana, G.P. (1891). Contribuzione alla conoscenza dell struttura e della funzione del organo di Jacobson. Monitore zool. ital. 1:44–47.Google Scholar
  101. Pinkus, F. (1894). Veber einen noch nicht beschriebenen Hirnnerven des Protopterus annectens. Anat. Anz. 9:562–566.Google Scholar
  102. Pinkus, F. (1895). Die Hirnnerven des Protopterus annectens. Morph. Arb. 4:275–346.Google Scholar
  103. Read, E.A. (1908). A contribution to the knowledge of the olfactory apparatus in dog, cat, and man. Am. J. Anat. 8:17–47.Google Scholar
  104. Reese, T.S. (1965). Olfactory cilia in the frog. J. Cell Biol. 25:209–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Retzius, G. (1892a). Die Endigungsweise des Riechnerven. Biol. Unters., N.F. 3:25–28.Google Scholar
  106. Retzius, G. (1892b). Zur Kentniss der Nervenendigungen in der Riechschleimhaut. Biol. Unters., N.F. 4:62–64.Google Scholar
  107. Retzius, G. (1894). Die Riechzellen der Ophidier. Biol. Unters., N.F. 6:48–51.Google Scholar
  108. Sappey, Ph. C. (1876). Traite d’Anatomie Descriptive. V. Adrien Delahaye and Cie, Libraires-Editeurs, Paris.Google Scholar
  109. Scarpa, A. (1789). Anatomicae Disquistiones de Auditu et Olfacto. Ticini.Google Scholar
  110. Schultze, M. (1856). Ueber die Endigungsweise des Geruchsnerven. Monatsber. Akad. Wissen. Berlin 504–514.Google Scholar
  111. Schultze, M. (1862). Untersuchungen ueber den Bau der Nasenschleimhaut. Abh. naturf. Gesell. Halle 7:1–100.Google Scholar
  112. Seifert, K. (1968). Die Feinstruktur des Riechsaumes. Archiv klin. exper. Ohren-, Nasen-, und Kehlkopfheilk. 192:182–213.Google Scholar
  113. Seifert, K. (1970). Die Ultrastruktur des Riechepithels beim Makromatiker. Normale und Pathologische Anatomie. W. Bargmann and W. Doerr, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  114. Seifert, K. and Ule, G. (1965). Elektronenoptische Untersuchungen am Riechenepithel. H.N.O., Berlin 13:150–151.Google Scholar
  115. Simonetta, B. (1932). Orgine e sviluppo del nervo terminale nei mammiferi; sua funzione e suoi rapporti con l’organo di Jacobson. Z. Anat. Entwikl. 97:425–463.Google Scholar
  116. Stone, H., Carregal, E.J.A., and Williams, B. (1966). The olfactory-trigeminal response to odorants. Life Sciences 5:195–201.Google Scholar
  117. Stone, H., Williams, B., and Carregal, E.J.A. (1968). The role of the trigeminal nerve in olfaction. Exptl. Neurol. 21:11–19.Google Scholar
  118. Stone, H. and Robert, C.S. (1970). Observations on trigeminal olfactory interactions. Brain Res. 21:138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Takagi, S.F. (1971). Degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium. In: Handbook of sensory physiology Vol. IV (Ed. L.M. Beidler), pp. 75–94. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  120. Thornhill, R.A. (1967). The ultrastructure of the olfactory epithelium of the Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis. J. Cell. Sci. 2:591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thornhill, R.A. (1970). Cell division in the olfactory epithelium of the Lamprey, Lapetra fluviatilis. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 109:147–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Trujillo-Cenoz, O. (1961). Electron microscope observation on chemo-and mechano-receptor cells of fishes. Z. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 54:654–676.Google Scholar
  123. Tucker, D. (1963). Olfactory, vomeronasal and trigeminal receptor responses to odorants. In: Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Olfaction and Taste (Ed. Y. Zotterman), pp. 45–69. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Tucker, D. (1971). Nonolfactory responses from the nasal cavity: Jacobson’s organ and the trigeminal system. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. IV (Ed L.M. Beidler). Springer-Verlag, Berlin., pp. 151–181.Google Scholar
  125. Van Der Stricht, O. (1909). Le Neuro-epithelium olfactif et sa membrane limitante interne. Mem. Acad. r. Med. de Belgique. 20:45–83.Google Scholar
  126. Van Gehuchten, A. (1890). Contributions a l’etude de la Muqueuse olfactive chez les Mammiferes. La Cellule. 6:393–407.Google Scholar
  127. Vesalius, A. (1543). Epitome. BasileaeGoogle Scholar
  128. Wijha, W. van. (1894). Over de herzenzenewen der Cranioten bij Amphioxus. K. Akad. van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. 3:108–115.Google Scholar
  129. Yamamoto, T., Tonosaki, A., and Kurosawa, T. (1965). Electron microscope studies on the olfactory epithelium in frogs. Acta. Anat. Nippon. 40:343–353.Google Scholar
  130. Yasutake, S. (1951). The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium studied with the electron microscope. J. Kurume Med. Assoc. 22:1279–304.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. P. C. Graziadei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations