Complex Mammalian Behavior and Pheromone Bioassay in the Field

  • Dietland Müller-Schwarze


True field bioassays of mammalian pheromones, i.e., experiments with free-living populations, are highly desirable from a biological point of view but are practical only in rare cases. The best generally practical approach, i.e., experiments with captive animals in outdoor settings, has yielded biologically meaningful results despite many environmental factors. Eleven aspects of such bioassays are discussed. The term “Informer Pheromone” is proposed in point 9. Point 10 discusses the pathway of the tarsal odor and the supporting specialized structures. Recent results of experiments with black-tailed deer and reindeer are given in point 11. These results deal with geometric isomers, early experience with maternal odors, taxonomic specificity of an alarm pheromone, the role of ant-orbital gland secretion in age class recognition in deer, and social odors in reindeer.


Alarm Pheromone Scent Mark Tarsal Gland Rangifer Tarandus Mule Deer 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietland Müller-Schwarze
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and ForestryState University of New YorkSyracuseUSA

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