Advertisement

The Search for Applications of Chemical Signals in Wildlife Management

  • Stephen A. Shumake

Abstract

Chemical signals play a vital role in the lives of many wildlife species. Several review articles (Bronson, 1971; Chael and Sprott, 1971; Ralls, 1971; Eisenberg and Kleiman, 1972; Estes, 1972; Mykytowycz, 1972) have described the diversity of chemical signals, their glandular or excretory origins, and their effects on behavior and reproduction in a variety of wild animals. Most often, chemical signals (pheromones) from conspecifics have been investigated. However, interspecific signals or allomones (Eisenberg and Kleiman, 1972) as well as odors and flavors of certain food items (Hansson, 1973; Rice and Church, 1974) and prey odors (Burghardt, 1970) have been studied and have been found to have survival and chemical signal value to many species.

Keywords

Chemical Signal Wildlife Management Vaginal Secretion Scent Gland Odor Preference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albone, E. S., and Fox, M. W. 1971. Anal gland of the red fox. Nature 233: 569–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balser, D. S. 1974a. A review of coyote control research. Proc. Sixth Vert. Pest. Conf. 6: 171–177.Google Scholar
  3. Balser, D. S. 1974 An overview of predator-livestock problems with emphasis on livestock losses. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 39: 292–300.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, S. A. 1963. The Rat: A Study in Behavior. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Bermant, G., and Taylor, L. 1969. Interactive effects of experience and olfactory bulb lesions in male rat copulation. Physiol. Behay. 4: 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berüter, J., Beauchamp, G. K., and Muetterties, E. L. 1974. Mammalian chemical communication: perineal gland secretion of the guinea pig. Physiol. Zool. 47: 130–136.Google Scholar
  7. Bolles, R. C. 1970. Species spéc fic defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychol. Rev. 77: 32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bronson, F. H. 1970. General discussion (chapters 8–12), pp. 385–404, in J. W. Johnston, Jr., D. G. Moulton, and A. Turk (eds.), Communication by Chemical Signals, Vol. I. AppletonCentury-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bronson, F. H. 1971. Rodent pheromones. Biol. Reprod. 4: 344–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruce, H. M. 1959. An exteroceptive block to pregnancy in the mouse. Nature 184: 105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruce, H. M. 1960. A block to pregnancy in the mouse caused by proximity to strange males. J. Reprod. Fert. 2: 138–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruce, H. M. 1961. Time relations in the pregnancy in the mouse caused by proximity to strange males. J. Reprod. Fert. 1: 96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullard, R. W., and Shumake, S. A. 1976. Food base flavor additive improves bait acceptance by ricefield rats. J. Wildl. Manage. (in press).Google Scholar
  14. Burghardt, G. M. 1970. Chemical perception in reptiles, pp. 241–308, in J. W. Johnston, Jr., D. G. Moulton, and A. Turk (eds.), Communication by Chemical Signals, Vol. I. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Byers, R. E. 1976. New compound (RH787) for use in control of orchard voles. J. Wildl. Manage. 40: 169–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, D. L., and Bullard, R. W. 1972. A preference testing system for evaluating repellents for black-tailed deer. Proc. Fifth Vert. Pest. Conf. 5: 56–63.Google Scholar
  17. Carr, W. J., Loeb, L. S., andie, N. R. 1966. Response to feminine odors in normal and castrated male rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 62: 336–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr, W. J., Krames, L., and Castanzo, D. J. 1970. Previous sexual experience and olfactory preference for novel versus original sex partners in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 71: 216–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chael, M. L., and Sprott, R. L. 1971. Social olfaction: a review of the role of olfaction in a variety of animal behaviors. Psychol. Rep. 29: 195–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chipman, R. K., and Fox, K. A. 1966. Oestrus synchronization and pregnancy blocking in wild house mice (Mus musculus). J. Reprod. Fert. 12: 233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chitty, D. 1954. The study of the brown rat and its control by poison. pp. 160–305, in D. Chitty (ed.), Control of Rats and Mice. Oxford, London.Google Scholar
  22. Curtis, R. F., Ballentine, J. A., Keverne, E. B., Bonsall, R. W., and Michael, R. P. 1971. Identification of primate sexual pheromones and the properties of synthetic attractants. Nature 232: 396–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doty, R. L. 1973a. Odor preferences of female Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi for male mouse odors of P m. bairdi and P. leucopus noveboracensis as a function of estrus state. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 81: 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doty, R. L. 1973b. Reactions of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to homospecific and heterospecific urine odors. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 84: 296–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dryden, G. L., and Conaway, C. H. 1967. The origin and hormonal control of scent production in Suncus murinus. J. Mammal. 48: 420–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eisenberg, J. F., and Kleiman, D. G. 1972. Olfactory communication in mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. System. 3: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Estes, R. D. 1972. The role of the vomeronasal organ in mammalian reproduction. Ext. Mammal. 36: 315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fulk, G. W. 1972. Tie effect of shrews on the space utilization of voles. J. Mammal. 53: 461–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gibson, P. S. 1974. Coyotes and related Canis in Arkansas. Coyote Res. News 3: 4.Google Scholar
  30. Gorman, M. L. 1976. A mechanism for individual recognition by odour in Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Viverridae). Anim. Behay. 24: 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guadagni, D. G. 1968. Requirements for coordination of instrumental and sensory techniques, pp. 36–48, in American Society for Testing and Materials (ed.), Correlation of Subjective-Objective Methods in the Study of Odors and Taste. ASTM STP 440, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  32. Hansson, L. 1973. Fatty substances as attractants for Microtus agrestis and other small rodents. OIKOS. 24: 417–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hesterman, E. R., and Mykytowycz, R. 1968. Some observations on the intensities of odors of anal gland secretions from the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.). CSIRO Wildl. Res. 13: 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hinde, R. A., and Stevenson-Hinde, J. 1973. Constraints on Learning. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  35. Hood, G. A., Nass, R. D., and Lindsey, G. D. 1970. The rat in Hawaiian sugarcane. Proc. Fourth Vert. Pest. Conf. 4: 34–37.Google Scholar
  36. Hornbuckle, P. A., and Beall, T. 1974. Escape reactions to the blood of selected mammals by rats. Behay. Biol. 12: 573–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnston, R. E. 1970. Scent marking, olfactory communication and social behavior in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Ph. D. dissertation The Rockefeller University, New York, N. Y. 145 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Johnston, R. E. 1974. Sexual attraction function of golden hamster vaginal secretion. Behay. Biol. 12: 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnston, R. E. 1975. Scent marking E, male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). III. Behavior in a seminatural environment. Z. Tierpsychol. 37: 213–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, R. B., and Nowell, N. W. 1973. Aversive and aggression-promoting properties of urine from dominant and subordinate male mice. Anim. Learn. Behay. 1: 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kennelly, J. J., Johns, B. E., and Garrison, M. V. 1972. Influence of sterile males on female fecundity of a rat colony. J. Wildl. Manage. 36: 161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keverne, E. G., and Michael, R. P. 1971. Sex-attractant properties of ether extracts of vaginal secretions from rhesus monkeys. J. Endocr. 51: 313–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krames, L., Carr, W. J., and Bergman, B. 1969. A pheromone associated with social dominance among male rats. Psychon. Sci. 16: 11–12.Google Scholar
  44. Kverno, N. B. 1964. Forest animal damage research. Proc. Second Vert. Pest. Conf. 2: 81–89.Google Scholar
  45. Larue, C. J. 1975. Compârison of the effects of anosmia induced by either peripheral lesion or bulbectomy upon the feeding pattern of the rat. J. Physiol. 70: 299–306.Google Scholar
  46. Lee, S. van der, and Boot, L. M. 1956. Spontaneous pseudopregnancy in mice II. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 5: 213–215.Google Scholar
  47. Lehner, P. N., Krumm, R., and Cringan, A. T. 1976. Tests for olfactory repellents for coyotes and dogs. J. Wildl. Manage. 40: 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. LeMagnen, J. 1963. Sensorial control in the regulation of food intake. Prob. Actuels Endocr. Nutr. 7: 147–171.Google Scholar
  49. Linhart, S. B. 1973 Pree ator Survey-Western U. S. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Wildlife Research Center, Denver, Colorado. 54pp.Google Scholar
  50. Lott, D. F., and Hopwood, J. H. 1972. Olfactory pregnancy-block in mice (Mus musculus): an unusual response acquisition paradigm. Anim. Behay. 20: 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lydell, K. and Doty, R. L. 1972. Male rat odor preferences for female urine as a function of sexual experience, urine age, and urine source. Horm. Behay. 3: 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mayr, E. 1974. Behavior programs and evolutionary strategies. Amer. Sci. 62: 650–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Michael, R. D., Bonsall, R. W., and Warner, D. 1974. Human vaginal secretions: Volatile fatty acid content. Science 186: 1217–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moore, R. E. 1965. Olfactory discrimination as an isolating mechanism between Peromyscus maniculatus and Peromyscus polionatus. Am. Midl. Nat. 73: 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Müller-Schwarze, D. 1971 Pheromones in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemiones columbianus). Anim. Behay. 19: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Müller-Schwarze, D. 1972. Response of young lack-tailed deer to predator odors. J. Mammal. 53: 393–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Müller-Schwarze, D. 1974. Olfactory recognition of species, groups, individuals and physiological states among mammals, pp. 316–326, in M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  58. Murphy, M. R., and Schneider, G. E. 1970. Olfactory bulb removal eliminates mating behavior in the male golden hamster. Science 167: 302–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Murphy, M. R. 1973. Effects of female hamster vaginal discharge on the behavior of male hamsters. Behay. Biol. 9: 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mykytowycz, R. 1970. The role of the ski TE-gla TRE 7 in mammalian communication, pp. 327–360, in J. W. Johnston, D. G. Moulton, and A. Turk (eds.), Communication by Chemical Signals, Vol. I. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Mykytowycz, R. 1972. The behavioral role of the mammalian skin glands. Naturwissenschaften. 59: 133–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parkes, A. S., and Bruce, H. M. 1961. Olfactory stimuli in mammalian reproduction. Science 134: 1049–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peters, R. P., and Mech, L. D. 1975. Scent-marking in wolves. Am. Sci. 63: 628–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Preti, G., Muetterties, E. L., Furman, J. M., Kennelly, J. J., and Johns, B. E. 1976. Volatile constituents of dog (Canis familiaris) and coyote (Canis latrans) anal sacs. J. Chem. Ecol. 2: 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Price, E. O. 1975. Hormonal control of urine-marking in wild and domestic Norway rats. Harm. Behay. 6: 393–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quay, W. B., and Tomich, P. Q. 1963. A specialized midventral sebaceous glandular area in Rattus exulans. J. Mammal. 44: 537–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rails, K. 1971. Mammalian scent marking. Science 171: 443–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rice, P. R., and Church, D. C. 1974. Taste responses of deer to browse extracts, organic acids, and odors. J. Wildl. Manage. 38: 830–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Riley, G. A., and McBride, R. T. 1975. A survey of the red wolf (Canis rufus) pp. 263–277, in M. W. Fox (ed.), The Wild Canids, Van Norstrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Rochelle, J. A., Gaudity, I., Oita, K., and Oh, J. 1974. New developments in big game repellents, pp. 103–112, in Proc. Symp. on Wildlife and Forest Management in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.Google Scholar
  71. Shorey, H. H. 1974. Environmental and physiological control of sex pheromone behavior, pp. 62–95, in M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  72. Shumake, S. A., Thompson, R. D., and Caudill, C. J. 1971. Taste preference behavior of laboratory versus wild Norway rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 77: 489–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sperry, C. C. 1941. Food habits of the coyote. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Research Bulletin, 4, 70 pp.Google Scholar
  74. Stern, J. J. 1969. Copulatory experience and sex odor preferences of male rats. Proc. 77th Annu. Convent., Amer. Psychol. Assn., Washington, D. C. pp. 229–230.Google Scholar
  75. Stern, J. J. 1970. Responses of male rats to sex odors. Physiol. Behay. 5: 519–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stevens, D. A., and Saplikowski, N. 1973. Rats’ reaction to con-specific muscle and blood: evidence for an alarm substance. Behay. Biol. 8: 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Taylor, K. D., Hammond, L. E., and Quy, R. J. 1974. The response of captive wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) to human odour and to the odour of other rats. Ext. Mammal. 38: 581–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tette, J. P. 1974. Pheromones in-in-sect population management, pp. 399–410, in M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  79. Thiessen, D. D., Owens, K., and Lindzey, G. 1971. Mechanism of territorial marking in the male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 77: 38–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thiessen, D. D., and Dawber, M. 1962. Territorial exclusion and reproductive isolation. Psychon. Sci. 28: 159–160.Google Scholar
  81. Thiessen, D. D., Regnier, F. E., Rice, M., Goodwin, M., Isaaks, N., and Lawson, N. 1974. Identification of a ventral scent marking pheromone in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Science 184: 83–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thompson, R. D., and Grant, C. V. 1971. Automated preference testing apparatus for rating palatability of food. J. Exp. Anal. Behay. 15: 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thompson, R. D., Shumake, S. A., and Bullard, R. W. 1972. Methodology for measuring taste and odor preference of rodents. Proc. Fifth Vert. Pest. Conf. 5: 36–42.Google Scholar
  84. Tigner, J. R. 1972. Seasonaod habits of Rattus rattus mindanensis in Central Luzon. Ph. D. dissertation. University of oolorado, Boulder, Colorado. 66 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Whitten, W. K. 1959. Occurrence of anoestrus in mice caged in groups. J. Endocrin. 18: 102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wittes, J., and Turk, A. 1968. The selection of judges for odor discrimination panels, pp. 49–70, in American Society for Testing and Materials (ed.), Correlation of Subjective-Objective Methods in the Study of Odors and Taste. ASTM STP 440, Philadelphia, Pa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wirtz, W. O. 1973. Growth and development of Rattus exulans. J. Mammal. 54: 189–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zahorik, D. M., and Johnston, R. E. 1976. Taste aversion to food flavors and vaginal secretion in golden hamsters. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 90: 57–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen A. Shumake
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Fish and Wildlife ServiceWildlife Research CenterDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations