Advertisement

Hormonal Diabetes

  • Bruno W. Volk
  • Klaus F. Wellmann

Abstract

The close association between pituitary hyperfunction and the occurrence of diabetes derives from the classical clinical observation of the frequency of a disturbed glucose tolerance and overt hyperglycemia in acromegaly. To explain the absence of pancreatic pathology in cases of diabetes mellitus, suggestions have been made for many years that a disease of the pituitary gland may be the cause for a number of instances of diabetes.

Keywords

Glucose Tolerance Acute Pancreatitis Adrenal Cortex Acromegalic Patient Cortical Adenoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Loeb, M.: Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med., 34:443, 1883–84.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marie, P.: Rev. Méd., 6: 297, 1886.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marie, P.: N. Iconog. Salpetrière, 1: 173, 1888.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marie, P.: De Prog. Méd., 9: 189, 1889.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loeb, M.: Centralbl. Inn. Med., 19: 893, 1898.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hansemann, D.: Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., 34: 417, 1897.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dallemagne, M.: Arch. Med. Exp. Anat. Pathol., 7: 589, 1895.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borchardt, L.: Ztschr. Klin. Med., 66: 332, 1908.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hinsdale, G.: Acromegaly. W. M. Warren, Detroit, 1898.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goetsch, E., Cushing, H., and Jacobson, C.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 22: 165, 1911.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cushing, H.: The Pituitary Body and its Disorders. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1912, p. 23.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williamson, E. T.: Diabetes Mellitus. G. J. Pentland, London, 1898.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ander, J. M. and Jameson, H. L.: Amer. J. Med. Sci., 148: 323, 1914.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosenberger, F.: Die Ursachen der Glykurien: ihre Verhütung und Behandlung. Müller & Steinke, München, 1911.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shepardson, H. C.: J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 99: 862, 1944.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yater, W. M.: Arch. Int. Med., 41: 883, 1928.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilder, R. M.: Clinical Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperinsulinism. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1940, p. 262.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cushing, H., and Davidoff, L. M.: Arch. Int. Med., 39: 673, 1927.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coggeshall, C., and Root, H. F.: Endocrinology, 26: 1, 1940.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCullagh, E. P.: Diabetes, 5: 223, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miller, M.: In: Diabetes. Edited by R. H. Williams. Paul P. Hoeber, New York, 1960, p. 708.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frank, E.: Pathologie des Kohlenhydratstoffwechsels. Schwabe, Basel, 1949, p. 48.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hamwi, G. J., Skillman, T. G., and Tufts, K. C.: Amer. J. Med., 29: 690, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gordon, D. A., Hill, F. M., and Ezrin, C.: Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 87: 1106, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kozak, G. P.: In: Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. Edited by A., Marble, P., White, R. F. Bradley, and L. P. Krall. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1971, p. 667.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schlesinger, W.: Wien, Klin. Rundsch., 14: 286, 1900.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    v. Noorden, C. and Isaac, S.: Handbuch der Pathologie des Stoffwechsels. A. Hirschwald, Berlin, 1907, p. 46.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Froment, M. J.: Rev. Neurol., 29: 649, 1922.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Macleod, J. J. R.: Modern Medicine. C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1920, p. 3.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ellis, A. W. M., and Turnbull, H. M.: Lancet, 1: 1200, 1924.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goetsch, E.: Quart. J. Med., 7:173, 1913-14.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Colwell, A. R.: Medicine, 6: 1, 1927.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCullagh, E. P., and Alivisatos, J. A.: Diabetes, 3: 349, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berg, B. N.: Bull. Neurol. Inst., 6: 178, 1937.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sternberg, N.: Nothnagel’s Path. Ther., 7: 1, 1897.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    v. Noorden, C.: Die Zuckerkrankheit und ihre Behandlung. A. Hirschwald, Berlin, 1910, p. 48.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Darragh, J. H., and Shaw, W. M.: Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 64: 146, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Labbé, M.: A Clinical Treatise on Diabetes Mellitus. Wood, New York, 1922, p. 195.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finzi, G.: Boll. Soc. Med. Bologna, 8: 201, 1897.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buday, K., and Janese, N.: Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med., 10: 385, 1898.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    John, H. J.: JAMA, 85: 1629, 1925.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Balfour, W. M., and Sprague, R. E.: Amer. J. Med., 7: 596, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Perley, M. and Kipnis, D. M.: N. Engl. J. Med., 274: 1237, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kinsell, L. W., Lawrence, L., and Weyand, R. D.: J. Clin. Endocrinol.,15:859, 1955 (Abst.).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Luft, R., Olivecrona, H., and Sjörgren, B.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 15: 391, 1955.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Luft, R., Olivecrona, H., Ikkos, D., Kornerup, T., and Ljunggren, H.: Brit. Med. J., 2: 752, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Luft, R.: In: On the Nature and Treatment of Diabetes. Edited by B. S. Leibel and G. A. Wrenshall. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1965, p. 496.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dominguez, J. M., and Pearson, O. H.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 22: 865, 1962.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Glick, S. M., Roth, J., Yalow, R., and Berson, S. A.: Nature (London), 199: 784, 1963.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Geller, J., and Loh, A.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 23: 1107, 1963.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ehrlich, R. M., and Randle, P. J.: Lancet, 2: 233, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Berson, S. A., and Yalow, R. S.: Diabetes, 14: 549, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sönksen, P. H., Greenwood, F. C., Ellis, J. P., Lowry, C., Rutherford, A., and Nabarro, J. D. N.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 27: 1428, 1967.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bondy, P. K.: Yale J. Biol. Med., 26: 263, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carballeira, A., Elrick, H., Mackenzie, K. R., and Browne, J. S. L.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 81: 15, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kibler, R., Werk, E. E., Engel, F. L., and Myers, J. D.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 89: 446, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kinsell, L. W.: Protein Metabolism, Hormones and Growth. Rutgers University Press, New York, 1953.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kinsell, L. W.: The Hypophyseal Growth Hormone, Nature and Actions. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955, p. 507.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Crispell, K. R., and Parson, W.: J. Clin. Endocrin. Med., 12: 881, 1952.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shorr, E., Carter, A. C., Kennedy, B. J., and Smith, R. W.: Diabetes, 3: 94, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shorr, E., Carter, A. C., Smith, R. W., Kennedy, B. J., Havel, B. J., Roberts, T. N., Sonkin, L. L., and Livingstone, E. T.: The Hypophyseal Growth Hormone, Nature and Actions. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955, p. 522.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ikkos, D., Luft, R., and Gemzell, C. A.: Lancet, 1: 720, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Luft, R., Ikkos, D., Gemzell, C. A., and Olivecrona, A.: Lancet, 1: 721, 1958.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goldberg, M. B., and Lisser, H.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 2: 477, 1942.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fraser, R.: Brit. Med. Bull., 16: 242, 1960.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Houssay, B. A., and Biasotti, A.: Arch Ges. Physiol., 227: 664, 1931.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lyall, A., and Innes, J. A.: Lancet, 1: 318, 1935.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chabanier, H., Puech, P., Lobo-Onell, C., and Lelu, E.: Presse Méd., 44: 986, 1936.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Feldman, F., Roberts, J. B., Susselman, S., and Lipetz, B.: Arch. Int. Med., 79: 322, 1947.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kotte, J. H., and Vonderahe, A. R.: JAMA, 114: 950, 1940.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marzullo, E. R., and Handelsman, M. B.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 11: 537, 1951.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Calder, R. M.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 50: 87, 1932.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Williams, F. W.: Diabetes, 1: 37, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Martin, M. M., and Pond, M. H.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 14: 1046, 1954.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rothfeld, B., and Rodas, J. M.: Ann. Int. Med., 41: 140, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Georas, C. S., Meissner, G. F., Dillon, J. A., and Calenda, D. G.: N. Engl. J. Med., 263: 374, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Alexander, R. I.: Brit. Med. J., 1: 416, 1953.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Harvey, J. C., and de Klerk, J.: Amer. J. Med., 19: 327, 1955.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cushing, H.: Papers Relating to the Pituitary Body, Hypothalamus and Parasympathetic Nervous System. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1932, p. 34.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Almy, T. P., and Shorr, E.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 7: 455, 1947.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Field, R. A., Schepens, C. L., Sweet, W. H., and Appels, A.: Diabetes, 11: 465, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Poulsen, J. E.: Diabetes, 2: 7, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Poulsen, J. E.: Diabetes, 15: 73, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Field, R. A.: N. Engl. J. Med., 264: 689, 1961.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Luft, R.: Symposium on the Influence of Hypophysectomy and Adrenalectomy on Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes, 11: 461, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pearson, O. H., Ray, B. S., McLean, J. M., Peretz, W. L., Greenberg, E., and Pazianos, A.: JAMA, 188: 116, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Warren, S., LeCompte, P. M., and Legg, M. A.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1966, p. 343.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Frey, H. M.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 19: 1642, 1959.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Frey, H. M.: Acta Med. Scand., 175: 523, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kraus, E. J.: Beitr. Path. Anat. Allg. Path., 58: 159, 1914.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kraus, E. J.: Virchow’s Arch., 228: 68, 1920.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kraus, E. J., and Reisinger, A.: Frankf. Ztschr. Path., 30: 68, 1924.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kraus, E. J.: In: Handb. Spec. Path. Anat. Histol. Edited by F. Henke and O. Lubarsch. Julius Springer, Berlin, Vol. V/2, 1929, p. 622.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brooks, H.: Arch. Neurol. Psychopathol., 1: 485, 1898.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Herxheimer, G.: Virchow’s Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol., 183: 228, 1906.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Herxheimer, G.: Verhandl. Dtsch. Path. Gesellsch., 11: 343, 1908.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Steiger, O.: Ztschr. Klin. Med., 84: 269, 1917.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Norris, C.: Proc. N. Y. Pathol. Soc., 7: 19, 1907.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Amsler, C.: Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., 49: 1600, 1912.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cecil, R. E.: J. Exp. Med., 11: 266, 1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lazarus, S. S., and Volk, B. W.: The Pancreas in Human and Experimental Diabetes. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1962, p. 166.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Warren, S., LeCompte, P. M., and Legg, M. A.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1966, p. 342.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fry, A. J. B.: Quart. J. Med., 8: 277, 1915.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kraus, E. J.: Virchow’s Arch., 247: 1, 1923–24.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Labbé, M., and Petresco, M.: Ann. Anat. Pathol., 11: 761, 1934.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cunz, H.: Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr., 25: 75, 1945.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kraus, E. J.: Urol. Cutan. Rev., 48: 417, 1944.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hawking, F.: J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 42: 689, 1936.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Heskel, M. M.: J. Albert Einstein Med. Cent., 5: 189, 1957.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Marchi, P.: Arch. De Vecchi Anat. Pathol., 25: 1, 1956.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Steiner, H.: Virchow’s Arch., 339: 171, 1965.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Russfield, A. B.: Cancer, 13: 790, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parsons, R. J.: Medical Papers Dedicated to Dr. Henry A. Christian. New York, 1936, p. 366.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Crooke, A. C.: J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 41: 339, 1935.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Porges, O.: Ztsch. Klin. Med., 69: 341, 1909.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kraus, E. J.: Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 39: 2377, 1913.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Achard, C., and Thièrs, J.: Bull. Acad. Med., 86: 51, 1921.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Albright, F.: Harvy Lect.,38:123, 1942–43.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cushing, H.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 50: 137, 1932.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hartman, F. A., and Brownell, K. A.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 31:834, 1933-34.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Long, C. N. H., and Lukens, F. D. W.: J. Exp. Med., 63: 465, 1936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Long, C. N. H., Fry, E. G., and Thompson, K. W.: Amer. J. Physiol., 123: 130, 1938.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lukens, F. D. W.: Amer. J. Med. Sci., 193: 312, 1937.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Plotz, C. M., Knowlton, A. I., and Ragan, C.: Amer. J. Med., 13: 597, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Soffer, L. J., lannaccone, A., and Gabrilove, J.: Amer. J. Med., 30: 129, 1961.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Miller, M.: In: Diabetes. Edited by R. H. Williams. Paul B. Hoeber, New York, 1960, p. 708.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sprague, R. G., Priestley, J. R., and Dockerty, M. B.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 3: 28, 1943.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Walters, W., Wilder, R. M., and Kepler, E. J.: Ann. Surg., 100: 670, 1934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sprague, R. G., Kvale, W. F., and Priestley, J. R.: JAMA, 151: 629, 1953.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Conn, J. W., Louis, L. H., and Wheller, C. E.: J. Lab. Clin. Med., 33: 651, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Forsham, P. H., Thorn, G. W., Prunty, F. T. G., and Hills, A. G.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 8: 15, 1948.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Boland, E. W., and Headly, N. E.: JAMA, 141: 301, 1949.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Baehr, G., Soffer, L. J., Boad, N. F., Levitt, M. F., and Gabrilove, J. L.: Tr. A. Am. Phys., 63: 89, 1950.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bastenie, P. A., Conard, V., and Franckson, J. R. M.: In: Handbook of Diabetes Mellitus. Edited by E. F. Pfeiffer. J. F. Lehmann, Munich, Vol. II, 1971, p. 888.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Creutzfeldt, W., and Schlagintweit, S.: Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 82: 1539, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Forsham, P. H.: In: Textbook of Endocrinology. Edited by R. H. Williams, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 3rd Ed., 1962, p. 282.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Conard, V., and Franckson, J. R. M.: Diabetes, 3: 205, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sprague, R. G., Power, M. H., Mason, H. E., Albert, A., Mathieson, D. R., Hench, P. S., Kendall, E. C., and Polley, H. F.: Arch. Int. Med., 85: 199, 1950.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bookman, J. J., Drachman, S. R., Schaefer, L. E., and Adlersberg, D.: Diabetes, 2: 100, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sprague, R. G., Power, M. W., Mason, H. E., and Cluxton, H. E.: J. Clin. Invest., 28: 812, 1949.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Perara, G. A., Pines, K. L., Hamilton, H. B., and Vislockey, K.: Amer. J. Med., 7: 56, 1949.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Simpson, S. L.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 9: 403, 1949.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Thorn, G. W., and Clinton, M., Jr.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 3: 335, 1943.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Faber, V., and Gronbaek, P.: Acta Endocrinol., 22: 145, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Beaven, D. W., Nelson, D. H., Renold, A. E., and Thorn, G. W.: N. Engl. J. Med., 261: 443, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bartels, E. C., Fields, M. L., and Murphy, R.: Lahey Clinic Bull., 10: 234, 1958.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rhinds, E. G. G., and Wilson, A.: Lancet, 2: 37, 1941.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lukens, F. D. W., Flippen, H. F., and Thigden, F. M.: Amer. J. Med., 193: 812, 1937.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Russi, S., Blumenthal, H. T., and Gray, S. H.: Arch. Int. Med., 76: 284, 1945.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Soffer, L. J., Eisenberg, J., Iannaccone, A., and Gabrilove, J. L.: In: The Human Adrenal Cortex. Little, Brown, Boston, 1955, p. 487.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Vartiainen, F.: Acta Med. Scand., 118: 539, 1944.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Smith, E. B., Beamer, P. R., Vellios, F., and Schulz, D. M.: Principles of Human Pathology. Oxford University Press, New York, 1959.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Warren, S., LeCompte, P. M., and Legg, M. A.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1966, p. 335.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Shepardson, H. C., and Shapiro, E.: Endocrinology, 24: 237, 1939.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kepler, E. J., Sprague, R. G., Mason, H. L., and Power, M. H.: Rec. Prog. Horm. Res., 2: 345, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Franckson, J. R. M., Gepts, W., Bastenie, P. A., Conrad, V., Cordier, N., and Kovacs, L.: Acta Endocrinol., 14: 153, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hausberger, F. X., and Ramsay, A. J.: Endocrinology, 53: 423, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hausberger, F. X., and Ramsay, A. J.: Endocrinology, 65: 165, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lazarus, S. S., and Volk, B. W.: The Pancreas in Human and Experimental Diabetes. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1962, p. 161.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lukens, F. D. W., and Dyer, W. W.: Amer. J. Med. Sci., 231: 313, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Carone, F. A., and Liebow, A. A.: N. Engl. J. Med., 257: 690, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Baar, H. S., and Wolff, O. H.: Lancet, 2: 812, 1957.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Stumpf, H. H., and Wilens, S. L.: Amer. J. Pathol., 31: 563, 1955.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Stumpf, H. H., Wilens, S. L., and Somoza, C.: Lab. Invest., 5: 224, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Bencosme, S., and Lazarus, S. S.: Arch. Pathol., 62: 285, 1956.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wilson, D. L., Frawley, T. F., Forsham, P. H., and Thorn, G. W.: Proc. Amer. Diabetes Assoc., 10: 120, 1950.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Thorn, G. W., Forsham, P. H., Frawley, T. F., Hill, S. R., Roche, M., Staebelin, D., and Wilson, D. L.: N. Engl. J. Med., 242: 783, 824, 865, 1950.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wrenshall, G. A., and Ritchie, R. C.: Pediatrics, 9: 504, 1952.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Fraenkel-Conrat, H. L., Herring, H. L., Simpson, M. E., and Evans, H. M.: Amer.]. Physiol., 135: 404, 1942.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Fraenkel-Conrat, H. L., Herring, H. L., Simpson, M. E., and Evans, H. M.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 55: 62, 1944.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Webster, B. H., and Hurt, J. E.: Diabetes, 6: 436, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Solomon, N., Carpenter, C. C.J., Bennett, I. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Diabetes, 14: 300, 1965.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gittler, R. D., Fajans, S. S., and Conn, J. W.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 19: 797, 1959.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Beaven, D. W., Nelson, D. H., Renold, A. E., and Thorn, G. W.: N. Engl. J. Med., 261: 443, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Fraser, R. W., Albright, F., and Smith, P. H.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 1: 297, 1941.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Crampton, J. H., Scudder, S. T., and Davis, C. D.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 9: 245, 1949.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Baird, I. M., and Munro, D. S.: Lancet, 1: 962, 1954.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hinerman, D.: Arch. Pathol., 51: 539, 1951.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sloper, J. C.: Arch. Pathol., 58: 294, 1954.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Fraenkel, F.: Virchow’s Arch., 103: 244, 1886.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Von Neusser, E.: Die Erkrankungen der Nebennieren. Alfred Holder, Vienna, 2nd Ed., 1910, p. 97.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cannon, W. B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear, and Rage. Appleton, New York, 1915.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Manasse, P.: Virchow’s Arch., 133: 391, 1883.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kohn, A.: Ergeb. Anat. Entwicklngsgesch., 12: 253, 1902.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Helly, C.: München Med. Wochenschr., 33: 1811, 1913.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Labbé, M. Tinel, J., and Doumer, F.: Bull. Man. Soc. Méd. Hôp. Paris, 46: 982, 1922.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mayo, C. H.: JAMA, 89: 1049, 1929.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Biskind, G. R., Meyer, M. A., and Beadner, S. A.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 1: 113, 1941.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    De Vries, A., Rachmilewitz, M., and Schumert, M.: Amer. J. Med., 6: 51, 1959.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Griessmann, H.: Zentralbl. Chir., 77: 1343, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Jorde, R.: Acta Med. Scand., 154: 139, 1956.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Green, D. M.: JAMA, 131: 1260, 1946.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Joslin, E. P., Root, H. F., White, P., and Marble, A. M.: The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1952, p. 640.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Goldner, M. G.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 7: 716, 1947.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Staquet, M., Bonnyns, M., Thys, O., and Demanet, J. C.: Acta Clin. Belg., 20: 340, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Freedman, P., Moulton, R., Rosenheim, M. L., Spencer, A. G., and Willoughby, D. A.: Quart. J. Med., 27: 307, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Graham, J. B.: Quoted in Smithwick, R. H., and Graham, J. B.: Int. Abst. Surg., 92: 105, 1951.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kvale, W. F., Priestley, J. T., and Roth, G. M.: Arch. Surg., 68: 769, 1954.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Minno, A. M., Bennett, W. A., and Kvale, W. F.: N. Engl. J. Med., 251: 959, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Smithwick, R. H., and Graham, J. B.: Int. Abst. Surg., 92: 105, 1951.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Herde, M.: Arch. Klin. Chir., 117: 937, 1912.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Biebl, M., and Wichsel, P.: Virchow’s Arch., 257: 182, 1925.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Schröder, K.: Virchow’s Arch., 268: 291, 1928.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    de Wesselow, O. L.: Lancet, 2: 636, 1934.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Strickler, C. W.: South Surgeon, 11: 193, 1942.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    McCullagh, E. P., and Engel, W. J.: Ann. Surg., 116: 61, 1942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Duncan, L. E., Semans, J. H., and Howard, J. E.: Ann. Int. Med., 20: 815, 1944.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kvale, W. F.: Minn. Med., 41: 291, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Blacklock, J. W. S., Ferguson, J. W., Mack, W. S., Shafar, J., and Symington, T.: Brit. J. Surg., 35: 179, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Eisenberg, A. A., and Wallerstein, H.: Arch. Pathol., 14: 818, 1932.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Watkins, D. B.: J. Chronic Dis., 6: 510, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Evans, J. A.: Med. Clin. N. Amer., 44: 411, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Gifford, R. W., Kvale, W. F., Maher, F. T., Roth, G. M., and Priestley, J. T.: Mayo Clinic Proc., 39: 281, 1964.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hermann H., and Mornes, R.: Le phéochromocytomes. Endocrin. de langue francaise (Ve Réunion d’). Masson et Cie, Paris, 1959, p. 334.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Jailer, J. W., and Longson, D.: In: Biochemical Disorders in Human Disease. Edited by R. H. Thompson and E. J. King. Churchill, London, 1957, p. 277.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Lukens, F. D. W.: Proc. Amer. Diabetes Assoc., 10: 103, 1950.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Warren, S., and LeCompte, P. M.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1952, p. 204.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sanger, B. J., and Hun, E. G.: Arch. Int. Med., 30: 397, 1922.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Gotta, H., and Yriart, M.: C. R. S. Biol., 113: 454, 1933.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Althausen, T. L.: JAMA, 115: 101, 1940.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Popper, H. L., and Hirschhorn, S.: Klin. Wochenschr., 10: 1071, 1931.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    John, H. J.: J. Clin. Endocrinol., 2: 264, 1942.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Althausen, T. L., and Stockholm, M.: Amer. J. Physiol., 123: 577, 1938.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Schneeberg, N. G., Likoff, W. B., and Meranze, D. R.: Arch. Surg., 46: 581, 1943.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Foster, D. P., and Lowrie, W. L.: Endocrinology, 23: 681, 1938.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Regan, J. F., and Wilder, R. M.: Arch. Int. Med., 65: 1116, 1940.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Balfour, W. M., and Sprague, R. G.: Amer. J. Med., 7: 596, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Abt, A. F.: Metabolism, 11: 202, 1962.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Joslin, E. P., and Lahey, F. H.: Amer. J. Med. Sci., 176: 1, 1928.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Kreines, K., Jett, M., and Knowles, H. C., Jr.: Diabetes, 14: 740, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    John, H. J.: Amer. J. Med. Sci., 175: 741, 1928.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    McGavack, T. H.: The Thyroid. Mosby, St. Louis, 1951, p. 510.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Pirart, J.: Ann. Endocrinol., 26: 27, 1965.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Allan, F. N., Lahey, F. H., and Murphy, R.: Tr. Am. A. Study Goiter, 1947, p. 248.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Bowen, B. D., and Lenzner, A. R.: N. Engl. J. Med., 245: 629, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Bastenie, P. A.: In: Handbook of Diabetes Mellitus. Edited by E. F. Pfeiffer. J. F. Lehmann, München, 1971, p. 872.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Garrod, A.: Lancet, 1: 483, 1912.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Holst, J. E.: Acta Med. Scand., 55: 302, 1921.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Warren, S., LeCompte, P. M., and Legg, M. A.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1966, p. 347.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Baron, D. N.: Lancet, 2: 796, 1955.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Bloomer, H. A., and Kyle, L. H.: Arch. Int. Med., 104: 234, 1959.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Hecht, A., and Gershberg, H.: Metabolism, 17: 108, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno W. Volk
    • 1
  • Klaus F. Wellmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Isaac Albert Research Institute of the Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center, and Downstate Medical CenterState University of New YorkBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations