Functional Anatomy of the Tongue and Mouth of Mammals

  • Bruce P. Halpern


The static and dynamic characteristics of the jaws, tongue, and other structures surrounding the oral cavity of mammals strongly affect the types of environments in which a particular mammal can successfully function. A highly specialized mouth and tongue, such as that noted in anteaters by Sonntag (1925), is an extreme example of an ingestive apparatus that sets very narrow limitations on usable habitats. With reference to the primary focus of this chapter, liquid ingestion, less dramatic but equally significant constraints are found in adult animals unable to suck liquids, presumably because of their mouth characteristics. (See pp. 62–80, Drinking Behavior, especially p. 72 and Table 4). A specific liquid intake and intraoral manipulation mechanism may have great adaptive advantage for a given ecological niche. However, the possibility of evolutionary modification in the event of major, relatively rapid changes in habitat may be greatly reduced. Nonspecialized omnivores, having ingestive apparatus usable with a wide range of foods and liquid sources, avoid these problems, as Hiiemae and Crompton (1971) and Jolly (1972) have noted. It may be that omnivores may not be able to exploit some habitats as efficiently as specialized feeders.


Hyoid Bone Functional Anatomy Glossopharyngeal Nerve Drinking Tube Mylohyoid Muscle 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce P. Halpern
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Section of Neurobiology and BehaviorCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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