Physiology and Pharmacology of the Central Nervous System

  • Williamina A. Himwich


The maturity of the neonatal animal of any species depends on its rate of development in utero. The young animal requires additional development and integration of behavior before reaching the adult state. The growth and development of the brain, including the attainment of the adult level of various chemical constituents as well as of metabolism, proceeds in generally the same fashion in all species of animals from the time of the appearance of the neural streak until maturity. The chronological relationship of this maturation to physiologic events, e.g., implantation, birth, opening of the eyes, varies in different species of animals. The problem of comparison and the difficulties of drawing generalizations from one species to another have been emphasized by many authors.(40,41) Among the mammalian species, the young at birth may be deemed either relatively mature (precocial), Such as lamb and guinea pig, or relatively immature, such as rat, mouse, and man (nonprecocial)


Premature Infant Newborn Infant Young Animal Ketone Body Human Infant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abood, L. G., and Geiger, A., 1955, Breakdown of proteins and lipids during glucose-free perfusion of the cat’s brain, Amer. J. Physiol. 182:557–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam, P. A. J., Räihä, N., Rahiala, E.-L., and Kekomäi, M., 1975, Oxidation of glucose and d-β-OH-butyrate by the early human fetal brain, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 64:17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agrawal, H. C., and Prensky, A. L., 1973, Differential incorporation of 14C derived from glucose and acetate into proteins of developing brain, Fourth Meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry, Tokyo, Japan, p. 550.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agrawal, H. C., Prensky, A. L., Fishman, M. A., and Burton, R. M., 1974, Amino acids and myelin proteins, Mod. Probl. Pediatr. 13:1–13.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akiyama, Y., Schulte, F. J., Schultz, M. A., and Parmelee, A. H., Jr., 1969, Acoustically evoked responses in premature and full term newborn infants, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 26:371–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allweis, C., Landau, T., Abeles, M., and Magnes, J., 1966, The oxidation of uniformly labelled albumin-bound palmitic acid to CO2 by the perfused cat brain, J. Neurochem. 13:795–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amin-Zaki, L., Elhassani, S., Majeed, M. A., Clarkson, T. W., Doherty, R. A., and Greenwood, M. R., 1974, Studies of infants postnatally exposed to methylmercury, J. Pediatr. 85(1):81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anokhin, P. K., 1964, Systemogenesis as a general regulator of brain development, Prog. Brain Res. 9:54–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arshavsky, I. A., Akhundki, M., and Solomatin, S. S., 1966, Characteristics of electrical activity and steady potential of the brain cortex in children under three months of age during sleep and wakefulness, Byull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 9:8–12.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aurox, M., and Dehaupas, M., 1971, Influence de la nutrition de la mère sur le dévelopement tardif du système nerveux central de la progeniture (rats). II. Evolution de l’accroissement, des capacités d’apprentissage de la progeniture par alcoolisation de la mère pendant la gestation et la lactation, C. R. Soc. Biol. 165:1534–1537.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baños, G., Daniel, P. M., Moorhouse, S. R., and Pratt, O. E., 1970, The entry of amino acids into the brain of the rat during the postnatal period, J. Physiol. 213:45–46P.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barlow, C. F., Schoolar, J. C., Domek, N. S., Benson, D. W., and Roth, L. J., 1959, Observations on isotope-labeled drugs in the central nervous system, in: Proceedings of the Second International United Nations Conference of the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva 1958, pp. 243–247, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barron, K. D., and Bernsohn, J., 1968, Esterases of developing human brain, J. Neurochem. 15:273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bartoshuk, A. K., 1964, Human neonatal EEG: Frequency analysis of awake and asleep samples from four areas, Psychon. Sci. 1:281–282.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bartoshuk, A. K., and Tennant, J. M., 1964, Human neonatal EEG correlates of sleep-wakeful-ness and neural maturation, J. Psychiatr. Res. 2:73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bergström, R. M., Bergström, L., Putkonen, P., and Sainio, K., 1963, The effects of thalidomide on the electrical activity of the brain in the intrauterine guinea pig foetus, Med. Exp. 11:119–127.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berl, S., 1965, Compartmentation of glutamic acid metabolism in developing cerebral cortex, J. Biol. Chem. 240:2047–2054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berl, S., 1966, Glutamine synthetase. Determination of its distribution in brain during development, Biochemistry 5:916–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bishop, E. J., 1950, The strychnine spike as a physiological indicator of cortical maturity in the postnatal rabbit, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2:309–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bleyer, W. A., and Rosen, M. G., 1968, Meperidine-induced changes in the maternal and fetal electroencephalogram of the guinea pig, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24:249–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Borgstedt, A. D., and Rosen, M. G., 1968, Medication during labor correlated with behavior and EEG of the newborn, Amer. f. Dis. Child. 115:21–24.Google Scholar
  22. 21a.
    Brar, B. S., 1969, The effect of meprobamate on fertility, gestation, and offspring viability and development of mice, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 177(2):416–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Briggs, G. C., Samson, J. H., and Crawford, D. J., 1975, Lack of abnormalities in a newborn exposed to amphetamine during gestation, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 129:249, 250.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Brown, J. W., 1973, Differentiation of neurons in subnucleus caudalis of the nucleus of the spinal tract of V in human and rabbit embryos, Prog. Brain Res. 40:67–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Brown, W. A., Manning, T., and Grodin, J., 1972, The relationship of antenatal and perinatal psychologic variables to the uses of drugs in labor, Psychosom. Med. 34(2):119–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Cahill, G. F., Jr., Owen, O. E., and Morgan, A. P., 1968, The consumption of fuels during prolonged starvation, Adv. Enzyme Regul. 6:143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Campbell, A. G. M., Milligan, J. E., and Talner, N. S., 1968, The effect of pretreatment with pentobarbital, meperidine, or hyperbaric oxygen on the response to anoxia and resuscitation in newborn rabbits, J. Pediatr. 72:518–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Chen, H.-C., Lien, I.-N., and Lu, T.-C., 1965, Kernicterus in newborn rabbits, Amer. J. Pathol. 46:331–343.Google Scholar
  29. 27a.
    Chen, H.-C., Lin, C.-S., and Lien, I.-N., 1966, Ultrastructural studies in experimental kernicterus, Amer. J. Pathol. 48:683–711.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Chen, H.-C., Lin, C.-S., and Lien, I.-N., 1967, Vascular permeability in experimental kernicterus : An electron-microscopic study of the blood-brain barrier, Amer. J. Pathol. 51:69–99.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Chesler, A., LaBelle, G. C., and Himwich, H. E., 1942, The relative effects of toxic doses of alcohol on fetal, newborn and adult rats, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol. 3:1–4.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Chesler, A., LaBelle, G. C., and Himwich, H. E., 1942, A study of the comparative toxic effects of morphine on the fetal, newborn and adult rats, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 75:363–366.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Chiu, J.-F., and Sung, S. C., 1970, DNA nucleotidyltransferase activity of the developing rat brain, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 209:34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    Churchill, J. A., Grisell, J., and Darnley, J. D., 1966, Rhythmic activity in the EEG of newborns, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 21:131–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Conel, J. L., 1939–1963, in: The Postnatal Development of the Human Cerebral Cortex, Vols. 1–7, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Cosmi, E. V., Morishima, H. O., Daniel, S. S., and James, L. S., 1968, Effect of sodium-4-hydroxybutyrate (gamma-OH) on fetal and newborn guinea pigs, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 100:72–75.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    D’Adamo, A. F., Jr., and D’Adamo, A. P., 1968, Acetyl transport mechanisms in the nervous system: The oxoglutarate shunt and fatty acid synthesis in the developing rat brain, J. Neurochem. 15:315–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    Desmedt, J. E., Manil, H., Chorazyna, H., and Debecker, J., 1967, Potentiel évoqué cérébral et conduction corticipète pour une volée d’influx somesthesique chez le nouveau-né normal, C. R. Soc.Biol. (Paris) 161:205.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    DeVivo, D. C., Leckie, M. P., and Agrawal, H. C., 1973, The differential incorporation of /Miydroxybutyrate and glucose into brain glutamate in the newborn rat, Brain Res. 55:485–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    DeVivo, D. C., Leckie, M. P., and Agrawal, H. C., 1974, The differential incorporation of β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose into brain amino acids during rat development, Trans. Amer. Soc. Neurochem. (New Orleans), p. 88.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Dobbing, J., 1961, The blood-brain barrier, Physiol. Rev. 41:130–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Dobbing, J., and Sands, J., 1973, Quantitative growth and development of human brain, Arch. Dis. Child. 48(10):757–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Dobbing, J., and Smart, J. L., 1973, Early undernutrition, brain development and behavior, in: Ethology and Development (S. A. Barnett, ed.), pp. 16–36, Spastics International Medical Publications with Heinemann Medical Books, London.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Domek, N. S., Barlow, C. F., and Roth, L. J., 1960, An ontogenetic study of phenobarbital-C14 in cat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 130:285–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    Dreyfus-Brisac, C., 1968, Sleep ontogenesis in early human prematurity from 24 to 27 weeks of conceptional age, Dev. Psychobiol. 1:162–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    Dreyfus-Brisac, C., 1975, Neurophysiological studies in human premature and full-term newborns, Biol. Psychiatry 10(5):485–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Dreyfus-Brisac, C., and Blanc, C., 1956, Electroencéphalogramme et maturation cerebrale, Encephale 45:205–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    Dreyfus-Brisac, C., Flescher, J., and Plassart, E., 1962, L’électroencéphalogramme : Critère d’âge conceptionnel du nouveau-né à terme et prématuré, Biol. Neonate 4:154–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    Dustman, R. E., and Beck, E. C., 1969, The effects of maturation and aging on the wave form of visually evoked potentials, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 26:2–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Edmond, J., 1974, Ketone bodies as precursors of sterols and fatty acids in the developing rat, J. Biol. Chem. 249:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Edstrom, R. F. S., and Essex, H. E., 1956, Swelling of the brain induced by anoxia, Neurology 6:118–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Eeg-Olofsson, O., 1971, The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children from the age of 1 through 15 years, Neuropädiatrie 4:405–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Eeg-Olofsson, O., Petersén, I., and Selldén, U., 1971, The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children from the age of 1 through 15 years, Neuropädiatrie 4:375–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Ellingson, R. J., 1958, Electroencephalograms of normal, full term newborns immediately after birth with observations on arousal and visual evoked responses, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 10:31–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Ellingson, R. J., 1960, Cortical electrical responses to visual stimulation in the human infant, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 12:663–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Ellingson, R. J., 1964, Studies of the electrical activity of the developing human brain, Prog. Brain Res. 9:26–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Ellingson, R. J., 1966, Development of visual evoked responses in human infants recorded by a response averager, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 21:403–404.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Ellingson, R. J., 1967, The study of brain electrical activity in infants, in: Advances in Child Development and Behavior (L. P. Lipsitt and C. C. Spiker, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 53–97, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
    Ellingson, R. J., and Lindsley, D. B., 1949, Brain waves and cortical development in newborns and young infants, Amer. J. Physiol. 4:248–249.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Ellingson, R. J., Danahy, T., Nelson, B., and Lathrop, G. H., 1974, Variability of auditory evoked potentials in human newborns, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 36:155–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 59.
    Ellingson, R. J., Dutch, S. J., and McIntire, M. S., 1974, EEG’s of prematures: 3–8 year follow-up study, Dev. Psychobiol. 7(6):529–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Ellingson, R. J., Eisen, J. D., and Ottersberg, G., 1973, Clinical electroencephalographic observations on institutionalized mongoloids confirmed by karyotype, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 34:193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 61.
    Ellingson, R. J., Lathrop, G. H., Danahy, T., and Nelson, B., 1973, Variability of visual evoked potentials in human infants and adults, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 34:113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Emde, R. N., Harmon, R. J., Metcalf, D., Koenig, K. L., and Wagonfeld, S., 1971, Stress and neonatal sleep, Psychosom. Med. 33(6):491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Engel, R., 1964, Electroencephalographic responses to photic stimulation, and their correlation with maturation, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 117:407–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Engel, R., and Butler, B. V., 1963, Appraisal of conceptual age of newborn infants by electroencephalographic methods, J. Pediatr. 63:386–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Erkkola, R., Kanto, J., and Sellman, R., 1974, Diazepam in early human pregnancy, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 53(2):135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Ferriss, G. S., Davis, G. D., Hackett, E. R., and Dorsen, M. M., 1966, Maturation of visual evoked responses in human infants, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 21:404.Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    Forfar, J. O., and Nelson, M. M., 1973, Epidemiology of drugs taken by pregnant women: Drugs that may affect the fetus adversely, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 14(4):632–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Fouts, J. R., and Adamson, R. H., 1959, Drug metabolism in the newborn rabbit, Science, 129:897–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Friedler, G., and Cochlin, J., 1972, Growth retardation in offspring of female rats treated with morphine prior to conception, Science 175:654–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Gaitonde, M. K., and Richter, D., 1966, Changes with age in the utilization of glucose carbon in liver and brain, J. Neurochem. 13:1309–1318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Glaser, G. H., and Levy, L. L., 1965, Photic following in the EEG of the newborn, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 109:333–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Goldie, L., Curtis, J. A. H., Svendsen, U., and Robertson, N. R. C., 1968, Abnormal sleep rhythms in mongol babies, Lancet 1:229–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Graziani, L. J., Weitzman, E. D., and Velasco, M. S. A., 1968, Neurologic maturation and auditory evoked responses in low birth weight infants, Pediatrics 41:483–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Gröntoft, O., 1954, Intracranial haemorrhage and blood-brain barrier problems in the newborn, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Suppl. 100:5–109.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Guroff, G., and Udenfriend, S., 1962, Studies on aromatic amino acid uptake by rat brain in vivo: Uptake of phenylalanine and of tryptophan; inhibition and steroselectivity in the uptake of tyrosine by brain and muscle, J. Biol. Chem. 237:803–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Harper, R. G., Solish, G. I., Purow, H. M., Sang, E., and Panepinto, W. C., 1974, The effect of a methadone treatment program upon pregnant heroin addicts and their newborn infants, Pediatrics 54(3):1–6.Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    Hart, L. G., Adamson, R. H., Dixon, R. L., and Fouts, J. R., 1962, Stimulation of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism in the newborn and fetal rabbit, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 137:103–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Hawkins, R. A., Williamson, D. H., and Krebs, H. A., 1971, Ketone-body utilization by adult and suckling rat brain in vivo, Biochem.J. 122:13–18.Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Hecox, K., and Galambos, R., 1974, Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults, Arch. Otolaryngol. 99:30–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Hill, R. M., Verniaud, W. M., Horning, M. G., McCulley, L. B., and Morgan, N. F., 1974, Infants exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 127:645–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Himwich, H. E., 1976, Foodstuffs of the brain: Ketone bodies, in: Brain Metabolism and Cerebral Disorders (H. E. Himwich, ed.), pp. 33–63, Spectrum Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    Himwich, H. E., and Nahum, L. H., 1929, Tht respiratory quotient of brain, Amer. J. Physiol. 90:389–390.Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Himwich, W. A., 1975, Forging a link between basic and clinical research: Developing brain, Biol. Psychiatry 10:125–139.Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    Himwich, W. A., Benaron, H. B. W., Tucker, B. E., Babuna, C., and Stripe, M. C., 1959, Metabolic studies on perinatal human brain, J. Appl. Physiol. 14:873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Himwich, W. A., Hall, J. S., and MacArthur, W., 1977, Maternal alcohol and neonatal health, Biol. Psychiatry, in press.Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Homberger, E., Etsten, B., and Himwich, H. E., 1947, Factors influencing the susceptibility of rats to barbiturates, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 6:131.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Horning, M. G., Butler, C. M., Nowlin, J., and Hill, R. M., 1975, Mini-review—Drug metabolism in the human neonate, Life Sci. 16:651–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Hrbek, A., and Mares, P., 1964, Cortical evoked responses to visual stimulation in full term and premature newborns, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16:575–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Ide, T., Steinke, J., and Cahill, G. F., Jr., 1969, Metabolic interactions of glucose, lactate and β-hydroxybutyrate in rat brain slices, Amer. J. Physiol. 217:784–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Itoh, T., and Quastel, J. H., 1970, Acetoacetate metabolism in infant and adult rat brain in vitro, Biochem. J. 116:641–655.Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Jewett, R. E., and Norton, S., 1966, Effect of tranquilizing drugs on postnatal behavior, Exp. Neurol 14:35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Jondorf, W. R., Maickel, R. P., and Brodie, B. B., 1958–1959, Inability of newborn mice and guinea pigs to metabolize drugs, Biochem. Pharmacol. 1:352–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Juchau, M. R., Pedersen, M. G., Fantel, A. G., and Shepard, T. H., 1973, Drug metabolism by placenta, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 14(4[2]):673–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Kellaway, P., and Petersen, I., 1964, Neurologic and Electroencephalographs Correlative Studies in Infancy, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Kety, S. S., 1957, The general metabolism of the brain in vivo, in: The Metabolism of the Nervous System (D. Richter, ed.), pp. 221–236, Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    Klee, C. B., and Sokoloff, L., 1967, Changes in d(-)-β-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase activity during brain maturation in the rat, J. Biol. Chem. 242:3880–3883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Kopelman, A. E., McCullar, F. W., and Heggeness, L., 1975, Limb malformations following maternal use of haloperidol, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 231(1):62–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Kupferberg, H. J., and Way, E. L., 1963, Pharmacologic basis for the increased sensitivity of the newborn rat to morphine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 141:105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Lajtha, A., 1961, Exchange rates of amino acids between plasma and brain in different parts of the brain, in: Regional Neurochemistry (S. S. Kety and J. Elkes, eds.), pp. 19–24, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Lajtha, A., and Ford, D., 1968, Conclusions, Prog. Brain Res. 29:535–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Lajtha, A., Lahiri, S., and Toth, J., 1963, The brain barrier system. IV. Cerebral amino acid uptake in different classes, J. Neurochem. 10:765–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Lindsley, D. B., 1939, A longitudinal study of the occipital alpha rhythm in normal children: Frequency and amplitude standards, J. Genet. Psychol. 55:197–213.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Lesný, I., 1964, Electroencephalographic study of infantile cerebral palsy with special regard to electroclinical correlations, Acta Univ. Carol Med. (Prague), Monogr. 15. Google Scholar
  106. 104.
    Lipsitz, P. J., and Blatman, S., 1974, Newborn infants of mothers on methadone maintenance, N. Y. State J. Med. 74:994–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Lombroso, C. T., 1975, Neurophysiological observations in diseased newborns, Biol. Psychiatry 10(5):527–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    Meester, W. D., 1964, The effects on the fetus of drugs given during pregnancy, Marquette Med. Rev. 30(4):147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Metcalf, D. R., 1969, The effect of extrauterine experience on the ontogenesis of EEG sleep spindles, Psychosom. Med. 31(5):393–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Milkovich, L., and Van Den Berg, B. J., 1974, Effects of prenatal meprobamate and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride on human embryonic and fetal development, N. Engl. J. Med. 291:1268–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Miller, H. C., and Hassanein, K., 1964, Maternal smoking and fetal growth of full term infants, Pediatr. Res. 8:960–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Mino, M., and Tarai, T., 1966, Enzymatic development of human fetus; studies on cytochrome oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase in developing human fetus, Acta Paediatr. Jpn. 8(16):1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Mino, M., and Tarai, T., 1967, Enzymatic development of the human fetus: LDH/aldolase ratio in developing human fetus, Acta Paediatr. Jpn. 9(18):14–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Mirkin, B. L., 1970, Effects of drugs on the fetus and neonate, Postgrad. Med. 47(1):91–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Mirkin, B. L., 1973, Drug distribution in pregnancy, in: Fetal Pharmacology (L. O. Boréus, ed.), pp. 6–22, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Misrahy, G. A., Beran, A. V., and Prescott, E. J., 1963, Effects of drugs used in pregnancy on availability of fetal cerebral oxygen, Anesthesiology 24:198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Molliver, M. E., Kostovic, I., and Van der Loos, H., 1973, The development of synapses in cerebral cortex of the human fetus, Brain Res. 50:403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Monod, N., and Ducas, P., 1968, The prognostic value of the electroencephalogram in the first two years of life, in: Clinical Electroencephalography of Children (P. Kellaway and I. Petersen, eds.), pp. 61–76, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    Monod, N. J., and Pajot, N., 1965, Le sommeil du nouveau-né et du prématuré. I. Analyse des études polygraphiques (mouvements oculaires, respiration et E.E.G.) chez le nouveau-né à terme, Biol. Neonate 8:281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    Monod, N. J., Eliet-Flescher, J., and Dreyfus-Brisac, C., 1967, The sleep of the full-term and premature infant. III. The disorders of the pathological newborn sleep organization: Polygraphic studies, Biol. Neonate 11:216–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    Mountain, K. R., Hirsh, J., and Gallus, A. S., 1970, Neonatal coagulation defect due to anti-convulsant drug treatment in pregnancy, Lancet 1:265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Murray, B., and Campbell, D., 1971, Sleep states in the newborn : Influence of sound, Neuropädiatrie 3:335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Naeye, R. L., Blanc, W., Leblanc, W., and Khatamee, M. A., 1973, Fetal complications of maternal heroin addiction : Abnormal growth, infections, and episodes of stress, J. Pediatr. 83(6):1055–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Newmann, R. G., 1974, Pregnancies of methadone patients—Findings in New York City Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program, N. Y. State J. Med. 74(1):52–54.Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    Nitowsky, H. M., Matz, L., and Berzofsky, J. A., 1966, Studies on oxidative drug metabolism in the full-term newborn infant, J. Pediatr. 69:1139–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Nyhan, W. L., 1961, Toxicity of drugs in the neonatal period, J. Pediatr. 59:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Nyhan, W. L., and Lampert, F., 1965, Response of the fetus and newborn to drugs, Anesthesiology 26:487–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    O’Donoghue, S. E. F., 1971, Distribution of pethidine and chlorpromazine in maternal, foetal and neonatal biological fluids, Nature (London) 229:124–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Oldendorf, W. H., 1970, Measurements of brain uptake of radiolabeled substances using a tritiated water internal standard, Brain Res. 24:372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Oldendorf, W. H., 1973, Stereospecificity of blood-brain barrier permeability to amino acids, Amer. J. Physiol. 224:967–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Ornitz, E. M., 1972, Development of sleep patterns in autistic children, in: Sleep and the Maturing Nervous System (C. D. Clemente, D. P. Purpura, and R. E. Mayer, eds.), pp. 363–381, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Ornitz, E. M., Ritvo, E. R., Lee, Y. H., Panman, L. M., Walter, R. D., and Mason, A., 1969, The auditory evoked response in babies during REM sleep, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 27:195–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Owen, O. E., Morgan, A. P., Kemp, H. G., Sullivan, J. M., Herrera, M. G., and Cahill, G. F., Jr., 1967, Brain metabolism during fasting, J. Clin. Invest. 46:1589–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Page, M. A., and Williamson, D. H., 1971, Enzymes of ketone-body utilisation in human brain, Lancet 2:66–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Pampiglione, G., 1965, Brain development and the E.E.G. of normal children of various ethnical groups, Br. Med. J. 2:573–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Parmelee, A. H., 1975, Neurophysiological and behavioral organization of premature infants in the first months of life, Biol. Psychiatry 10(5):501–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Parmelee, A. H., Akiyama, Y., Schultz, M. A., Wenner, W. H., Schulte, F. J., and Stern, E., 1968, The electroencephalogram in active and quiet sleep in infants, in : Clinical Electroencephalography of Children (P. Kellaway and I. Petersén, eds.), pp. 77–88, Almquist and Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    Parmelee, A. H., Jr., Schulte, F. J., Akiyama, Y., Wenner, W. H., Schultz, M. A., and Stern, E., 1968, Maturation of EEG activity during sleep in premature infants, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24:319–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Parmelee, A. H., Wenner, W. H., Akiyama, Y., Schultz, M., and Stern, E., 1967, Sleep states in premature infants, Devel. Med. Child Neurol. 9:70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Passouant, P., 1964, Influence de l’âge sur l’organisation du sommeil de nuit et la période de sommeil avec mouvements oculaires, J. Psychol. Norm. Pathol. 3:257–279.Google Scholar
  141. 139.
    Passouant, P., and Cadilhac, J., 1962, EEG and clinical study of epilepsy during maturation in man, Epilepsia 3:14–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Pelkonen, O., 1973, Drug metabolism in the human fetal liver—relationship to fetal age, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 202(2):281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Pelkonen, O., and Kärki, N. T., 1973, Drug metabolism in human fetal tissues, Life Sci. 13:1163–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Pelkonen, O., Jouppila, P., and Kärki, N. T., 1972, Effect of maternal cigarette smoking on 3,4-benzpyrene and N-methylaniline metabolism in human fetal liver and placenta, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 23:399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Persson, B., Settergren, G., and Dahlquist, G., 1972, Cerebral arteriovenous difference of acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate in children, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61:273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 144.
    Petersén, I., and Eeg-Olofsson, O., 1971, The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children from the age of 1 through 15 years, Neuropädiatrie 3:247–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Richards, I. D. G., 1969, Congenital malformations and environmental influences in pregnancy, Br. f. Prev. Soc. Med. 23:218–225.Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    Robertson, A. F., and Sprecher, H., 1968, A review of human placental lipid metabolism and transport, Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 183:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Robson, J. M., and Sullivan, F. M., 1963, The production of foetal abnormalities in rabbits by imipramine, Lancet 1:638, 639.Google Scholar
  150. 148.
    Roffwarg, H. P., Muzio, J. N., and Dement, W. C., 1966, Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle, Science 152:604–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Rose, G. H., and Ellingson, R. J., 1970, Ontogenesis of evoked potentials, in: Developmental Neurobiology (W. A. Himwich, ed.), pp. 393–440, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  152. 150.
    Roth, L. J., Schoolar, J. C., and Barlow, C. F., 1959, Sulfur-35 labeled acetazolamide in cat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 125:128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Rozdilsky, B., and Olszewski, J., 1960, Permeability of cerebral vessels to albumin in hyperbilirubinemia: Observations in newborn animals Neurology 10:631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 152.
    Rozdilsky, B., and Olszewski, J., 1961, Experimental study of the toxicity of bilirubin in newborn animals, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 20:193–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Salganicoff, L., and De Robertis, E., 1965, Subcellular distribution of the enzymes of the glutamic acid, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid cycles in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 12:287–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Schapira, F., Nordmann, Y., and Gregori, C., 1972, Hereditary alterations of fructose metabolizing enzymes, Acta Med. Scand. 542:77–83.Google Scholar
  157. 155.
    Schoolar, J. C., Barlow, C. F., and Roth, L. J., 1960, The penetration of carbon-14 urea into cerebrospinal fluid and various areas of the cat brain, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 19:216–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Schulte, F. J., and Bell, E. F., 1973, Bioelectric brain development. An atlas of EEG power spectra in infants and young children, Neuropädiatrie 4:30–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Schulte, F. J., Michaelis, R., Nolte, R., Albert, G., Parl, U., and Lasson, U., 1969, Brain and behavioural maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. Part I: Nerve conduction and EEG patterns, Neuropädiatrie 1:24–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 158.
    Schulte, F. J., Lasson, U., Parl, U., Nolte, R., and Jürgens, U., 1969, Brain and behavioural maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers, Part II: Sleep cycles, Neuropädiatrie 1:36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 159.
    Seip, M., 1973, Effects of antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy on the fetus and newborn infant, Review article, Ann. Clin. Res. 5:205–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 160.
    Shepovalnkov, A., 1962, Rhythmic components of the infant EEG, Zh. Vyssh. Nervn. Deyat. im. I. P. Pavlova 12:797–808.Google Scholar
  163. 161.
    Shimizu, A., and Himwich, H. E., 1968, Effect of LSD on the sleep cycle of the developing kitten, Dev. Psychobiol. 1:60–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 162.
    Shimizu, A., and Himwich, H. E., 1968, Effects of phenothiazine derivatives on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in growing kittens, Folia Psychiatr. Neurol. Jpn. 22:297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 163.
    Shimizu, A., and Himwich, H. E., 1968, The effects of amphetamine on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of developing kittens, Psychopharmacologia 13:161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 164.
    Shimizu, A., and Himwich, H. E., 1969, Effects of psychotropic drugs on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of the developing kittens, Dev. Psychobiol. 2:161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 165.
    Shimizu, A., Bost, K., and Himwich, H. E., 1968, Electroencephalographic studies of haloperidol, Int. Pharmacopsychiatry 1:134–142.Google Scholar
  168. 166.
    Spitzer, J. J., 1973, CNS and fatty acid metabolism, Physiologist 16:55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 167.
    Stamp, T. C. B., Round, J. M., Rowe, D. J. F., and Haddad, J. G., 1972, Plasma levels and therapeutic effect of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in epileptic patients taking anticonvulsant drugs, Br. Med. J. 4:9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 168.
    Stave, U., 1971, Perinatal brain metabolism in normal and hypoxic rabbits, in: International Congress of Pediatrics, pp. 19–87, Verlag der Wiener.Google Scholar
  171. 169.
    Stave, U., and Wolf, H., 1970, Metabolic effects in hypoxia neonatorum, in: Physiology of the Perinatal Period (U. Stave, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 1043–1088, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  172. 170.
    Sterman, M. B., and Hoppenbrouwers, T., 1971, The development of sleep-waking and rest-activity patterns from fetus to adult in man, in: Brain Development and Behavior (M. B. Sterman, D. J. McGintz, A. M. Adinolfi, eds.), pp. 203–227, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  173. 171.
    Stern, L., 1972, Pharmacology for the pediatrician—Drug interactions. Part II. Drugs, the newborn infant, and the binding of bilirubin to albumin, Pediatrics 49(6):916–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    Takai, T., and Mino, M., 1967, Enzymatic development of the human fetus, SABCO J. 4:76–101.Google Scholar
  175. 173.
    Tanimura, T., 1972, Effects on macaque embryos of drugs reported or suspected to be teratogenic to humans, Acta Endocrinol. 166:293–308.Google Scholar
  176. 174.
    Tanner, J. M., 1970, Physical growth, in: Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology (P. H. Müssen, ed.), 3rd. Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 77–155, John Wiley & Sons, London.Google Scholar
  177. 175.
    Umezaki, H., and Morrell, F., 1970, Developmental study of photic evoked responses in premature infants, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28:55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 176.
    Van Petten, G. R., 1975, Pharmacology and the fetus, Br. Med. Bull. 31(1):75–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 177.
    Vaughan, H. G., Jr., 1975, Electrophysiologic analysis of regional cortical maturation, Biol. Psychiatry 10(5):513–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 178.
    Villee, C. A., and Loring, J. M., 1961, Alternative pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in foetal and adult tissues, Biochem. J. 81:488–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 179.
    Waelsch, H., 1961, Compartmentalized biosynthetic reactions in the central nervous system, in: Regional Chemistry : Physiology and Pharmacology of the Nervous System (S. S. Kety and J. Elkes, eds.), pp. 57–64, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  182. 180.
    Widdowson, E. M., 1964, Changes in the composition of the body at birth and their bearing on function and food requirements, in: Symposium on the Adaptation of the Newborn Infant to Extra-Uterine Life (J. H. P. Joxis, H. K. A. Visser, and J. A. Troelstra, eds.), pp. 1–13, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  183. 181.
    Wilson, G. S., Desmond, M. M., and Verniaud, W. M., 1973, Early development of infants of heroin-addicted mothers, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 126:457–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 182.
    Zachau-Christiansen, G., and Vollmond, K., 1965, The relation between neonatal jaundice and the motor development in the first year, Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 159:26–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 183.
    Zelson, C., Lee, S. J., and Casalino, M., 1973, Neonatal narcotic addiction—comparative effects of maternal intake of heroin and methadone, N. Engl. J. Med. 289:1216–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Zuelzer, W. W., 1960, Neonatal jaundice and mental retardation, Arch. Neurol. 3:127–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Williamina A. Himwich
    • 1
  1. 1.Nebraska Psychiatric InstituteUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations