Advertisement

Heat Production and Temperature Regulation

  • Kurt Brück

Abstract

Heat production is a side product of metabolic processes, the continuous occurrence of which provides the energy basis of life. This heat production necessarily increases the temperature of an organism above that of the environment. In the majority of the members of the animal kingdom, the metabolic rate does not allow an increase in body temperature of more than some 1/10 of a degree (bradymetabolism). In all these animals, body temperature shows wide fluctuations that depend on changes in the environmental temperature; they are therefore called Poikilothermic animals.

Keywords

Premature Infant Brown Adipose Tissue Heat Production Thermal Comfort Cold Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrams, R., Caton, D., Clapp, J., and Barron, D. H., 1970, Thermal and metabolic features of life in utero, Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 13:549–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adamsons, K., Jr., Gandy, G. M., and James, L. S., 1965, The influence of thermal factors upon oxygen consumption of the newborn human infant, J. Pediatr. 66:495–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adolph, E. F., 1951, Responses to hypothermia in several species of infant mammals, Amer. J. Physiol. 166:75–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adolph, E. F., 1956, General and specific characteristics of physiological adaptations, Amer. J. Physiol. 184:18–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adolph, E. F., 1964, Perspectives of adaptation: Some general properties, in: Handbook of Physiology (D. B. Dill, ed.), Sect. 4, pp. 27–35, American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adolph, E. F., 1968, Origins of Physiological Regulations, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adolph, E. F., and Molnar, G. W., 1946, Exchanges of heat and tolerances to cold in men exposed to outdoor weather, Amer. J. Physiol. 146:507–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agate, F. J., and Silverman, W. A., 1963, The control of body temperature in the small newborn infant by low energy infrared radiation, Pediatrics 31:725–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aherne, W., and Hull, D., 1964, The site of heat production in the newborn infant, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 57:1172, 1173.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alexander, G., 1961, Temperature regulation in the newborn lamb. III. Effect of environmental temperature on metabolic rate, body temperatures and respiratory quotient, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 12: 1152–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alexander, G., 1962, Temperature regulation in the newborn lamb. V. Summit metabolism, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 13(1): 100–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexander, G., 1975, Body temperature control in mammalian young, Br. Med. Bull. 31:62–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andjus, R.K., and Smith, A. U., 1955, Reanimation of adult rats from body temperatures between 0 and + 2°C, J. Physiol. 128:446–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andrews, J. F., Mercer, J. B., Ryan, E. M., and Székely, M., 1973, Metabolic changes in the lamb during the first 36 hr of life related to body weight and to environmental temperature, J. Physiol. 236:35, 36.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andrews, J. F., Mercer, J. B., Ryan, E. M., and Székely, M., 1975, The post-natal increase in minimum metabolic rate in the lamb, in: Depressed Metabolism and Cold Thermogenesis (L. Jansky, ed.), Charles University, Prague.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aschoff, J., and Kramer, 1971, Temperature-regulation, in: Physiologie des Menschen, Vol. 2, Energiehaushalt und Temperaturregulation (Gauer, Kramer, and Jung, eds.), Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bargmann, W., von Hehn, G., and Lindner, E., 1968, Über die Zellen des braunen Fettgewebes und ihre Innervation, Z. Zellforsch. 85:601–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Behmann, F. W., and Bontke, E., 1958, Die Regelung der Wärmebildung bei künstlicher Hypothermie. I. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den Einfluss der Narkosetiefe, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 266:408–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Behnke, A. R., and Yaglou, C. P., 1951, Physiological responses of men to chilling in ice water and to slow and fast rewarming, J. Appl. Physiol. 3:591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Benedict, F. G., and Talbot, F. B., 1915, The Physiology of the Newborn Infant: Character and Amount of the Catabolism, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 233, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benzinger, T. H., 1964, The thermal homeostasis of man, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 18:49–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benzinger, T. H., and Kitzing, C., 1963, Gradient layer calorimetry and human calorimetry, in: TemperatureIts Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 3, Part 3, pp. 87–109, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bianca, W., 1970, Animal response to meteorological stress as a function of age, Int. J. Biometeorol. Suppl. 14:119–131.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bianca, W., and Hales, J. R. S., 1970, Sweating, panting and body temperatures of newborn and one-year-old calves at high environmental temperatures, Br. Vet. J. 126:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blatteis, C. M., 1971, Shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis during hypoxia, in: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Environmental Physiology, Dublin, 1971, pp. 151–160, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blatteis, C. M., 1975, Postnatal development of pyrogenic sensitivity in guinea pigs, J. Appl. Physiol. 39:251–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blatteis, C. M., 1976, Effect of propranolol on endotoxin-induced pyrogenesis in newborn and adult guinea pigs, J. Appl. Physiol. 40:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blatteis, C. M., 1976, A possible cause of the pyrogenic insensitivity of neonates to endotoxin, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 35:(3):482, abstract of a paper presented at the 60th Physiological congress, Anaheim, California, April 11–16, 1976. (Full-length article: Comparison of endotoxin and leukocyte pyrogenicity in newborn guinea pigs, J. Appl. Physiol. 42:355–361, 1977.)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bligh, J., 1973, Temperature Regulation in Mammals and Other Vertebrates, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam and London; American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bligh, J., and Johnson, K. G., 1973, Glossary of terms for thermal physiology, J. Appl. Physiol. 35:941–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brown, A. C., and Brengelmann, G. L., 1970, The temperature regulation control system, in: Physiological and Behavioral Temperature Regulation (J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge, and J. A. J. Stolwijk, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brück, K., 1961, Temperature regulation in the newborn infant, Biol. Neonate 3:65–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brück, K., 1964, General aspects of temperature regulation of small subjects, in: The Adaptation of the Newborn Infant to Extra-uterine Life (J. H. P. Jonxis, H. D. A. Visser, and J. A. Troelstra, eds.), pp. 229–247, H. E. Stenfert Kroese, Leiden, South Holland.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brück, K., 1968, Which environmental temperature does the premature infant prefer?, Pediatrics 41: 1027–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brück, K., 1970, Non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue in relation to age, and their integration in the thermoregulatory system, in: Brown Adipose Tissue (O. Lindberg, ed.), American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brück, K., 1970, Heat production and temperature regulation, in: Physiology of the Perinatal Period, Vol. I (U. Stave, ed.), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brück, K., 1976, Cold adaptation in man, in: Regulation of Depressed Metabolism and Thermogenesis (L. Jansky and X. J. Mussacchia, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brück, K., 1976, Temperature regulation and catecholamines, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 12(9):924–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brück, K., and Brück, M., 1960, Der Energieumsatz hypothermer Frühgeborener, Klin. Wochenschr. 38: 1125–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brück, K., and Schwennicke, H. P., 1971, Interaction of superficial and hypothalamic thermosensitive structures in the control of nonshivering thermogenesis, Int. J. Biometeorol. 15:156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, B., 1965, Über die Modi der Thermogenese beim neugeborenen Warmblüter. Untersuchungen am Meerschweinchen, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 282:362–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, B., 1965, Blockade der chemischen Thermogenese und Auslösung von Muskelzittern durch Adrenolytica und Ganglienblockade beim neugeborenen Meerschweinchen, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 282:376–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, B., 1965, Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung des multiloculären Fettgewebes für die Thermogenese des neugeborenen Meerschweinchens, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 283: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, B., 1966, The influence of ambient temperature in the process of replacement of non-shivering by shivering thermogenesis during postnatal development, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 25:1332–1336.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, W., 1966, Beziehung zwischen Thermogeneses im “braunen” Fettgewebe, Temperatur im cervicalen Anteil des Vertebralkanals und Kältezittern, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 290: 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, W., 1967, Eine kälteadaptative Modifikation: Senkung der Schwellentemperaturen für Kältezittern, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 293:226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brück, K., and Wünnenberg, W., 1970, Meshed control of two effector systems: Non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis, in: Physiological and Behavioral Temperature Regulation (J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge, and J. A. J. Stolwijk, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brück, K., Baum, E., and Schwennicke, H. P., 1976, Cold adaptive modifications in man induced by repeated short-term cold-exposures and during a 10-day and -night cold-exposure, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 363:125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brück, K., Brück, M., and Lemtis, H., 1957, Hautdurchblutung und Thermoregulation bei neugeborenen Kindern, Pflügers.. Arch. ges. Physiol. 265:55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brück, Type="SmallCaps">K., Brück,M., and Lemtis,H., 1958,Thermoregulatorische Veränderungen des Energies-toffwechsels bei reifen Neugeborenen, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 267:382–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brück, K., Brück, M., and Lemtis, H., 1960, Die Temperaturregelung Neugeborener und Frühgeborener nach spontaner und pathologischer Geburt, Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 20:461–472.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brück, K., Parmelee, A. H., and Brück, M., 1962, Neutral temperature range and range of “thermal comfort” in premature infants, Biol. Neonate 4:32–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brück, K., Wünnenberg, W., Gallmeier, H., and Ziehm, B., 1970, Shift of threshold temperature for shivering and heat polypnea as a mode of thermal adaptation, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 321:159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brück, K., Wünnenberg, W., and Zeisberger, E., 1969, Comparison of cold-adaptive metabolic modifications in different species with special reference to the miniature pig, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 28:1035–1041.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burton, A. C., and Edholm, O. G., 1969,Type="Italic">Man in a Cold Environment, Hafner Publishing Co., New York and London.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Buetow, K. C., and Klein, S. W., 1964, Effect of maintenance of “normal” skin temperature on survival of infants of low body weights, Pediatrics 34:163–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Celander, O., 1960, Blood flow in the foot and calf of the newborn, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 49:488–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Clapp, J. F., and Abrams, R. M., 1976, The post-partum chill, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 12:1131–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cooper, K. E., 1970, Studies of the human central warm receptor, in: Physiological and Behavioral Temperature Regulation (J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge, and J. A. J. Stolwijk, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cooper, K. E., Pittman, Q. J., and Veale, W. L., 1975, Observations on the development of the “fever” mechanism in the fetus and newborn. Temperature regulation and drug action, in: Proceedingsof a Symposium, Paris 1974, pp. 43–50, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cort, J. H., and McCance, R. A., 1953, The neural control of shivering in the pig, J. Physiol. (London) 120:115–121.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Crenshaw, C., Huckabee, W. E., Curet, L. B., Mann, L., Barron, D. H., 1968, A method for the estimation of the umbilical blood flow in unstressed sheep and goats with some results on its application, J. Exp. Physiol. 53:65–75.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dawes, G. S., 1968, Foetal and Neonatal Physiology, Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dawes, G. S., and Mott, J. C., 1959, The increase in oxygen consumption of the lamb after birth, J. Physiol. (London) 146:295–315.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dawes, G. S., Jacobson, H. N., Mott, C., and Shelley, H. J., 1960, Some observations of foetal and newborn rhesus monkeys, J. Physiol. (London) 152:271–298.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dawkins, M. J. R., and Hull, D., 1964, Brown adipose tissue and the response of the newborn rabbit to cold, J. Physiol. (London) 172:216–238.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dawkins, M. J. R., and Scopes, J. W., 1965, Non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue in the human newborn infant, Nature (London) 206:201, 202.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Day, R. L., Caliguiri, L., Kamenski, C., and Ehrlich, F., 1964, Body temperature and survival of premature infants, Pediatrics 34:171–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Day, R. L., Curtis, J., and Kelley, M., 1943, Respiratory metabolism in infancy and in childhood. XXVII. Regulation of body temperature of premature infants, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 65:376–398.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Documenta Geigy, 1960, Wissenschaftliche Tabellen (J. R. Geigy, ed.), J. R. Geigy, Basel.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Doerr, F. F., and Heite, H. J., 1957, Farbe und Wärmeabgabe der Haut nach Einwirkung von Nikotinsäurebenzylester insbesondere bei Neuroder-mitikern, Arch. Klin. Exp. Dermatol. 204:543–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Donhoffer, S., 1966, The regulation of energy metabolism and van’t Hoff’s rule in the homeotherm animal, Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 14:541–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ebbecke, U., 1917, Die lokale vasomotorische Reaktion (L.V.R.) der Haut und der inneren Organe, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 169:1–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Eckert, E., 1959, Wärme- und Stoffaustausch, 2d Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fanger, P. O., 1972, Thermal Comfort. Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fisher, D. A., and Dussault, J. H., 1974, Development of the mammalian thyroid gland, in: Handbook of Physiology (R. O. Greep and E. B. Astwood, eds.), Sect. 7, pp. 21–38, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Foster, K. G., Hey, E. N., and Katz, G., 1969, The response of the sweat glands of the new-born baby to thermal stimuli and to intradermal acetylcholine, J. Physiol. (London) 203:13–29.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Freund, H., and Jansen, S., 1923, Über den Sauerstoffverbrauch der Skelettmuskulatur und seine Abhängigkeit von der Wärmeregulation, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 200:96–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Friis-Hansen, B., 1959, Changes in body water compartments during growth, in: Die physiologische Entwicklung des Kindes (F. Linneweh, ed.), pp. 196–203, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gagge, A. P., Hardy, J. D., and Rapp, G. M., 1969, Proposed standard system of symbols for thermal physiology, J. Appl. Physiol. 27:439–446.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gandy, G. M., Adamsons, K., Jr., Cunningham, N., Silverman, W. A., and James, L. S., 1964, Thermal environments and acid-base homeostatis in human infants during the first few hours of life, J. Clin. Invest. 43:751–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gelineo, S., 1957, Développement ontogénétique de la thermorégulation chez le chien, Bull. Acad. Serbe Sci. 18:97–102.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gelineo, S., and Sokic, P., 1953, La naissance et le développement de la thermorégulation chimique chez lespermophile (Citellus citellus), Bull. Acad. Serbe Sci. 12:1–11.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Glass, L., Silverman, W. A., and Sinclair, J. C., 1968, Effect of the thermal environment on cold resistance and growth of small infants after the first week of life, Pediatrics 41:1033–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Golenhofen, K., Hensel, H., and Hildebrandt, G., 1963, Durchblutungsmessung mit Wärmeleitelementen, Verlag Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Grad, B., 1953, Changes in oxygen consumption and heart rates of rats during growth and ageing: Role of the thyroid gland, Amer. J. Physiol. 174:481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Haddad, H. M., 1960, Studies on thyroid hormone metabolism in children, Pediatrics 57:391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hahn, P., and Novak, M., 1975, Development of brown and white adipose tissue, J. Lipid Res. 16:79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hardy, J. D., 1961, Physiology of temperature regulation, Physiol. Rev. 41:521–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hardy, J. D., Gagge, P. A., and Stolwijk, J. A. J. (eds.), 1970, Physiological and BehavioralTemperature Regulation, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hart, J. S., Héroux, O., and Dépocas, F., 1956, Cold acclimation and the electromyogram of unanesthetized rats, J. Appl. Physiol. 9:404–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Heim, T., and Hull, D., 1966, The blood flow and oxygen consumption of brown adipose tissue in the newborn rabbit, J. Physiol. (London) 186:42–55.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Heim, T., and Hull, D., 1966, The effect of propranolol on the calorigenic response in brown adipose tissue of newborn rabbits to catecholamines, glucagon, corticotrophin and cold exposure, J. Physiol. (London) 187:271–283.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Heldmaier, G., 1971, Zitterfreie Wärmebildung und Körpergrösse bei Säugetieren, Z, Vgl. Physiol. 73:222–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hellbrügge, T., 1960, The development of circadian rhythms in infants, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 25:311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hellon, R. F., 1970, Hypothalamic neurons responding to changes in hypothalamic and ambient temperatures, in: Physiological and Behavioral Temperature Regulation, (J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge, and J. A. J. Stolwijk, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hemingway, A., 1963, Shivering, Physiol. Rev. 43:397–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hensel, H., Brück, K., and Raths, P., 1973, Homeothermic organisms, in: Temperature and Life (H. Precht, J. Christophersen, H. Hensel, and W. Larcher, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Héroux, O., 1955, Acclimination of adrenalec-tomized rats to low environmental temperature, Amer. J. Physiol. 181:75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hey, E. N., 1968, Small globe thermometers, J. Sci. Instrum. Ser. 2 1:955–957, 1260.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hey, E. N., 1969, The relation between environmental temperature and oxygen consumption in the new-born baby, J. Physiol. (London) 200:589–603.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hey, E. N., 1972, Thermal regulation in the newborn, Br. J. Hosp. Med., July, pp. 51–64.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hey, E. N., 1974, Physiological control over body temperature, in: Heat Loss from Animals and Man (J. L. Monteith and L. E. Mount, eds.), Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hey, E. N., 1975, Thermal neutrality, Br. Med. Bull. 31:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hey, E. N., and Katz, G., 1969, Temporary loss of a metabolic response to cold stress in infants of low birth weight, Arch. Dis. Child. 44:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hey, E. N., and Katz, G., 1969, Evaporative water loss in the new-born baby, J. Physiol. (London) 200:605–619.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hey, E. N., and Katz, G., 1970, The range of thermal insulation in the tissues of the newborn baby, J. Physiol. (London) 207:667–681.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hey, E. N., and Katz, G., 1970, The optimum thermal environment for naked babies, Arch. Dis. Child. 45:328–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hey, E. N., and Mount, L. E., 1967, Heat losses from babies in incubators, Arch. Dis. Child. 42:75–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hey, E. N., Katz, G., and O’Connell, B., 1970, The total thermal insulation of the newborn baby, J. Physiol. (London) 207:683–698.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hill, J. R., 1959, The oxygen consumption of newborn and adult mammals: Its dependence on the oxygen tension in the inspired air and on the environmental temperature, J. Physiol. (London) 149:346.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hill, J. R., and Rahimtulla, K. A., 1965, Heat balance and the metabolic rate of newborn babies in relation to environmental temperature, and the effect of age and of weight on basal metabolic rate, J. Physiol. (London) 180:239–265.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hill, J. R., and Robinson, D. C., 1968, Oxygen consumption in normally grown, small-for-dates and large-for-dates new-born infants, J. Physiol. (London) 199:685–703.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Himms-Hagen, J., 1967, Sympathetic regulation of metabolism, Pharmacol. Rev. 19:367–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hissa, R., 1968, Postnatal development of thermoregulation in the Norwegian lemming and the golden hamster, Ann. Zool. 5:345–383.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Horwitz, B. A., 1975, Pathways underlying nonshivering thermogenesis in peripheral tissues, in: Proceedings of an International Symposium on Depressed Metabolism and Cold Thermogenesis, Prague (L. Jansky, ed.), pp. 127–132, Charles University, Prague.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hsieh, A. C. L., Carlson, L. D., and Gray, G., 1957, Role of the sympathetic nervous system in the control of chemical regulation of heat production, Amer. J. Physiol. 190:247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hull, D., 1965, Oxygen consumption and body temperature of newborn rabbits and kittens exposed to cold, J. Physiol. (London) 177:192–202.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hull, D., 1966, The structure and function of brown adipose tissue, Br. Med. Bull. 22:92–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hull, D., and Hardman, M. J., 1970, Brown adipose tissue in newborn mammals, in: Brown Adipose Tissue (O. Lindberg, ed.), American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hull, D., and Segall, M. M., 1965, The contribution of brown adipose tissue to heat production in the newborn rabbit, J. Physiol. (London) 181:449–457.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hull, D., and Segall, M. M., 1965, Sympathetic nervous control of brown adipose tissue and heat production in the newborn rabbit, J. Physiol. (London) 181:458–467.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jansky, L., 1973, Non-shivering thermogenesis and its thermoregulatory significance, Biol. Rev. 48: 85–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jansky, L., and Hart, J. S., 1963, Participation of skeletal muscle and kidney during non-shivering thermogenesis in cold-acclimated rats, Can. J. Biochem. 41:953–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jenkinson, D. M., Noble, R. C., and Thompson, G. E., 1968, Adipose tissue and heat production in the newborn ox (Bos taurus), J. Physiol. (London) 195:639–646.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Joel, C. D., 1965, The physiological role of brown adipose tissue, in: Handbook of Physiology (A. E. Renold and G. F. Cahill, Jr., eds.), Sect. 5, pp. 59–85, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Joel, C. D., Treble, D. H., and Ball, E. G., 1964, On a major role for brown adipose tissue in heat production during arousal from hibernation, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 23:271.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Johannson, B., 1959, Brown fat: A review, Metabolism 8:221–240.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Joppich, G., and Schäfer, H., 1955, Unterkühlung bei Frühgeborenen, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 80: 73–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Karlberg, P., 1952, Determination of standard energy metabolism (basal metabolism) in normal infants, Acta Paediatr. (Uppsala) 41 (Suppl. 89):3–151.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Karlberg, P., Moore, R. E., and Oliver, T. K., 1962, The thermogenic response of the newborn infant to noradrenaline, Acta Paediatr. (Uppsala) 51:284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Karlberg, P., Moore, R. E., and Oliver, T. K., 1965, Thermogenic and cardiovascular response of the newborn baby to noradrenaline, Acta Paediatr. (Uppsala) 54:225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kintzel, H. W., 1957, Zur Frage der Warm- oder Kalthaltung der Frühgeborenen, Arch. Kinderheilkd. 154:238–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kintzel, H. W., 1968, Untersuchungen über die Auswirkungen langanhaltender Hypothermie auf das Frühgeborene, Dtsche. Gesundheitswes. 15:710.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kleiber, M., 1961, The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Energetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kleiber, M., Cole, H. H., and Smith, A. H., 1943, Metabolic rate of rat foetuses in vitro, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 22:167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    LeBlanc, J., and Mount, L. E., 1968, Effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline on oxygen rate and arterial blood pressure in the newborn pig, Nature (London) 217:77, 78.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Leduc, J., 1961, Catecholamine production and release in exposure and acclimation to cold, Acta Physiol. Scand. 53: (Suppl. 183):1–101.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lee, V. A.,and Iliff, A., 1956, The energy metabolism of infants and young children during postprandial sleep, Pediatrics 18:739–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lehmann, G., 1956, Das Gesetz der Stoffwechsel-reduktion (Oberflächengesetz), in: Handbuch der Zoologie (J. G. Helmcke and H. von Lengerken, eds.), Vol. 8, Part 4, Chapt. 4, pp. 1–32, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Levison, H., and Swyer, P. R., 1964, Oxygen consumption and the thermal environment in newly born infants, Biol. Neonate New Ser. 7:305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lewis, R. C., Duval, A. M., and Iliff, A., 1943, Standards for the basal metabolism of children from 2 to 15 years of age, inclusive, J. Pediatr. 23:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lindberg, O. (ed.), 1970, Brown Adipose Tissue, American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mann, T. P., and Elliot, R. J. K., 1957, Neonatal cold injury due to accidental exposure to cold, Lancet 1:229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McCance, R. A., and Strangeways, W. M. B., 1954, Protein catabolism and oxygen consumption during starvation in infants, young adults and old men, Br. J. Nutr. 8:21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M., 1959, The effect of lowering the ambient temperature on the metabolism of the newborn pig, J. Physiol. (London) 147:124–134.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mendler, N., Reulen, H. J., and Brendel, W., 1972, Cold swelling and energy metabolism in the hypothermic brain of rats and dogs, in: Hibernation and Hypothermia, Perspectives and Challenges (F. E. South, J. P. Hannon, J. R. Willis, E. T. Pengelley, and N. R. Alpert, eds.), Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London-New York.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Merklin, R. J., 1974, Growth and distribution of human fetal brown fat, Anat. Rec. 178:637–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Meschia, G., Cotter, J. R., Makowski, E. L., and Barron, D. H., 1967, Simultaneous measurement of uterine and umbilical blood flows and oxygen uptakes, Q.J. Exp. Physiol. 52:1–18.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mestyán, J., Járai, I., Bata, G., and Fekete, M., 1964, The basal metabolic rate of premature infants, Biol. Neonate 7:11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mestyán, J., Járai, I., Bata, G., and Fekete, M., 1964, The significance of facial skin temperature in the chemical heat regulation of premature infants, Biol. Neonate 7:243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mestyán, J., Járai, I., Kekete, M., and Soltész, G., 1969, Specific dynamic action in premature infants kept at and below the neutral temperature, Pediatr. Res. 3:41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mestyán, J., Varga, F., Fohl, E., and Heim, T., 1962, Oxygen consumption of hyper- and hypothermic premature infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 37: 466–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Moll, W., and Bartels, H., 1960, Eine kritische Prüfung der offenen und der geschlossenen Methode zur Bestimmung des O2- Verbrauches nach Veränderung der inspiratorischen Sauerstoffkonzentration, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 271:583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Montieth, J. L., and Mount, L. E. (eds.), 1974, Heat Loss front Animals and Man, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Moore, R. E., and Underwood, M. C., 1960, Possible role of noradrenaline in control of heat production in the newborn mammal, Lancet 1:1277, 1278.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Moore, R. E., and Underwood, M. C., 1962, Hexamethonium, hypoxia and heat production in newborn and infant kittens and puppies, J. Physiol. (London) 161:30–53.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Moore, R. E., and Underwood, M. C., 1963, The thermogenic effects of noradrenaline in newborn and infant kittens and other small mammals. A possible hormonal mechanism in the control of heat production, J. Physiol. (London) 168:290–317.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Mordhorst, H., 1933, Über die chemische Wärmeregulation frühgeborener Säuglinge, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 55:174–191.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Mount, L. E., 1959, The metabolic rate of the newborn pig in relation to environmental temperature and to age, J. Physiol. (London) 147:333–345.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mount, L. E., 1964, Radiant and convective heat loss from the newborn pig, J. Physiol. (London) 173:96–113.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mount, L. E., 1966, Basis of heat regulation in homeotherms, Br. Med. Bull. 22:84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Mount, L. E., 1968, The Climatic Physiology of the Pig, Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mount, L. E., 1974, The concept of thermal neutrality, in: Heat Loss from Animals and Man (J. L. Monteith and L. E. Mount, eds.), pp. 425–439, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Nadel, E.R., Bullard, R.W., and Stolwijk, J.A.J., 1971, Importance of skin temperature in the regulation of sweating, J. Appl. Physiol. 31:80–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Nakayama, T., Hammel, H. T., Hardy, J. D., and J. D.,and Eisenman,J. S., 1963, Thermal stimulation of electrical activity of single units of the preoptic region, Amer. J. Physiol. 204:1122–1126.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Napolitano, L., 1965, The fine structure of adipose tissues, in: Handbook of Physiology (A. E. Renold and G. F. Cahill, Jr., eds.), Sect. 5, pp. 109–123, American Physiological Society, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Nishi, Y., and Gagge, A. P., 1971, Humid temperature. A biophysical index of thermal sensation and discomfort, J. Physiol. (Paris) 3:365–368.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Novak, M., and Hahn, P., 1975, Early development of fat metabolism, in: Childhood Obesity (P.J. Collipp, ed.), Publishing Sciences Group, Acton, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Novak, M., Hahn, P., Pardo, V., Monkus, E., and Alzamora, D., 1975, The effect of carnitine on respiration of mitochondria obtained from newborn and adult human subcutaneous white adipose tissue, Int. J. Biochem. 5:223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Novak, M., Penn-Walker, D., and Monkus, E. F., 1975, Oxydation of fatty acids by mitochondria obtained from newborn subcutaneous (white) adipose tissue, Biol. Neonate 25:95–107.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ogawa, T., 1970, Local effect of skin temperature on threshold concentration of sudorific agents, J. Appl. Physiol. 28:18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Oliver, T. K., 1965, Temperature regulation and heat production in the newborn, Pediatr. Clin. North Amer. 12:765–779.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Parmelee, A. H., Jr., Brück, K., and Brück, M., 1962, Activity and inactivity cycles during the sleep of premature infants exposed to neutral temperature, Biol. Neonate 4:317–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pichotka, J., 1958, Behaglichkeitstemperaturen und Minimalumsätze bei Meerschweinchen, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 268:9, 10.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Popovic, V., 1960, Survival time of hypothermic white rats (15°C) and ground squirrels (10°C), Amer. J. Physiol. 199:463–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pouliot, M., 1966, Catecholamine excretion in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to cold after chronic guanethidine treatment, Acta Physiol. Scand. 68: 164–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Precht, H., Laudien, H., and Havsteen, B., 1973, The normal temperature range, in: Temperature and Life (H. Precht, J. Christopherson, H. Hensel, and W. Larcher, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pribilowá;, H., 1968, The importance of thermo-receptive regions for the chemical thermoregulation of the newborn, Biol. Neonate 12:13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Prokopeva, E. M., 1960, The limits of overcooling and survival in puppies, in: The Problem of Acute Hypothermia (P. M. Starkov, ed.), pp. 226–236, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Prusiner, S., Cannon, B., and Lindberg, O., 1970, Mechanisms controlling oxydative metabolism in brown adipose tissue. in: Brown Adipose Tissue (O. Lindberg, ed.), American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York-London-Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rafael, J., Klaas, D., and Hohorst, H. J., 1968, Mitochondrien aus braunem Fettgewebe: Enzyme und Atmungskettenphosphorylierung während der prä- und postnatalen Entwicklung des interscapularen Fettkörpers des Meerschweinchens, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 349:1711–1724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rubecz, I., and Mestyan, J., 1975, The partition of maintenance energy expenditure and the pattern of substrate utilization in intrauterine malnourished newborn infants before and during recovery, 1975, Acta Paediatr. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16:335–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ryser, G., and Jéquier, E., 1972, Study by direct calorimetry of thermal balance on the first day of life, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2:176–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Schaefer, K. E., and Wünnenberg, W., 1976, Threshold temperatures for shivering in acute and chronic hypercapnia, J. Appl. Physiol. 41:67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Schiff, D., Stern, L., and Leduc, J., 1966, Chemical thermogenesis in newborn infants: Catecholamine excretion and the plasma non-esterified fatty acid response to cold exposure, Pediatrics 37:577–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Scopes, J. W., and Ahmed, I., 1966, Minimal rates of oxygen consumption in sick and premature newborn infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 41:407–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Scopes, J. W., and Ahmed, I., 1966, Range of critical temperatures in sick and premature newborn babies, Arch. Dis. Child. 41:417–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Silverman, W. A., 1959, The physical environment and the premature infant, Pediatrics 23:166–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Silverman, W. A., Zamelis, A., Sinclair, J. C., and Agate, F. J., Jr., 1964, Warm nape of the newborn, Pediatrics 33:984–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Simon, E., 1974, Temperature regulation: The spinal cord as a site of extrahypothalamic thermoregulatory functions, Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 71:1–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sinclair, J. C., Scopes, J. W., and Silverman, W. A., 1967, Metabolic reference standards for the neonate, Pediatrics 39:724–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Smalley, R. L., and Dryer, R. L., 1963, Brown fat: Thermogenic effect during arousal from hibernation in the bat, Science 140:1333, 1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Smith, R. E., and Hock, R. J., 1962, Brown fat: Thermogenic effector of arousal in hibernators, Science 140:190, 200.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Smith, R. E., and Horwitz, B. A., 1969, Brown fat and thermogenesis, Physiol. Rev. 49:330–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Smith, R. E., and Roberts, J. C., 1964, Thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in cold-acclimated rats, Amer. J. Physiol. 206:143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Stern, L., Lees, M. H., and Leduc, J., 1965, Environmental temperature, oxygen consumption and catecholamine excretion in newborn infants, Pediatrics 36:367–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Stolwijk, J. A. J., and Hardy, J. D., 1966, Temperature regulation in man—A theoretical study, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 291:129–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Sulyok, E., Jéquier, E., and Prod’hom, L. S., 1973, Respiratory contribution to the thermal balance of the newborn infant under various ambient conditions, Pediatrics 51:641–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sulyok, E., Jéquier, E., and Prod’hom, L. S., 1973, Thermal balance of the newborn infant in a heat-gaining environment, Pediatr. Res. 7:888–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Sulyok, E., Jéquier, E., and Ryser, G., 1972, Effect of relative humidity on thermal balance of the newborn infant, Biol. Neonate 21:210–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Szegvári, G., Várnai, J., and Donhoffer, S., 1963, The effect of environmental temperature, hypoxia and hypercapnia on total heat production and the electrical activity of muscle in the rat: Shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis and the site of non-shivering thermogenesis, Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23:49–62.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Szélenyi, Z., Zeisberger, E., and Brück, K., 1976, Effects of electrical stimulation in the lower brainstem on temperature regulation in the unanesthetized guinea-pig, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 364:123–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Taylor, P. M., 1960, Oxygen consumption in newborn rats, J. Physiol. (London) 154:153–168.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Thauer, R., and Brendel, W., 1962, Hypothermie, Prog. Surg. 2:73–271.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wenger, C. B., Roberts, M. F., Nadel, E. R., and Stolwijk, J. A. J., 1975, Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow, J. Appl. Physiol. 38:1078–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wolf, H., and Melichar, V., 1968, Determinations of turnover of triglycerides, FFA and free glycerol following triglyceride infusion in preterm and full-term newborns, Z. Klin. Chem. 7:205, 206.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Wolf, H., Stave, U., Novak, M., and Monkus, F., 1974, Recent investigations on neonatal fat metabolism, J. Perinat. Med. 2:75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Wünnenberg, W., 1976, Thermointegrative activity of hypothalamic structures, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 12(9): 1050–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wünnenberg, W., and Brück, K., 1968, Single unit activity evoked by thermal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig, Nature (London) 218:1268–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Wünnenberg, W., and Hardy, J.D., 1972, Response of single units of the posterior hypothalamus to thermal stimulation, J. Appl. Physiol. 33(5):547–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Young, I. M., 1962, Vasomotor tone in the skin blood vessels of the newborn infant, Clin. Sci. 22:325–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Zeisberger, E., 1966, Liver oxygen consumption of cold- and warm-acclimated rats and factors regulating liver oxidative metabolism, Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 14:528–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Zeisberger, E., and Brück, K., 1972, Effects of intrahypothalamically injected noradrenergic and cholinergic agents on thermoregulatory responses, in: The Pharmacology of Thermoregulation (E. Schönbaum and P. Lomax, eds,), pp. 232–243, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Zeisberger, E., and Brück, K., 1976, Alteration of shivering threshold in cold- and warm-adapted guinea pigs following intrahypothalamic injections of noradrenaline and of an adrenergic alpha receptor blocking agent, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 362: 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Zeisberger, E., Brück, K., Wünnenberg, W., and Wietasch, C., 1967, Das Ausmass der zitterfreien Thermogenese des Meerschweinchens in Abhängigkeit vom Lebensalter, Pflügers. Arch. ges. Physiol. 296:276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Znamenáćek, K., and Přibylowá, H., 1964, Some parameters of respiratory metabolism in the first three days after birth, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 53: 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Brück
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhysiologyJustus Liebig UniversityGiessenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations