Digestion and Absorption

  • Otakar Koldovský


In this chapter, data on human material only are reviewed, since it is not possible to describe animal studies due to limitations in the scope of this volume. Only where there is a lack of human data have I briefly discussed animal experiments in that particular area. Space restrictions have forced me to omit from the finished review some of the text and some references. As a result, some comparative aspects have disappeared, and the priority of the researchers is not always apparent. The originators of an approach are then only cited in the listed work by their followers. I therefore apologize to the authors in question and to the reader for this incompleteness.


Bile Acid Premature Infant Bile Salt Amniotic Fluid Human Milk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abdo-Bassols, F., Lifshitz, F., Diaz del Castillo, E., and Martinez-Garza, V., 1971, Transient lactose intolerance in premature infants, Pediatrics 48:816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adler, R. D., Bennion, L. J., Duane, W. C., and Grundy, S. M., 1975, Effects of low dose of chenodeoxycholic acid feeding on biliary lipid metabolism, Gastroenterology 68:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agunod, M., Yamaguchi, N., Lopez, R., Luhby, A. L., and Glass, G. B., 1969, Correlative study of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor secretion in newborns and infants, Amer. J. Dig. Dis. 14:400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen, D. H., 1942, Pancreatic enzymes in the duodenal juice in the celiac syndrome, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 63:643.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersen, H., Bierring, F., Matthiessen, M., Egeberg, J., and Bro-Rasmussen, F., 1964, On the nature of the meconium corpuscles in human foetal intestinal epithelium. 2. A cytochemical study, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 61:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson, A., Schloss, O. M., and Meyers, E., 1925, Intestinal absorption of antigenic proteins by normal infant, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 23:180.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anonymous, 1974, Intravenous nutrition of ne wborn infants with lipid, Nutr. Rev. 32:298.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antonowicz, I., Ishida, S., Khaw, K. T., and Shwachman, H., 1970, Effect of tissue preparation on determinations of disaccharidase activities in intestinal mucosa, Pediatrics 45:104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anyon, C. P., and Clarkson, K. G., 1965, Lactose absorption in the neonate, N. Z. Med. J. 64:694.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ardran, G. M., Kemp, F. H., and Lind, J., 1958, A cineradiographic study of breast feeding, Br. J. Radiol. 31:156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asp, N.-G., and Dahlqvist, A., 1974, Intestinal β-galactosidases in adult low lactase activity and in congenital lactase deficiency, Enzyme 17:84.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asp, N.-G., Berg, N. O., Dahlqvist, A., Jussila, J., and Salmi, H., 1971, The activity of three different small-intestinal β-galactosidases in adults with and without lactase deficiency, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 6:755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aurricchio, S., Ciccimarra, F., vegnente, A., Andria, G., and Vetrella, M., 1973, Enzymatic activity hydrolyzing γ-glutamyl-β-naphthylamide in human intestine during adult and fetal life, Pediatr. Res. 7:95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Auricchio, S., Della Pietra, D., and Vegnente, A., 1967, Studies on intestinal digestion of starch in man. II. Intestinal hydrolysis of amylopectin in infants and children, Pediatrics 39:853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Auricchio, S., Rubino, A., and Murset, G., 1965, Intestinal glycosidase activities in the human embryo, fetus, and newborn, Pediatrics 35:944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Avery, G. B., Randolph, J. G., and Weaver, T., 1966, Gastric acidity in first day of life, Pediatrics 37:1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Back, P., and Ross, K., 1973, Identification of 3β-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid in human meconium, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 354:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Banza, C. A., Reid, A., and Brunser, O., 1962, A morphologic and histochemical study of the normal small intestinal epithelium in the child. Acta Pediatr. (Uppsala) 79:328.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barltrop, D., and Oppé, T. E., 1973, Absorption of fat and calcium by low birthweight infants from milks containing butterfat and olive oil, Arch. Dis. Child. 48:496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnes, L. A., Morrow, G., Silverio, J., Finnegan, L. P., and Heitman, S. E., 1974, Calcium and fat absorption from infant formulas with different fat blends, Pediatrics 54:217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartrop, R. W., and Hull, D., 1973, Transient lactose intolerance in infancy, Arch. Dis. Child. 48:963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baum, D., Cooper, L., and Davies, P. A., 1968, Hypocalcaemic fits in neonates, Lancet 1:599.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bayless, T. M, Rothfeld, B., Massa, C., Wise, L., Paige, D., and Bedine, M. S., 1975, N. Engl. J. Med. 292:1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beneke (Dr.), 1880, Über die Länge des Darmkanals bei Kindern, sowie über die Capacität des Magens Neugeborener, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 32:433, 448.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Berfenstam, R., Jagenburg, R., and Mellander, O., 1955, Protein hydrolysis in the stomachs of premature and full-term infants, ActaPaediatr. 44:348.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berry,J. M., 1900, On the development of the villi of the human intestine, Anat. Anz. 17:242.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beyreiss, K., 1971, Resorption von 3-O-Methyl-glukose, D-Xylose and L-Arabinose. I. Untersuchungen bei stoffwechselgesunden Neugeborenen und Säuglingen, Paediatr. Grenzgebiete 10:151.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beyreiss, K., 1972, Resorption und Umsatz von Fruktose bei Neugeborenen und Säuglingen, Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 29:409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beyreiss, K., and Hoepffner, W., 1971, Resorption von 3-O-Methylglukose, D-Xylose und L-Arabinose. II. Vergleichende Untersuchungen bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern mit Malabsorptionssyndromen, Paediatr. Grenzgebiete 10:235.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beyreiss, K., Rautenbach, M., Willgerodt, H., Schöne, S., and Al-Rebate, I., 1972, Besonderheiten der Resorption und des Stoffwechsels von Kohlenhydraten bei Früh- und Neugeborenen, Wiss. Z. Friedrich-Schiller Univ., Jena, Math.-Naturwiss. Reihe 21:683.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beyreiss, K., Theile, H., and Willgerodt, H., 1968, Active absorption of D-xylose in children, Ger. Med. Monthly 13:544.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blomstrand, R., and Lindqvist, B., 1955, Intestinal absorption of carbon-labeled oleic acid in normal infant and in congenital bile duct atresia, Acta Paediatr. Helv. 10:627, 640.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blomstrand, R., Lindqvist, B., and Paabo, K., 1955, Intestinal absorption of carbon-labeled oleic acid and palmitic acid in normal infant and in cystic fibrosis of pancreas, Acta Paediatr. Helv. 10:640.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Blum, E., Yarmoschkewitsch, A. I., and Yakorotschuk, A. I., 1936, Die proteolytischen Fermente menschlicher Embryonen in den verschiedenen Stadien der Entwicklung, Bull. Biol. Med. Exp. USSR 1:113.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Boellner, S. W., Beard, A. G., and Panos, T. C., 1965, Impairment of intestinal hydrolysis of lactose in newborn infants, Pediatrics 36:542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolin, T. D., Davis, A. E., Seah, C. S., Chua, K. L., Yoh, V., Kho, K. M., Siak, C. L., and Jacob, E., 1970, Lactose intolerance in Singapore, Gastroenterology 59:76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bongiovanni, A. M., 1965, Bile acid content of gallbladder of infants, children and adults, J. Clin. Endocrinol. 25:678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Book, L. S., Herbst, J. J., Atherton, S. O., and Jung, A. L., 1975, Necrotizing enterocolitis in low-birth-weight infants fed an elemental formula, J. Pediatr. 87:602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Boreus, L. O., 1968, Demonstration of a receptor reserve for acetylcholine in the human fetus, Acta Physiol. Scand. 72:194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Borgström, B., Lindquist, B., and Lundh, G., 1960, Enzyme concentration and absorption of protein and glucose in duodenum of premature infants, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 99:338.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Borgström, B., Lindqvist, B., and Lundh, G., 1961, Digestive studies in children, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 101:454.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Botha, G. S. M., 1958, The gastro-oesophageal region in infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 33:78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bracco, V., 1973, Human milk lipids and problems related to their replacement, in: Dietary Lipids and Postnatal Development (C. Galli, G. Jacini, and A. Pecile, eds.), pp. 23–39, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brambell, F. W. R., 1970, The Transition of Passive Immunity from Mother to Young, North Holland-American Elsevier, Amsterdam and New York.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cathie, I. A. B., 1947, Breast feeding in erythroblastosis foetalis, Br. Med. J. 2:650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Challacombe, D. N., Edkins, S., and Brown, G. A., 1975, Duodenal bile acids in infancy, cited from: Pediatric Gastroenterology (C. M. Anderson and R. Burke, eds.), Fig. 4.14, p. 142, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chandran, R. C., Parry, R. M., and Shahani, K. M., 1968, Lysozyme, lipase and ribonuclease in milk of various species, J. Dairy Sci. 51:606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cho, D., 1931, Histological investigation of the digestive tract of the human fetus. II. Development of small intestines, Jpn. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 14:324.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choremis, K., Kyriakides, B., Nestorides, M., and Zoumboulakis, D., 1956, La courbe lipemique chez l’enfant normal et l’enfant dystrophique, Sem. Hop. 32:1440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cohen, M., Morgan, R. G. H., and Hofmann, A. F., 1971, Lipolytic activity of human gastric and duodenal juice against medium and long chain triglycerides, Gastroenterology 60:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Colley, J. R. T., and Cramer, B., 1958, Sucking and swallowing in infants, Br. Med. J. 2:422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cook, G. C., 1967, Lactase activity in newborn and infant Baganda, Br. Med. J. 1:527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cornes, J. S., 1965, Number, size and distribution of Peyer’s patches in the human small intestine. I. The development of Peyer’s patches; II. The effect of age on Peyer’s patches, Gut 6:225, 229.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cummins, A. J., andJussila, R., 1955, Comparison of glucose absorption rates in the upper and lower human small intestine, Gastroenterology 29:982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dahlqvist, A., and Lindberg, T., 1966, Development of the intestinal disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the human foetus, Clin. Sci. 30:517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dahlqvist, A., Lindberg, T., Meeuwisse, G., and Akerman, M., 1970, Intestinal dipeptidases and disaccharidases in children with malabsorption, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 59:621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dancis, J., Lind, J., Oratz, M., Smolens, J., and Vara, P., 1961, Placental transfer of proteins in human gestation, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82:167.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Daniels, V. G., Hardy, R. N., and Malinowska, K. W., 1973, The effect of adrenalectomy or pharmacological inhibition of adrenocortical function on macromolecule uptake by the new-born rat intestine, J. Physiol. 229:697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Davidson, M., and Bauer, C. H., 1960, Patterns of fat excretion in feces of premature infants fed various preparations of milk, Pediatrics 25:375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Davison, W. C., 1925, The duodenal contents of infants in health and during and following diarrhea, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 29:743.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Delachaume-Salem, E., and Sarles, H., 1970, Normal human pancreatic secretion in relation to age, Biol. Gastro-Enterol. 2:135, Suppl. 2 Google Scholar
  62. 61a.
    Delachaume-Salem, E., and Sarles, H., 1970, Normal human pancreatic secretion in relation to age,Arch. Fr. Mal. Appareil Digestif 59:10, 11.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    DeVizia, B., Ciccimarra, F., DeCicco, N., and Auricchio, S., 1975, Digestibility of starches in infants and children, J. Pediatr. 86:50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Droese, W., 1952, Über die Fettoleranz der Säuglinge. Klinisch-experimentelle Untersuchung des Gallensäuren- und Lipasengehaltes im Duodenalsaft, Ann. Paediatr. 178:121, 238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Droese, W., 1952, Untersuchungen über den Gallensäuren- und Lipasengehalt im Duodenalsaft von Säuglingen, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 100:233.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Droese, W., and Stolley, H., 1960, Probleme des FettstofFwechsels in der Säuglingsernährung, Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 62:281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Droese, W., and Stolley, H., 1961, Kuhmilchfett und pflanzliches Fett in der Ernährung des jungen, gesunden Säuglings, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 17:855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Droese, W., and Stolley, H., 1967, Zur Frage der Calcium-Ausnützung gesunder Säuglinge bei Ernährung mit Kuhmilchmischungen mit unterschiedlichem Fettgehalt, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 115:238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Eades, S., 1968, Hypocalcémie fits in neonates, Lancet 1:644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Eggermont, E., 1966, Enzymic activities in meconium from human foetuses and newborns, Biol. Neonate 10:266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Ellis, D. G., and Clatworthy, H. W., 1966, The meconium plug syndrome revisited, J. Pediatr. Surg. 1:54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Encrantz, J.-C., and Sjövall, J., 1957, Bile acids in newborn and adult humans, Acta Chem. Scand. 11:1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Encrantz, J.-C., and Sjövall, J., 1959, On the bile acids in duodenal contents of infants and children, Clin. Chim. Acta 4:793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Falck, B., Hakanson, R., Owman, C., and Sjöberg, N.-O., 1967, Monoamine-storing cells of the enterochromamn type in gastrointestinal tract of human fetus, Acta Physiol. Scand. 71:403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Farber, S., Shwachman, H., and Maddock, C. L., 1943, Pancreatic function and disease in early life. 1. Pancreatic enzyme activity and the celiac syndrome, J. Clin. Invest. 22:827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Feinstein, M. S., and Smith, C.A., 1951, Digestion of protein by premature infants, Pediatrics 7:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Fekete, M., Galfi, I., Soltesz, G., and Mestyan, J., 1969, Lactose absorption in growth retarded newborn infants, Acta Paediatr. Acad. Sci. Hung. 10:303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Filer, L. J., Mattson, F. H., and Fomon, S. J., 1969, Triglyceride configuration and fat absorption by the human infant, J.Nutr. 99:293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Flatz, G., Saengudom, C., and Sanguanbhokhai, T., 1969, Lactose intolerance in Thailand, Nature (London) 221:758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Fomina, L. S., 1960, Soderzhanije nekotorikh ferm-entov v kishechnikje i drugikh organakh ploda chelovjeka, Vopr. Med. Chim. 6(2): 176.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Fomon, S. J., 1961, Nitrogen balance studies with normal full-term infants receiving high intakes of protein, Pediatrics 28:347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Fomon, S. J., 1974, Infant Nutrition, 2nd Ed., W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Fomon, S. J., Owen, G. M., Jensen, R. L., and Thomas, L. N., 1963, Calcium and phosphorous balance studies with normal full-term infants fed pooled human milk or various formulas, Amer. f. Clin. Nutr. 12:346.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Fomon, S. J., Ziegler, E. E., Thomas, L. N., Jensen, R. L., and Filer, L. J., 1970, Excretion of fat by normal full-term infants fed various milks and formulas, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 23:1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Fordtran, J. S., and Ingelfinger, F. J., 1968, Absorption of water, electrolytes, and sugars from the human gut, in: Handbook of Physiology, Sec. 6, Alimentary Canal Vol. III. Intestinal Absorption (C. F. Code, ed.), pp. 1457–1490, American Physiological Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Fordtran, J. S., Clodi, P. H., Soergel, K. H., and Ingelfinger, F. J., 1962, Sugar absorption tests, with special reference to 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose, Ann. Intern. Med. 57:883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Fordtran, J. S., Levitan, R., Bikerman, V., Barrows, B. A., and Ingelfinger, F. J., 1961, The kinetics of water absorption in the human intestine, Trans. Assoc. Amer. Physicians 74:195.Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Furihata, C., Kawachi, T., and Sugimura, T., 1972, Premature induction of pepsinogen in developing rat gastric mucosa by hormones, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 47:705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Galand, G., and Forstner, G. G., 1974, Isolation of microvillus plasma membranes from suckling-rat intestine, Biochem. J. 144:293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Garbarsch, C., and Von Bulow, F. A., 1969, Histochemical and electron microscopical studies on the epithelium of the fetal colon with special reference to the occurrence of lipids, Histochemie 20:201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Garby, L., and Sjölin, S., 1959, Absorption of labelled iron in infants less than three months of age, Acta Paediatr. (Uppsala) 48:24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Gerlovin, E. M., 1963, Structure of the gastrointestinal mucosa of children of different ages, in: Proceedings of the Sixth Scientific Conference on Problems of Developmental Morphology, Physiology and Biochemistry, p. 41, University Press, Charkov.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Ghai, O. P., Singh, M., Walia, B. N. S., and Gadekar, N. G., 1965, An assessment of gastric acid secretory response with maximal augmented histamine stimulation in children with peptic ulcer, Arch. Dis. Child. 40:77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Gibbs, G. E., 1950, Secretin test with bilumen gastro-duodenal drainage in infants and children, Pediatrics 5:941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Gitlin, D., Kumate, J., Morales, C., Noriega, L., and Arevalo, N., 1972, The turnover of amniotic fluid protein in the human conceptus, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113:632.Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Gompertz, S. M., and Sammons, H. G., 1963, The origin of faecal lipids, Clin. Chim. Acta 8:591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Gordon, H. H., and McNamara, H., 1941, Fat excretion of premature infants, I. Effect on fecal fat of decreasing fat intake, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 62:328.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Gordon, H. H., Levine, S. Z., Wheatley, M. A., and Marples, E., 1937, Respiratory metabolism in infancy and in childhood, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 54:1030.Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Gorten, M. K., 1965, Iron metabolism in premature infants, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 17:322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Götze, C., Schäfer, K. H., Heinrich, H. C., and Bartels, H., 1970, Eisenstoffwechselstudien an Frühgeborenen und gesunden Reifgeborenen während des ersten Lebensjahres mit dem Ganzkörperzähler und anderen Methoden, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 118:210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Gracey, M., and Burke, V., 1973, Sugar-induced diarrhoea in children, Arch. Dis. Child. 48:331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Gray, G. M., and Ingelfinger, F. J., 1966, Intestinal absorption of sucrose in man: Interrelation of hydrolysis and monosaccharide product absorption J. Clin. Invest. 45:388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Griffith, G. H., Owen, G. M., Campbell, H., and Shields, R., 1968, Gastric emptying in health and in gastroduodenal disease, Gastroenterology 54:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Gruskay, F. L., and Cooke, R. E., 1955, The gastrointestinal absorption of unaltered protein in normal infants and in infants recovering from diarrhea, Pediatrics 16:763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Gryboski, J. D., 1965, The swallowing mechanism of the neonate. I. Esophageal and gastric motility, Pediatrics 35:455.Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Gryboski, J. D., 1969, Suck and swallow in the premature infant, Pediatrics 43:96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Gryboski, J. D., Thayer, W. R., Jr., and Spiro, H. M., 1963, Esophageal motility in infants and children, Pediatrics 31:382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Guilbert, P. W., and Barbero, G. J., 1954, The importance of trypsin in infancy and childhood. II. Clinical considerations, Amer. J. Med. Sci. 227:672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Gundobin, N., 1892, Über den Bau des Darmkanals bei Kindern, Jahrb. Kinderheilkd. 33:439.Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Hadorn, B., Zoppi, G., Shmerling, D. H., Prader, A., McIntyre, I., and Anderson, C. M., 1968, Quantitative assessment of exocrine pancreatic function in infants and children, J. Pediatr. 73:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Hamilton, B., 1922–1923, The calcium and phosphorus metabolism of prematurely born infants, Acta Paediatr. 2:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Hamosh, M., and Scow, R. O., 1973, Lingual lipase and its role in the digestion of dietary fat, J. Clin. Invest. 52:88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Hamosh, M., Klaeveman, H. L., Wolf, R. O., and Scow, R. O., 1975, Pharyngeal lipase and digestion of dietary triglyceride in man, J.Clin. Invest. 55:908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Hanna, F. M., Navarrete, D. A., and Hsu, F. A., 1970, Calcium-fatty acid absorption in term infants fed human milk and prepared formulas simulating human milk, Pediatrics 45:216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Harries, J. T., and Fraser, A. J., 1968, The acidity of the gastric contents of premature babies during the first fourteen days of life, Biol. Neonate 12:186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Hart, S. L., 1974, The actions of prostaglandins E2 and F2α on human foetal intestine, Br. J. Pharmacol. 50:159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Hart, S. L., and Mir, M. S., 1971, Adrenoceptors in the human foetal small intestine, Br. J. Pharmacol. 41:54.Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Hawkins, K. I., 1970, Pediatric xylose absorption test: Measurements in blood preferable to measurements in urine, Clin. Chem. 16:749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Heilskov, N. S. C., 1951, Studies on animal lactase. II. Distribution in some of the glands of the digestive tract, Acta Physiol. Scand. 24:84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Heinrich, H. C., and Bartels, H., 1967, Bestimmungsmethoden und Normalbereiche der intestinalen Eisenresorption beim Menschen, Klin. Wochenschr. 45:553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Heinrich, H. C., Bartels, H., Götze, C., and Schäfer, K. H., 1969, Normalbereich der intestinalen Eisenresorption bei Neugeborenen und Säuglingen, Klin. Wochenschr. 47:984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Heinrich, H. C., Gabbe, E. E., Whang, D. H., Bender-Götze, C., and Schäfer, K. H., 1975, Ferrous and hemoglobin- 59Fe absorption from supplemented cow milk in infants with normal and depleted iron stores, Z.Kinderheilkd. 120:251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Heringova, A., Koldovsky, O., Jirsova, V., Uher, J., Noack, R., Friedrich, H., and Schenk, G., 1966, Proteolytic and peptidase activities of the small intestine of human fetuses, Gastroenterology 51:1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Heyndrickx, G. V., 1962, Investigations on the enzymes in human milk, Ann. Pediatr. (Basel) 198:356.Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Hirata, Y., Matsuo, T., and Kokubu, H., 1965, Digestion and absorption of milk protein in infants’ intestine, Kobe J. Med. Sci. 11:103.Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., 1955, Pepsinogen in the blood, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 46:568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Holdsworth, C. D., and Dawson, A. M., 1964, The absorption of monosaccharides in man, Clin. Sci. 27:371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Holt, E. L., Jr., 1955, Celiac disease—What is it?, J. Pediatr. 46:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Holt, L. E., Courtney, A. M., and Fales, H. L., 1919, Fat metabolism of infants and young children. I. Fat in the stools of breast fed infants; II. Fat in the stools of infants fed on modifications of cow’s milk, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 17:241, 423.Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Holt, L. E., Tidwell, H. C., Kirk, C. M., Cross, D. M., and Neale, S., 1935, Studies in fat metabolism. I. Fat absorption in normal infants, J. Pediatr. 6:427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Holtzapple, P. G., Smith, G., and Koldovsky, O., 1975, Uptake, activation, and esterification of fatty acids in the small intestine of the suckling rat, Pediatr. Res. 9:786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Huang, S. S., and Bayless, T. M., 1967, Lactose intolerance in healthy children, N. Engl. J. Med. 276:1283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Husband, J., and Husband, P., 1969, Gastric emptying of water and glucose solutions in the newborn, Lancet 2:409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Husband, J., Husband, P., and Mallinson, C. N., 1970, Gastric emptying of starch meals in the newborn, Lancet 2:290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Ibrahim, J., 1910, Die Doppelzucker fermente (Lactase, Maltase, Invertin) beim menschlichen Neugeborenen und Embryo, I. Mitteilung, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 66:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Ibrahim, J., and Kaumheimer, L., 1910, Die Doppelzuckerfermente (Lactase, Maltase, Invertin) beim menschlichen Neugeborenen und Embryo, II. Mitteilung, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 66:37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Ingomar, C. J., and Terslev, E., 1967, Chronic diarrhoeas in infancy and childhood. II. Enzyme content of duodenal juice, Arch. Dis. Child. 42:289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Iyengar, L., and Selvaraj, R. J., 1972, Intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins by newborn infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 47:411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    James, W. P. T., 1970, Sugar absorption and intestinal motility in children when malnourished and after treatment, Clin. Sci. 39:305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Jarrett, E. C., and Holman, G. H., 1966, Lactose absorption in the premature infant, Arch. Dis. Child. 41:525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Jaykka, S., 1961, The problem of dormant fetal organs: The kidneys, lung, and the gut, Biol. Neonate 3:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Jirák, J. E., Uher, J., and Koldovsky, O., 1965, A histochemical analysis of the development of the small intestine of human fetuses, Acta Histochem. (Jena) 22:33.Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Jirsova, V., Koldovský O., Heringova, A., HoSková J., Jirák, J., and Uher, S., 1966, The development of the functions of the small intestine of the human fetus, Biol. Neonate 9:44.Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    Jirsova, V., Koldovsky, O., Heringova, A., Uher, J., and Jodl, J., 1968, Development of invertase activity in the intestines of human fetuses, appearance of jejunoileal differences, Biol. Neonate 13:143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Jit, A., 1956, The development of the muscular coats in the human oesophagus, stomach and small intestine, J. Anat. Soc. India 5:1.Google Scholar
  146. 145.
    Jit, A., 1957, The development of the muscularis mucosae in the human gastrointestinal tract, J. Anat. Soc. India 6:83.Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    Jit, A., 1958, Development of the muscularis coats of the large intestine, J. Anat. Soc. India 7:9.Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Jit, I., 1974, Development of striated muscle fibres in the human oesophagus, Indian J. Med. Res. 62:838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Jit, I., 1974, Prenatal and postnatal structure of the anal canal and development of its sphincters, J. Anat. Soc. India 23:37.Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Jit, I., 1974, Muscularis submucosae ani and its development, J. Anat. 118:11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Johnson, A. L., Scott, R. B., and Newman, L. H., 1950, “Tween 20” and fecal fat in premature infants, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 80:545.Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    Jones, D. V., and Latham, M. C., 1974, Lactose intolerance in young children and their parents, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 27:547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Jubelin J., and Oyer, J., 1972, The lipolytic activity of human milk, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2:417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Kahn, W., 1922, Weitere Mitteilungen über die Dauer der Darmpassage im Säuglingsalter, Z. Kinderheilkd. 33:48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Katz, L., and Hamilton, J. R., 1974, Fat absorption in infants ofbirth-weight less than 1,300 gm, J. Pediatr. 85:608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Keene, M. F. L., and Hewer, E. E., 1929, Digestive enzymes of the human foetus, Lancet 1:767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Keusch, G. T., Troncale, F. J., Miller, L. H., Promadhat, V., and Anderson, P. R., 1969, Acquired lactose malabsorption in Thai children, Pediatrics 43:540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Klumpp, T. G., and Neale, A. V., 1930, The gastric and duodenal contents of normal infants and children, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 40:1215.Google Scholar
  159. 158.
    Kobayashi, A., Kawai, S., Ohbe, Y., and Nagashima, Y., 1975, Effects of dietary lactose and a lactase preparation on the intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in normal infants, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 28:681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Kobayashi, A., Utsunomiya, T., Ohbe, Y., and Nagashima, Y., 1974, Intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in hepatobiliary disease in infancy, Arch. Dis. Child. 49:90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Kojecky, Z., and Malinsky, J., 1974, Differentiation of E cells in human intestinal mucosa during prenatal period, Abstract, Proceedings of the International Nutrition Congress—Mexico, p. 266.Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    Koldovsky, O., 1969, Development of the Functions of the Small Intestine in Mammals and Man, S. Karger, Basel and New York.Google Scholar
  163. 162.
    Koldovsky, O., 1970, Digestion and absorption during development, in: Physiology of the Perinatal Period (U. Stave, ed.), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    Koldovsky, O., 1972, Hormonal and dietary factors in the development of digestion and absorption, in: Nutrition and Development (M. Winick, ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Koldovský, O., Hahn, P., Melichar, V., Novak, M., Procházka, P., Rokos, J., and Vacek, Z., 1963, Absorption and transport of lipids from the small intestine of infant rats, in: Biochemical Problems of Lipids, Biochem. Biophys. Acta Library, Vol. I, pp. 161–169, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  166. 165.
    Koldovsky, O., Jumawan, J., and Palmieri, M., 1975, Effect of thyroidectomy on the activity of a-glucosidases and acid hydrolases in the small intestine of rats during weaning, J. Endocrinol. 66:31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Koldovsky, O., Palmieri, M., and Jumawan, J., 1972, Inhibition of the cortisone-evoked increase of intestinal sucrase by actinomycin D1, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Koldovsky, O., Sunshine, P., and Kretchmer, N., 1966, Cellular migration of intestinal epithelia in suckling and weaned rats, Nature (London) 212:1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Koshtoyants, C. S., 1931, Beitrag zur Physiologie des Embryos (Embryosecretin), Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. 227:359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Koshtoyants, C. S., and Mitropolitanskaya, R. D., 1934, 1935, Fiziol Zh. USSR 17:309 (1934)Google Scholar
  171. 169a.
    Koshtoyants, C. S., and Mitropolitanskaya, R. D., 1934, 1935, Fiziol Zh. USSR 19:687 (1935)Google Scholar
  172. 169b.
    cited by Moratchevskaya, E. V., 1953, Characteristics of motor activity of the gut in different age periods, Fiziol. Zh. USSR 39:437.Google Scholar
  173. 170.
    Kretchmer, N., 1972, Lactose and lactase, Sci. Amer. 227:71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Kretchmer, N., Ransome-Kuti, O., Hurwitz, R., Dungy, C., and Alakija, W., 1971, Intestinal absorption of lactose in Nigerian ethnic groups, Lancet 2:392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    Kulangara, A. O., Menon, M. K. K., and Willmott, M., 1965, Passage of bovine serum albumin from the uterine lumen into the human foetus, Nature (London) 206:1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 173.
    Laitio, M., Lev, R., and Orlic, D., 1974, The developing human fetal pancreas: An ultrastructural and histochemical study with special reference to exocrine cells, J.Anat. 117:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 174.
    Langworthy, C. F., 1923, The digestibility of fats, Ind. Eng. Chem. 15:276; cited according to Holt et al. (129) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 175.
    Lanzkowsky, P., Madenlioglu, M., Wilson, J. F., and Lahey, M. E., 1963, Oral D-xylose test in healthy infants and children, N. Engl. J. Med. 268:1441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 176.
    Laskowski, M., Jr., and Laskowski, M., 1951, Crystalline trypsin inhibitor from colostrum, J. Biol. Chem. 190:563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 177.
    Lavy, U., 1974, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  181. 177a.
    cited according to Watkins, J. B., 1974, Bile acid metabolism and fat absorption in newborn infants, Pediatr. Clin. North Amer. 21:501.Google Scholar
  182. 178.
    Lavy, U., Silverberg, M., and Davidson, M., 1971, Role of bile acids in fat absorption in low birth weight infants, Pediatr. Res. 5:387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 179.
    Lebenthal, E., Sunshine, P., and Kretchmer, N., 1973, Characterization of human intestinal lactase and β-galactosidase in infants and adults, Gastroenterology 177:863.Google Scholar
  184. 180.
    Leissring, J. C., Anderson, J. W., and Smith, D. W., 1962, Uptake of antibodies by the intestine of the newborn infant, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 103:160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 181.
    Le Quesne, G. W., and Reilly, B. J., 1975, Functional immaturity of the large bowel in the newborn infant, Radiol. Clin. North Amer. 13:331.Google Scholar
  186. 182.
    Lev, R., and Orlic, D., 1974, Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon, Histochemistry 39:301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 183.
    Lev, R., Siegel, H. I., and Bartman, J., 1972, Histochemical studies of developing human fetal small intestine, Histochemie 29:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 184.
    Levin, R., Koldovský, O., HoSková, J., and Jirsová, V., 1968, Electrical activity across human foetal small intestine associated with absorption processes, Gut 9:206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 185.
    Lieberman, J., 1966, Proteolytic enzyme activity in tetal pancreas and meconium, Gastroenterology 50:183.Google Scholar
  190. 186.
    Lifshitz, F., Diaz-Bensussen, S., Martinez-Garza, V., Abdo-Bassols, F., and Del Castillo, E. D., 1971, Influence of disaccharides on the development of systemic acidosis in the premature infant, Pediatr. Res. 5:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 187.
    Lilibridge, C. B., and Townes, P. L., 1973, Physiologic deficiency of pancreatic amylase in infancy: A factor in iatrogenic diarrhea, J. Pediatr. 82:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 188.
    Lindberg, T., 1966, Intestinal dipeptdases: Characterization, development and distribution of intestinal dipeptidases of the human foetus, Clin. Sci. 30:505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 189.
    Lindberg, T., 1974, Proteolytic activity in duodenal juice in infants, children, and adults, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 63:805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 190.
    Lippard, V. W., Schloss, O. M., and Johnson, P. A., 1936, Immune reactions induced in infants by intestinal absorption of incompletely digested cow’s milk protein, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 51:562.Google Scholar
  195. 191.
    Liu, H. M., and Potter, E. L., 1962, Development of the human pancreas, Arch. Patol. 74:439.Google Scholar
  196. 192.
    Lugo-de-Rivera, C., rodriguez, H., and Torres-Pinedo, R., 1972, Studies on the mechanism of sugar malabsorption in infantile infectious diarrhea, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 25:1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 193.
    Luther, G., and Schreier, K., 1963, Untersuchungen zur Resorption einzelner Fettsäuren an Säuglingen, Klin. Wochenschr. 41:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 194.
    MacLaurin, J. C., Murphy, W., Watson, J., and Stewart, M. E., 1975, Fat, calcium and nitrogen balance in full-term infants, Postgrad. Med. J. 51:45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 195.
    Madey, S., and Dancis, J., 1949, Proteolytic enzymes of the premature infant, Pediatrics 4:177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 196.
    Mahdi, S., and Heine, W., 1974, Die intestinale Eisenresorption aus eisenangereicherter Säuglingsnahrung bei 1 bis 4 Monate alten Säuglingen, Kindeaerztl. Prax. 42:505.Google Scholar
  201. 197.
    Malpress, F. H., 1967, Rennin and the gastric secretion of normal infants, Nature (London) 215:855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 198.
    Mason, S., 1962, Some aspects of gastric function in the newborn, Arch. Dis. Child. 37:387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 199.
    McClain, C. R., 1963, Amniography studies of the gastrointestinal activity of the human fetus, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:1079.Google Scholar
  204. 200.
    McCracken, R. D., 1971, Lactose intolerance and dietary evolution, Curr. Anthropol. 12:479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    McMurphy, D. M., and Boreus, L. O., 1968, Pharmacology of the human fetus: Adrenergic receptor function in the small intestine, Biol. Neonate 13:325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 202.
    Meeuwisse, G. W., and Dano, G., 1965, The xylose absorption test in infancy, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 54:33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 203.
    Melichar, V., Novak, M., Hahn, P., Koldovsky, O., and Zeman, L., 1962, Changes in the blood levels of lipid metabolites and glucose following a fatty meal in infants, Acta Paediatr. 51:481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 204.
    Miettinen, T. A., and Siurala, M., 1971, Bile salts, sterols, sterol esters, glycerides and fatty acids in micellar and oil phases of intestinal contents during fat digestion in man, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 9:41.Google Scholar
  209. 205.
    Mignone, F., and Castello, D., 1961, Ricerche sulla secrezione gastrica di acido cloridrico nelTimmaturo, Minerva Pediatr. 13:1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 206.
    Miller, R. A., 1941, Observations on the gastric acidity during the first month of life, Arch. Dis. Child. 16:22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 207.
    Milner, R. D. G., Deodhar, V., Chard, C. R., and Grout, R. M., 1975, Fat absorption by small babie fed two filled milk formulae, Arch. Dis. Child. 50:654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 208.
    Morales, S., Chung, A. W., Lewis, J. M., Messina, A., and Holt, L. E., Jr., 1950, Absorption of fat and vitamin A in premature infants. I. Effect of different levels of fat intake on the retention of fat and vitamin A; II. Effect of particle size on the absorption of these substances, Pediatrics 6:86, 644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 209.
    Morris, J. G., 1968, Gamma globulin absorption in the newborn, in: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. VI. Alimentary Canal, Vol. III, Intestinal Absorption (C. Code, ed.), p. 1491, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  214. 210.
    Murano, G., and Di Toro, R., 1970, I lipidi nella alimentazione deirimmaturo nelle prime epoche della vita, Pediatria 5:781.Google Scholar
  215. 211.
    Nomura, Y., 1966, On the submicroscopic morphogenesis of parietal cell in the gastric gland of the human fetus, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 125:316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 212.
    Norman, A., and Strandvik, B., 1973, Bile acid excretion after disappearance of jaundice in intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy, Acta Pediatr. Scand. 62:264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 213.
    Norman, A., Stranvik, B., and Ojamae, O., 1972, Bile acids and pancreatic enzymes during absorption in the newborn, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61:571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 214.
    Ocklitz, H. W., and Reinmuth, B., 1959, Fettbilanzstudien bei Frühgeborenen, Z. Kinderheilkd. 82:321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 215.
    Oettinger, L., Mills, W. B., and Hahn, P. F., 1954, Iron absorption in premature and full term infants, J. Pediatr. 45:302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 216.
    Okamoto, E., and Ueda, T., 1967, Embryogenesis of intramural ganglia of the gut and its relation to Hirschsprung disease, J. Pediatr. Surg. 2:437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 217.
    Olantunbosun, D. A., and Adadevoh, B. K., 1972, Lactose intolerance in Nigerian children, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61:715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 218.
    Olivecrona, T., Billstrom, A., Fredrikzon, B., Johnson, O., and Samuelson, G., 1973, Gastric lipolysis of human milk lipids in infants with pyloric stenosis, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62:520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 219.
    Paige, D. M., Leonardo, E., Cordano, A., Nakashima, J., Adrianzen, T. B., and Graham, G. G., 1972, Lactose intolerance in Peruvian children: Effect of age and early nutrition, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 25:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 220.
    Parat, M., 1924, Histophysiology of digestive organs in embryo, C. R. Soc. Biol. 90:1023.Google Scholar
  225. 221.
    Patzelt, B. M., 1931, Die feinere Ausbildung des menschlichen Darmes von der fünften Woche bis zur Geburt, Z. Mikrosk.-Anat. Forsch. 27:269.Google Scholar
  226. 222.
    Pelichovâ, H., Koldovsky, O., Uher, J., Kraml, J., Heringová, A., and Jirsovä, V., 1966, Fetal development of nonspecific esterase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the small intestine of man, Biol. Neonate 10:281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 223.
    Peric-Golia, L., and Socic, H., 1968, Biliary bile acids and cholesterol in developing sheep, Amer. J. Physiol. 215:1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 224.
    Pildes, R. S., Hart, R. J., Warrner, R., and Cornblath, M., 1969, Plasma insulin response during oral glucose tolerance tests in newborns of normal and gestational diabetic mothers, Pediatrics 44:76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 225.
    Poley, J. R., Dower, J. C., Owen, C. A., Jr., and Stickler, G. B., 1964, Bile acids in infants and children, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 63:838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 226.
    Prinsloo, J. G., Wittmann, W., Kruger, H., and Freier, E., 1971, Lactose absorption and mucosal disaccharidases in convalescent pellagra and Kwashiorkor children, Arch. Dis. Child. 46:474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 227.
    Pritchard, J. A., 1965, Deglutition by normal and anencephalic fetuses, Obstet. Gynecol. 25:289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 228.
    Reddy, V., and Pershad, J., 1972, Lactase deficiency in Indians, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 25:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 229.
    Ricour, C., and Rey, J., 1970, Study of the oil and micellar phases during fat digestion in the normal child, Rev. Eur. Etud. Clin. Biol. 15:287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 230.
    Rodbro, P., and Christiansen, P. M., 1967, Quantitative determination of gastric intrinsic factor after large histamine doses in healthy persons, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 19:186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 231.
    Rodbro, P., Krasilnikoff, P. A., and Bitsch, V., 1967, Gastric secretion of pepsin in early childhood, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 232.
    Rodbro, P., Krasilnikoff, P. A., and Christiansen, P. M, 1967, Parietal cell secretory function in early childhood, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2:209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 233.
    Rogers, I. M., Davidson, D. C., Lawrence, J., Ardill, J., and Buchanan, K. D., 1974, Neonatal secretion of gastrin and glucagon, Arch. Dis. Child. 49:796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 234.
    Rogers, I. M., Davidson, D. C., Lawrence, J., and Buchanan, K. D., 1975, Neonatal secretion of secretin, Arch. Dis. Child. 50:120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 235.
    Rossi, F., Pescetto, G., and Reale, E., 1957, Enzymatic activities in human ontogenesis: First synoptic tables of histochemical research, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 5:221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 236.
    Rothberg, R. M., 1969, Immunoglobulin and specific antibody synthesis during the first weeks of life of premature infants, J.Paediatr. 75:391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 237.
    Roy, C. C., Ste-Marie, M., Chartrand, L., Weber, A., Bard, H., and Doray, B., 1975, Correction of the malabsorption of the preterm infant with a medium-chain triglyceride formula, J. Pediatr. 86:446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 238.
    Rubaltelli, F., and Largajolli, G., 1973, Effect of light exposure on gut transit time in jaundiced newborns, Acta Pediatr. Scand. 62:146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 239.
    Rubino, A., Pierro, M., La Torretta, G., Vetrella, M., Di Martino, D., and Auricchio, S., 1969, Studies on intestinal hydrolysis of peptides. II. Dipeptidase activity toward L-glutaminyl-L-proline and glycyl-L-proline in the small intestine of the human fetus, Pediatr. Res. 3:313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 240.
    Ruebner, B. H., Kanayama, R., Bronson, R. T., and Blumenthal, S., 1974, Meconium corpuscles in intestinal epithelium of fetal and newborn primates, Arch. Pathol. 98:396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 241.
    Sahi, T., 1974, The inheritance of selective adult-type lactose malabsorption, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 9(Suppl. 30):1.Google Scholar
  246. 242.
    Sahi, T., Isokoski, M., Jussila, J., and Launiala, K., 1972, Lactose malabsorption in Finnish children of school age, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61:11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 243.
    Salenius, P., 1962, On the ontogenesis of the human gastric epithelial cells, Acta Anat. 50(Suppl. 46):7.Google Scholar
  248. 244.
    Schedl, H. P., and Clifton, J. A., 1963, Kinetics of intestinal absorption in man: Normals and patients with sprue, in: Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Gastroenterology, Munich, 1962, Vol. II, p. 728, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  249. 245.
    Schell, N. B., Karelitz, S., and Epstein, B. S., 1963, Radiographic study of gastric emptying in premature infants, J. Pediatr. 62:342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 246.
    Scheppe, K.J., Zeisel, H., Alletag, U., Habeth, E., and Hecker, H., 1965, Fettadaptierte Milchfertig-nährung im Kinderkraenkenhaus, Med. Ernahr. 6:80.Google Scholar
  251. 247.
    Schipperijn, A. J. M., 1965, Een Bepaling von Castle’s Intrinsic Factor in menselijk Maagsap in vitro, Denderen, Groningen; cited according to Rodbro et als (232) Google Scholar
  252. 248.
    Schmidt, J., and Schreier, K., 1965, Über die Eisenresorption aus Spinat bei jungen Säuglingen, Z. Kinderheilkd. 94:304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 249.
    Schmidt, W., 1967, Über den paraplacentaren, fruchtwassergebunden Stofftransport beim Menschen, Z.Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 126:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 250.
    Schulz, J., and Smith, N. J., 1958, A quantitative study of the absorption of food iron in infants and children, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 95:109.Google Scholar
  255. 251.
    Schulz, J., and Smith, N. J., 1958, Quantitative study of the absorption of iron salt in infants and children, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 95:120.Google Scholar
  256. 252.
    Schwartz, J., 1967, Unpublished observation; cited according to Rodbro et al. (232) Google Scholar
  257. 253.
    Senterre, J., and Lambrechts, A., 1972, Nitrogen, fat and mineral balances in premature infants fed acidified or nonacidified half-skimmed cow milk, Biol. Neonate 20:107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 254.
    Sharp, H. L., Peller, J. Carey, J. B., and Krivit, W., 1971, Primary and secondary bile acids in meconium, Pediatr. Res. 5:274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 255.
    Sheehy, T. W., and Anderson, P. R., 1971, Fetal disaccharidases, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 121:464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 256.
    Shepard, R., Fenn, S., and Sieber, W. K., 1966, Evaluation of esophageal function in postoperative esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, Surgery 59:608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 257.
    Shibuya, S., 1970, A study on lactose intolerance in infancy and childhood, J. Kurume Med. Assoc. 33:1440.Google Scholar
  262. 258.
    Signer, E., and Fridrich, R., 1975, Gastric emptying in newborns and young infants, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 64:525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 259.
    Signer, E., Murphy, G. M., Edkins, S., and Anderson, C. M., 1974, Role of bile salts in fat malabsorption of premature infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 49:174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 260.
    Simmons, F.J., 1969, Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: A problem in biological and cultural interrelation. I. Review of the medical research, Amer. J. Dig. Dis. 14:819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 261.
    Simmons, F.J., 1970, Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: II. Culture historical hypothesis, Amer. J. Dig. Dis. 15:695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 262.
    Smallwood, R. A., Lester, R., Piasecki, G.J., Klein, P. D., Greco, R., and Jackson, B. T., 1972, Fetal bile salt metabolism II. Hepatic excretion of endogenous bile salt and of a taurocholate load, J. Clin. Invest. 51:1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 263.
    Smith, B., 1968, Pre- and postnatal development of the ganglion cells of the rectum and its surgical implications, J. Pediatr. Surg. 3:386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 264.
    Smith, C. A., 1959, The Physiology of the Newborn Infant, pp. 279–286, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  269. 265.
    Smith, D. A., and Nordin, B. E. C., 1964, The effect of a high phosphorus intake on total and ultrafiltrable plasma calcium and on phosphate clearance, Clin. Sci. 26:479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 266.
    Snyderman, S. E., Morales, S., Chung, A. W., Lewis, J. M., Messina, A., and Holt, L. E., 1953, Absorption of fat and vitamin A in premature infants. III. Effect of surface active agents on the absorption of these substances, Pediatrics 12:158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 267.
    Snyderman, S. E., Morales, S., and Holt, L. E., 1955, The absorption of short-chain fats by premature infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 30:83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 268.
    Söderhjelm, L., 1952, Fat absorption studies in children. I. Influence of heat treatment of milk on fat retention by premature infants, Acta Paediatr. 41:207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 269.
    Southgate, D. A. T., and Barett, I. M., 1966, The intake and excretion of calorific constituents of milk by babies, Br. J. Nutr. 20:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 270.
    Southgate, D. A. T., and Widdowson, E. M., 1969. Neonatal metabolism of calcium and fat (a reply), Lancet 1:1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 271.
    Southgate, D. A. T., Widdowson, E. M., Smits, B. J., Cooke, W. T., Walker, C. H. M., and Mathers, N. P., 1969, Absorption and excretion of calcium and fat by young infants, Lancet 1:487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 272.
    Stolley, H., and Drese, W., 1967, Die Ausnützung von Gesamtfettsäuren und Calcium von gesunden Säuglingen im I. Lebens vier terljahr in Abhängigheit vom Fettsäurengehalt und von der Fettsäuren-Zusammensetzung in Milchmischungen, Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 69:291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 273.
    Tachibana, T., 1928, Lipase in pancreas, Jpn. J. Obstet. 11:92.Google Scholar
  278. 274.
    Tachibana, T., 1929, Fetus. I. Enzymes in the digestive tract. Trypsinogen in the pancreas; II. A peptone-splitting enzyme in the intestinal canal; III. Lipase in the stomach, Chem. Abstr. 23:5222.Google Scholar
  279. 275.
    Tachibana, T., 1930, Lung lipase in the human fetus and the newborn child. Supplement: Other intestine lipases, Chem. Abstr. 25:5454.Google Scholar
  280. 276.
    Talley, R. B., Schedl, H. P., and Clifton, J. A., 1964, Small intestinal glucose, electolyte, and water absorption in cirrhosis, Gastroenterology 47:382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 277.
    Tantibhedhyangkul, P., and Hashim, S. A., 1971, Enhanced calcium and magnesium absorption in premature infants by feeding formulas containing medium chain triglyceride, Pediatr. Res. 5:387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 278.
    Tantibhedhyangkul, P., and Hashim, S. A., 1975, Medium-chain triglyceride feeding in premature infants: Effects on fat and nitrogen absorption, Pediatrics 55:359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 279.
    Tarassuk, N. P., Nickerson, T. A., and Yaguchi, M., 1964, Lipase action in human milk, Nature (London) 201:298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 280.
    Tidwell, H. C., Holt, L. E., Farrow, H. L., and Neale, S., 1935, Studies in fat metabolism, J. Pediatr. 6:481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 281.
    Tobeck, A., 1925, Über angeborene Verschlusse (Atresien) des Darmrohres (gleichzeitig ein Beitrag zur Frage der Enstehung der Meconium Körperchen), Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 265:330.Google Scholar
  286. 282.
    Torres-Pinedo, R., Conde, E., Robillard, G., and Maldonadeo, M., 1968, Studies on infant diarrhea. III. Changes in composition of saline and glucose-saline solutions instilled into the colon, Pediatrics 42:303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 283.
    Torres-Pinedo, R., Rivera, C. L., and Fernandez, S., 1966, Studies on infant diarrhea. II. Absorption of glucose and net fluxes of water and sodium chloride in a segment of the jejunum, J. Clin. Invest. 45:1916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 284.
    Uffelman, J., 1881, Über den Fettgehalt der Faeces von Säuglingen, Arch. Kinderheilkd. 2:1.Google Scholar
  289. 285.
    Van De Kamer, J. H., and Weijers, H. A., 1961, Malabsorption syndrome, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 7:333.Google Scholar
  290. 286.
    Vanhoutte, J. J., and Katzman, P., 1973, Roent-genographic manifestation of immaturity of the intestinal neural plexus in premature infants, Radiology 106:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 287.
    Vazquez, C., 1951, La funcion pancreatica del recien nacido, Rev. Esp. Pediatr. 7:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 288.
    Veghelyi, P. V., 1949, Pancreatic enzymes: Normal output and comparison of different methods of assay, Pediatrics 3:749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 289.
    Vinnik, I. E., Kern, F., Jr., and Sussman, K. E., 1965, The effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin on glucose absorption by the small intestine in man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 66:131.Google Scholar
  294. 290.
    Von Bergmann, J., Von Bergmann, K., Hadorn, B., and Paumgartner, G., 1975, Biliary lipid composition in early childhood, Clin. Chim. Acta 64:241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 291.
    Wadsworth, G. R., 1969, Neonatal metabolism of calcium and fat, Lancet 1:1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 292.
    Wagner, H., 1961, The development to full functional maturity of the gastric mucosa and the kidneys in the fetus and newborn, Biol. Neonate 3:257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 293.
    Walker, W. A., and Isselbacher, K. J., 1974, Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine, Gastroenterology 67:531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 294.
    Walzer, M., 1927, Studies on absorption of undigested proteins in human beings. I. A simple direct method of studying the absorption of undigested proteins, J. Immunol. 14:143.Google Scholar
  299. 295.
    Wasson, W. W., 1941, Study of gastrointestinal tract of children and its relation to adult, Radiology 37:277.Google Scholar
  300. 296.
    Watkins, J. B., Bliss, M., Donaldson, R. M., and Lester, R., 1974, Characterization of newborn fecal lipid, Pediatrics 53:511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 297.
    Watkins, J. B., Ingall, D., Szczepanik, P., Klein, P. D., and Lester, R., 1973, Bile-salt metabolism in the newborn: Measurement of pool size and synthesis by stable isotope technic, N Engl. J. Med. 288:431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 298.
    Watkins, J. B., Klein, P. D., Ingall, D., and Lester, R., 1972, Bile-salt metabolism in newborn infants, Pediatr. Res. 6:432.Google Scholar
  303. 299.
    Watkins, J. B., Szczepanik, P., Gould, J., Klein, P. D., and Lester, R., 1973, Bile-salt kinetics in premature infants: An explanation for inefficient lipid absorption, Gastroenterology 64:817.Google Scholar
  304. 300.
    Watson, W. C., 1965, Intestinal hydrogénation of dietary fatty acids, Clin. Chim. Acta 12:340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 301.
    Weijers, H. A., Drion, E. F., and Van De Kamer, J. H., 1960, Analysis and interpretation of the fat-absorption coefficient, Acta Paediatr. 49:615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 302.
    Welsch, H., Heinz, F., Lagally, G., and Stuhlfauth, K., 1965, Fettresorption aus Frauenmilch beim Neugeborenen, Klin. Wochenschr. 43:902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 303.
    Werner, B., 1948, Peptic and tryptic activity of the digestive glands in newborns. A comparison between premature and full-term infants, Acta Paediatr. (Suppl. 6) 35:65.Google Scholar
  308. 304.
    Whitby, J. D., and Dunkin, L. J., 1970, Oesophageal temperature differences in children, Br. J. Anaesth. 42:1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 305.
    Widdowson, E. M.,1965, Absorption and excretion of fat, nitrogen, and minerals from “filled” milks by babies one week old, Lancet 2:1099.Google Scholar
  310. 306.
    Widdowson, E. M., McCance, R. A., Harrison, G. E., and Sutton, A., 1963, Effect of giving phosphate supplements to breast fed babies on absorption and excretion of calcium, strontium, magnesium and phosphates, Lancet 2:1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 307.
    Williams, M. L., Rose, C. S., Morrow, G., Sloan, S. E., and Barness, L. A., 1970, Calcium and fat absorption in neonatal period, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 23:1322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 308.
    Willich, E., 1973, Insufficiency of the cardia in infancy—manometric and eineradiographic studies, Ann. Radiol. 16:137.Google Scholar
  313. 309.
    Wolf, R. O., and Taussig, L. M., 1973, Human amniotic fluid isoamylases. Functional development of fetal pancreas and salivary glands, Obstet. Gynecol. 41:337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 310.
    Wollaeger, E. E., Comfort, M. W., and Osterberg, A. E., 1947, Total solids, fat and nitrogen in the feces: III. A study of normal persons taking a test diet containing a moderate amount of fat: Comparison with results obtained with normal persons taking a test diet containing a large amount of fat, Gastroenterology 9:272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 311.
    Wolman, I. J., 1943, Gastric digestive secretions in infancy and childhood: A review, Amer. J. Med. Sci. 206:770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 312.
    Wolman, I. J., 1946, Gastric phase of milk digestion in childhood, Amer. J. Dis. Child. 71:394.Google Scholar
  317. 313.
    Woteki, C. E., Weser, E., and Young, E. A., 1976, Lactose malabsorption in Mexican-American children, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 29:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 314.
    Yamashita, F., Shibuya, S., Funatsu, I., Kuno, T., and Ide, H., 1969, Absorption of medium chain triglyceride in the low birth weight infant and evaluation of MCT milk formula for low birth weight infant nutrition using the Latin square technique, KurumeMed.J. 16:191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 315.
    Yeh, K. Y., and Moog, F., 1975, Development of the small intestine in the hypophysectomized rat. II. Influence of cortisone, thyroxine, growth hormone, and prolactin, Dev. Biol. 47:173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 316.
    Younoszai, M. K., 1974, Jejunal absorption of hexose in infants and adults, J. Pediatr. 85:446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 317.
    Yu, V. Y. H., 1975, Effect of body position on gastric emptying in the neonate, Arch. Dis. Child. 50:500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 318.
    Znamenacek, K., and Päibylovä, H., 1963, The effect of glucose and insulin administration on the blood glucose levels of the newborn, Cesk. Pediatr. (Prague) 18:104.Google Scholar
  323. 319.
    Zoppi, G., Andreotti, G., Pajno-Ferrara, F., Njai, D. M., and Gaburro, D., 1972, Exocrine pancreas function in premature and full-term neonates, Pediatr. Res. 6:880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 320.
    Zoppi, G., Shmerling, D. H., Gaburro, D., and Prader, A., 1970, The electrolyte and protein contents and outputs in duodenal juice after pancreozymin and secretin stimulation in normal children and in patients with cystic fibrosis, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 59:692. 321.Google Scholar
  325. 321.
    Zoula, J., Melichar, V., Novâk, M., Hahn, P., andKoldovsky, O., 1966, Nitrogen and fat retention in premature infants fed breast milk, “humanized “cow’s milk or half skimmed cow’s milk, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 55:26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otakar Koldovský
    • 1
  1. 1.Joseph Stokes’ Research Institute, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Department of PediatricsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations