Diagnostic Aspects

  • P. R. Salmon


The diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease has been influenced profoundly by the introduction of fiber-optic endoscopy. Although endoscopic examination of the interior of the bowel was first recorded by Bozzini (1807), Kussmaul (1869) was the first to examine successfully the interior of the stomach employing a 13 mm diam hollow metal tube which was swallowed by a cooperative sword swallower. The illumination source, devised by Desormeux of Paris, was, however, insufficient for the purpose.


Gastric Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Bile Duct Early Gastric Cancer Esophageal Stricture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ariga, K. (1970). Statistique sur le cancer de l’estomac à la lumière de la campagne de dépistage faute au Japon. Am. Gastroent. Hepatol. 6: 307.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, J. (1976). Oesophagoscopy. In Topics in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ( Schiller, K. F. R. and Salmon P. R., eds.). Heineman Medical Press, London.Google Scholar
  3. Blumgart, L. H., Salmon, P. R., and Cotton, P. B. (1974). Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography in the jaundiced patient. Surg., Gynaecol., Obstet. 138: 565.Google Scholar
  4. Boros, E. (1947). Esophagoscopy by means of a flexible instrument: A new esophagogastroscope. Gastroenterology 8: 427.Google Scholar
  5. Borrmann, R., Henke, F., and Lubarsch, O. (1926). Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, Vol. 4. pt. Km, 865. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  6. Bozzini, P. (1807). Der Lichtleiter, Verlag des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, Weimar.Google Scholar
  7. Classen, M., Frühmorgen, Koch, H., and Demling, L. (1972). Enteroskopie-Fiberendoskopie von Jejunum und Ileum. Dtsch. Med. Woch. 11: 409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cotton, P. B., Salmon, P. R., Blumgart, L. H., Burwood, R. J., Davies, G. J., Lawrie, B. W., Pierce, J. W., and Read, A. E. (1972). Cannulation of the papilla of Vater via fibreduodenoscope. Assessment of retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 60 patients. Lancet 1: 53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dean, A. C. B., and Shearman, D. J. C. (1970). A clinical evaluation of the Olympus CF-SB fibre optic colonoscope. 2nd World Congress of Gastroent. Endoscopy (Rome and Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  10. Doubilet, H. (1959). Pancreatography. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 78: 829–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Espiner, H. J., Salmon, P. R., Teague, R. H., and Read, A. E. (1973). Operative colonoscopy. Br. Med. J. I: 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, J. A., Glenn, F., Thorbjarnson, J., and Mujahad, Z. (1962). Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Discussion of the method and report of 25 cases. Radiology 78: 362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujita, K. (1970). Cited by Sakita, T. and Oguro, Y. (1974). In Gastrointestinal Pan-Endoscopy ( L. Berry, ed.). Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas. p. 280.Google Scholar
  14. Gear, M. W. L., Truelove, S. C., Williams, D. G., Massarella, G. R., and Boddington, M. M. (1969). Gastric cancer simulating benign gastric ulcer. Br. J. Surg. 56, 10: 739.Google Scholar
  15. Hansen, L. K. (1971). Colonoscopy: A study of 50 cases. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 6: 687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hatfield, A. R. W., Whittaker, R., and Gibbs, D. D. (1974). The collection of pancreatic fluid for cytodiagnosis using a duodenoscope. Gut 15: 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hatfield, A. R. W., and Smithies, A. (1975). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  18. Hayashida, T., and Kidokora, T. (1970). End results of early gastric carcinorha. 4th World Congress of Gastroenterology (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  19. Heinkel, K. (1975). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  20. Heitmann, P., Csendes, A., Strauszer, T. (1971). Esophageal strictures and lower esophagus lined with columnar epithelium. Digest. Dis. 16, 4: 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hermanek, P., and Röesch, W. (1973). Critical evaluations of the Japanese “Early gastric cancer” classification. Endoscopy 5: 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirschowitz, B. I., Curtiss, L. E., Peters, C. W., and Pollard, H. M. (1958). Demonstrations of a new gastroscope, the “Fiberscope”. Gastroenterology 35: 50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hufford, A. R. (1949). Flexi-rigid, optical oesophagoscope. Gastroenterology 12: 779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kasugai, T., and Kobayashi, S. (1974). Evaluation of biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 62, 3: 199.Google Scholar
  25. Kasugai, T. (1968). Gastric biopsy under direct vision by the fibergastroscope. Gastroint est. Endosc. 15: 33.Google Scholar
  26. Kasugai, T., Kuno, N., and Kizu, M. (1974). Manometric endoscopic retrograde pancreato- cholangiography. Technique, significance, and evaluation. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 6: 485.Google Scholar
  27. Katz, D. (1966). Presentation at American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Chicago, Ill.Google Scholar
  28. Kobayashi, S., Prolla, J. C., and Kirsner, J. B. (1970). Brushing cytology of the oesophagus and stomach under direct vision by fiberscopes. Acta Cytol. 14: 219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kussmaul, A. (1869). Ueber die Behandlung der Magenerweiterung durch eine neue Methode (mittelst der Magen-pumpe). Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med. 6: 456.Google Scholar
  30. Liguory, C., Goffu, J., Gouerou, H., and Chavy, A. (1973). Diagnostic des ictères cholestatiques par cholangiographie endoscopique. Acta Gastro-Enterol. Belg. 36: 702.Google Scholar
  31. Lilly, J. O., and McCaffery, D. (1971). Esophageal stricture dilatation: A new method adapted to the fiberoptic esophagoscope. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 16, 12: 1137.Google Scholar
  32. Lo Presti, P. A. and Hilmi, A. (1974). Clinical experience with a new foroblique fiberoptic esophagoscope. Am J. Dig. Dis. (n.s.) 9: 10, 690.Google Scholar
  33. Machado, G., Davies, J. D., Tudway, A. S. C., Salmon, P. R., and Read, A. E. (1976). Superficial carcinoma of the stomach. Brit. Med. J. 2: 77–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mackenzie, M. (1881). Original communications on the use of the oesophagoscope in disease of the gullet. Med. Ims. Gaz. 2: 60.Google Scholar
  35. McCune, W. S. Shorb, P. E., and Moscovitz, H. (1968). Endoscopic cannulation of the ampulla of Vater: A preliminary report. Ann. Surg. 167: 752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer-Burg, J. (1972). The inspection, palpation, and biopsy of the pancreas by peritoneoscopy. Endoscopy 4: 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meyer-Burg, J. (1975). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  38. Mickulicz-Radecki, J. (1881). Ueber Gastroskopie und Oesophagoskopie. Wien. Med. Presse 22: 1405.Google Scholar
  39. Mita, M., Matsumoto, K., Tachikawa, H., Yamagishi, G., Oshiba, S., Miura, K., and Yamagata, S. (1973). An improved fiberintestinoscope type FIS-IYA. 1st Asian-Pacific Congress of Endoscopy, Kyoto, Japan.Google Scholar
  40. Niwa, H. (1969). Clinical study of colono-fiberscope. Gastrointest. Endos. 11: 173.Google Scholar
  41. Ogoshi, K., and Hara, Y. (1972). Retrograde pancreato-choledochography. English version of Jap. J. Clin. Radiol. 17, 7:455, Kanehara Shuppan Co., Tokyo.Google Scholar
  42. Oi, I. (1973). In discussion during International Workshop, Erlangen. Endoscopy of the Small Intestine with Retrograde Pancreato-cholangiography (L. Demling, and M. Classen, Eds.), p. 101. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  43. Okuda, S. (1972). Differential diagnosis of early gastric carcinoma from advanced carcinoma. In Early Gastric Cancer ( T. Murakami, ed.). University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  44. Okuda K., Tamkawa, K., Emura, T., Kuratomi S., Jinnsuchi, S., Urabe, K., Sumikoshi, T., Kanda, Y., Fukuyama, Y., Musha, H., Mori, H., Shimokawa, Y., Yakushija, F., and Matsuura, Y. (1974). Non surgical, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography-diagnostic significance in medical problems of the liver. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19: 21–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oshima, H. (1971). The gastrocamera in the early detection of carcinoma of the stomach. Proceedings of 2nd Congress of European Association of Radiology. Int. Congress. Series No. 249, p. 79. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  46. Overholt, B. F. (1971). Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy-Technique and preliminary results. Cancer (Philadelphia) 26: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paoluzi, P. (1970). Total colonoscopy by a “monorail” method. 2nd World Congress of Gastroint. Endoscopy (Rome and Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  48. Prolla, J. C., Xavier, R. G., and Kirsner, J. B. (1972). Exfoliative cytology in gastric ulcer. Its role in the differentiation of benign and malignant ulcers. Gastroenterology. J. 63: 33.Google Scholar
  49. River, L. J., Silverstein, J. W., and Tape, P. (1956). Benign neoplasms of the small intestine. A critical comprehensive review with reports of 20 new cases. Int. Abstr. Surg. 102: 1.Google Scholar
  50. Sakai, Y. (1972). The technique of colonofiberoscopy. Dis. Colon Rectum 15: 403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sakita, T. (1966). Diagnosis of early gastric cancer with gastrocamera. Recent advances in gastroenterology. The proceedings of the 3rd World Congress of Gastroenterology, Tokyo 1: 275.Google Scholar
  52. Sakita, T. (1971). The Committee of early gastric cancer of the National Hospital of Japan (Chief of Committee Sakita, T.): Report on retrospective and follow-up studies of the early carcinoma of the stomach, after surgery (in Japanese.)Google Scholar
  53. Salmon, P. R., Branch, R. A., Collins, C., Espiner, H., and Read, A. E. (1971). Clinical evaluation of fibreoptic signoidoscopy employing the Olympus CF-SB colonoscope. Gut 12: 729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Salmon, P. R. Brown, P., Htut, J., and Read, A. E. (1972). Endoscopic examination of the duodenal bulb: Clinical evaluation of forward-and side-viewing fibreoptic systems in 200 cases. Gut 13: 170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Salmon, P. R., Blumgart, L., Burwood, R., Davies. G., and Read, A. E. (1973a). Endoscopy in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. In Endoscopy of the Small Intestine with Retrograde Pancreato-cholangiography. L. Demling and M. Classen, eds. ), p. 98.Google Scholar
  56. Salmon, P. R., Brown, P., Burwood, R., and Read, A. E. (1973b). Examination of the duodenum and jejunum employing a new fibreoptic enteroscope. Gut 14, 10: 823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Salmon, P. R. (1974a). Fibre-optic Endoscopy. Pitman Medical.Google Scholar
  58. Salmon. P. R. (1974b). Recent developments in gastrointestinal endoscopy. In Topics in Gastroenterology (S. C. Truelove and J. Trowell, eds. ). Blackwells Scientific Publ.Google Scholar
  59. Salmon, P. R. (1975a). Endoscopie retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). In Modern Trends in Gastroenterology, No. 5 ( A. E. Read, ed.). Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  60. Salmon, P. R. (1975b). Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. 12th Symposium on Advanced Medicine, Royal College of Physicians. Pitman Medical, London.Google Scholar
  61. Salmon, P. R. (1977). New clinical procedures in endoscopy of the digestive tract. Proc. R. Soc.Google Scholar
  62. Schatzki, R. (1963). The lower oesophageal ring. Long term follow-up of symptomatic and asymptomatic rings. Am. J. Roentgenol. 90: 805.Google Scholar
  63. Schindler, R. (1936). Gastroscopy with a flexible gastroscope. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 2: 656.Google Scholar
  64. Sheehy, T. W. and Floch, M. H. (1964). Neoplasms of the small intestine. In The Small Intestine. New York, Harper & Row. pp. 319–435.Google Scholar
  65. Shida, (1973). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  66. Stadelman, O.,.Sâfrâny, L., Loftier, A., Barna, L., Miederer, S. E., Papp, J., Kaufer, C., and Sobbe, A. (1974). Endoscopie retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic cancer. Endoscopy 6: 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Strauch, M., Lux, G., and Ottenjann, R. (1973). Infragastric pancreoscopy. Endoscopy 5, 1: 30.Google Scholar
  68. Tasaka, S., and Sakita, T. (1966). Progress of gastrocamera examination. Proceedings of the 1st Congress of the International Society of Endoscopy, Tokyo 70.Google Scholar
  69. Teague, R. A., Salmon, P. R., and Read, A. E. (1973). Fibreoptic examination of the colon: A review of 255 cases. Gut 14: 139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ueno, K., Yamagata, S., Masnda, H., Oshiba, S., Kano, A., Yago, H., Narita, A., Yamagata, H., Shirance, A., Mochizuki, F. (1970). Clinical evaluation of gastric biopsy under direct vision in diagnosis of gastric cancer. 4th World Congress of Gastroenterology (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  71. Uji, T. (1952). The gastrocamera. Tokyo Med. J. 135.Google Scholar
  72. Von Hacker, V. (1904). A system of practical surgery (E. Bergmann, ed.), Vol. 4, p. 17. von Lea Bros.Google Scholar
  73. Watson, W. C. (1966). Direct vision of the ampulla of Vater through the gastroduodenal fiberscope. Lancet 1: 902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wenger. J., Brandborg, L., and Spellman. F. A. (1971). Cancer: Clinical aspects (The VA Administration Cooperative Study on Gastric Ulcer). Gastroenterology 61: 598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Weiner, M., and Hanafee, W. N. (1970). A review of transjugular cholangiography. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 8: 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams, C., and Muto, T. (1972). Examination of the whole colon with the fibreoptic colonoscope. Br. Med. J. 3: 278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Williams, D. G., Truelove, S. C., Gear, M. W. L., Massarella, G. R., and Fitzgerald, N. W. (1968). Gastroscopy with biopsy and cytological sampling under direct vision. Br. Med. J. I: 535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wolff, W. I., and Shinya, H. (1973). A new approach to colonic polyps. Ann. Surg. 178, 3: 367.Google Scholar
  79. Yamagata, S., and Masnda, H. (1973). Magenkarzinom. In Klinische Gastroenterologie ( L. Demling, ed.), Vol. I. Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  80. Yoshii, Y., Yamacka, Y., Kasugai, T., et al. (1970). Significance of imprint smear in cytologic diagnosis of malignant tumours of the stomach. Acta Cytol. 14: 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. R. Salmon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Bristol and Bristol Royal InfirmaryBristolEngland

Personalised recommendations