Beyond the Effects of Crowding: Situational and Individual Differences

  • Chalsa Loo


Research on crowding represents one of many attempts on the part of the field of psychology to address issues born of a rapidly changing world. The issues most relevant to the study of crowding include overpopulation, rapid urbanization, and environmental deterioration. With the environmentalist movement of the late 1960’s as a forerunner, the field of psychology for­mally responded to the issue of overpopulation in 1970 (Bartz, 1970; Craik, 1970; Fawcett, 1970; Wohlwill, 1970). More comprehensive demographic data on population and urbanization growth-trends were available. With such data as an existential backdrop, psychologists contributed some useful research to further the understanding of crowding and population issues.


Personal Space Crowded Condition Nature Nature Ceiling Height Intrapersonal Factor 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chalsa Loo
    • 1
  1. 1.Merrill CollegeUniversity of California at Santa CruzUSA

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