Participation in the Design Process: A Cognitive Approach

  • Stephen Kaplan


This dialogue, related to me by a student, constitutes an instance of participation, although not a particularly satisfying one. In the context of design problems, there are in fact many opportunities for participation, ranging from public hearings to meetings with governing boards, both public and private. Sad to say, such participatory sessions are characteristically of limited value and, at times, even counterproductive.


Internal Model Ground Plane Cognitive Approach Public Hearing Landscape Architect 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Kaplan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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