Myocardial Imaging with Thallium-201

  • Warren R. Janowitz
  • Denny D. Watson
  • Aldo N. Serafini
Part of the Topics in Cardiovascular Disease book series (TCAD)


Since myocardial imaging was first described in 1962,1 many isotopes of rubidium, cesium, nitrogen, potassium, iodine-labeled fatty acids, and others have been utilized as myocardial imaging agents. Their physical and biological characteristics, however, are not well suited to allow myocardial imaging to be done clinically on a routine basis. The ideal agent would be an isotope with a high photon flux with energies that are easily imaged on a gamma camera and with a physical half-life that will permit distribution and a reasonable shelf life of the product, low radiation exposure, and a high myocardial-to-background uptake ratio. Obviously, this agent should also reflect myocardial blood flow accurately.


Myocardial Perfusion Myocardial Blood Flow Reactive Hyperemia Myocardial Imaging Exercise ECGs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Carr, E. A., Jr., Beirwaltes, W. H., Wegit, A. V., and Bartlett, J. D. Jr., Myocardial scanning with Rubidium-86, J. Nucl. Med. 3: 76 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zaret, B. L., Strauss, H. W., Martin, N. D., Wells, H. P. Jr., and Flamm, M. D., Jr., Noninvasive regional myocardial perfusion with radioactive potassium: Study of patients at rest, with exercise and during angina pectoris, N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 809 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berman, D. S., Salel, A. F., DeNardo, G. L., and Mason, D. T., Noninvasive detection of regional myocardial ischemia using Rb-81 and the scintillation camera, Circulation 52: 619 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Romhilt, D. W., Adolph, R. J., Dodd, V. J., Levenson, N. I., August, L. S., Nishiyamas, H., and Berke, R. A., Cesium-129 myocardial scintigraphy to detect myocardial infarction, Circulation 48:1242 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kawana, M., Krizeh, H., Porter, J., Lathrop, K. A., Charleston, D., and Harper, P. V., Use of ‘89T1 as a potassium analogue in scanning, J. Nucl. Med. 11: 333 (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lebowitz, E., Green, M. W., Fairchild, R., Bradley-Moore, P. R., Atkins, H. L., Ansari, A. N., Richards, P., and Belgrave, E., Thallium-201 for medical use, I., J. Nucl. Med. 16:151 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gehring, P. J., and Hammond, P. B., The interrelationship between thallium and potassium in animals, J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 155:187 (1967).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strauss, H. W., Harrison, K., Tangan, J. K., Lebowitz, E., and Pitt, B., Thallium-201 for myocardial imaging, Circulation 511:641 (1975).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bradley-Moore, P. R., Lebowitz, E., Greene, M. W., Atkins, H. L., and Ansari, A. N., Thallium-201 for medical use. II. Biologic behavior, J. Nucl. Med. 16:156 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Prokop, E. K., Strauss, H. W., Shaw, J., Pitt, B., and Wagner, H. N., Jr., Comparison of regional myocardial perfusion determined by ionic potassium-43 to that determined by microspheres, Circulation 50:978 (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ritchie, J. L., Hamilton, G. W., Williams, D. L., English, M. T., and Leibowitz, E., Myocardial imaging with thallium-201-correlation with intracoronary macroaggregated albumin imaging, Circulation (Supp II.) 52: 231 (1975).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feller, P. A., and Sodd, V. J., Dosimetry of your heart-imaging radionuclides: K-43, Rb-81, Cs-129, and T1–201, J. Nucl. Med. 16:1070 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Groch, M. W., and Lewis, G. K., Thallium-201: Scintillation camera imaging considerations, J. Nucl. Med. 17:142 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rouleau, J., Griffith, L., Strauss, H. W., and Pitt, B., Detection of diffuse coronary artery disease by quantification of Thallium-201 myocardial images, Circulation (Suppl. II) 52: (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jambroes, G., vanRigk, P. P., vendeBerg, C. J. M., and deGraaf, C. N., Thallium-201 rest and exercise scintigraphy in patients with coronary heart disease, Circulation (Suppl. II ) 52: 111 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ritchie, J. L., Trobaugh, G. B., Hamilton, G. W., Weaver, D., Williams, D. L., and Gould, K. L., Rest and exercise myocardial imaging with Thallium-201—Correlation with EKG, coronary anatomy, and left ventricular function, Amer. J. Cardiol. 37:166 (1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bailey, I. K., Griffith, S. C., Strauss, H. W., and Pitt, B., Detection of coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia by electrocardiography and myocardia perfusion scanning with Thallium-201, Amer. J. Cardiol. 37:118 (1976).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zaret, B. L., Stenson, R. E., Martin, N. D., Strauss, H. W., Wells, H. P., McGowan, R. L., and Flamm, M. D., Potassium-43 myocardial perfusion scanning for the noninvasive evaluation of points with false-positive exercise tests, Circulation 48:1234 (1973).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buja, L. M., Parkey, R. W., Stokely, E. M:, Bonte, F. J., and Willerson, J. T., Pathophysiology of Tc-99m stannous pyrophosphate and thallium-201 scintigraphy of canine acute myocardial infarctions, Circulation (Suppl. II ) 52: 51 (1975).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wackers, F. J., Lie, K. I., Sokole, E., Schont, J. V. D., Durrer, D., and Wellens, H. J., Thallium-201 for localization of acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block, Circulation (Suppl. II ) 52: 54 (1975).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schelbert, H., Henning, H., Righetti, A., Ashburn, W., and O’Rourke, R., Relative sensitivity of Tc-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction, Amer. J. Cardiol. 37:170 (1976).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bulkley, B. H., Rouleair, J., Strauss, H. W., and Pitt, B., Idiopathic hypertropic subaortic stenosis: detection by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 1113 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stevens, R. M., Baird, M. G., Fuhrmann, C. F., Rouleau, J., Summer, W. R., Strauss, H. W., and Pitt, B., Detection of right ventricular hypertrophy by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, Circulation (Suppl. II) 52: 243 (1975).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bulkley, B. H., Rouleau, J., Strauss, H. W., and Pitt, B., Sarcoid heart disease: Diagnosis by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, Amer. J. Cardiol. 37:125 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren R. Janowitz
    • 1
  • Denny D. Watson
    • 1
  • Aldo N. Serafini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Baumritter Institute of Nuclear MedicineMount Sinai Medical CenterMiami BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations