Lp(a) Lipoproteins and the Genetic Polymorphisms of Lipoprotein B

  • Gerhard M. Kostner


In this chapter, lipoproteins are denominated according to the three main nomenclature systems currently in use. In addition, trivial names were adopted primarily to designate allotypic lipoproteins. Attempts have been made by the author either to accept terms used in the original publications or to denote lipoproteins according to their apparent manifestation. As a consequence, names like low density lipoproteins, β-lipoproteins, and lipoprotein B are used, and it has to be born in mind that these three terms do not necessarily designate the same fraction. Unfortunately, the lipoprotein which is the topic of the whole chapter does not fit in any of the three nomenclatures, and we believe that for the time being the term Lp(a), originally proposed by Berg, should be used. This fact once more demonstrates the need for a universally practicable nomenclature of lipoproteins that is also easy for people working in other fields to understand, that accounts for all structural and functional actualities in health and disease, and is flexible enough to meet any new accomplishments.


Genetic Polymorphism Serum Lipoprotein Histocompatibility Antigen Radial Immunodiffusion Precipitin Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. C. Allison and B. S. Blumberg. 1961. An isoprecipitation reaction distinguishing human serum protein types. Lancet 1:634–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Berg. 1963. A new serum type system in man—the Lp system. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 59:369–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Hirschfeld. 1963. Investigations of a new anti-Ag antiserum with particular reference to the reliability of Ag typing by micro immunodiffusion tests in agar gel. Sci. Tools 10:45–54.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. S. Blumberg. 1963. Isoantibodies in humans against inherited serum low density beta-lipoproteins. The Ag system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 103:1052–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Vierucci, G. Morganti, D. Varone, and L. Borgatti. 1966. New anti-beta lipoprotein antisera in transfused children with thalassemia. Vox Sang. 11:427–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Berg. 1965. A new serum type system in man—The Ld system. Vox Sang. 10:513–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Berg. 1964. Comparative studies on the Lp or Ag serum type system. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 62:276–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Bundschuh. 1964. Anti Lp(a,x) vom Pferd. Ärztl. Lab. 10:309–312.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Bütler. 1967. Polymorphisms of the human low density lipoproteins. Vox Sang. 12:2–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Berg and A. C. Beam. 1967. Genetic polymorphisms of human serum β-lipoproteins. J. Clin. Invest 46:1036.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Berg and A. Beam. 1970. Antibodies to inherited β-lipoprotein antigens in the serum of multiply transfused patients. Clin. Genet. 1:104–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Berg. 1968. The Lp system. Series Haematol. 1:111–136.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Berg. 1971. Genetic polymorphisms of lipoproteins. In: Protides of the Biological Fluids. Ed. by H. Peeters. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 169–177.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Hirschfeld. 1971. The Ag-system. Present concepts and immunogenetic models. In: Protides of the Biological Fluids. Ed. by H. Peeters. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 157–160.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. S. Schultz and D. C. Schreffler. 1972. Genetics and immunogenetics of the Lp antigen of human serum. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Human Genetics. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p. 345.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Berg. 1973. Lipoprotein polymorphisms in man and animals. Conference on Serum Lipoproteins, Graz, Austria, Abstract 34.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. S. Blumberg and N. M. Riddle. 1963. Inherited antigenic differences in human serum beta lipoproteins. A second antiserum. J. Clin. Invest. 42:867–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Hirschfeld, L. Conto, and B. S. Blumberg. 1967. The anti-Lp Nuoro serum (C.P.) and its relation to sera C. de B. and L. L. Nature 214:495–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Hirschfeld, L. Conto, Ch. Rittner, and G. Geserik. 1968. Inheritance of the Ag(x) and Ag(y) antigens. Vox Sang. 14:124–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Borganti, P. E. Beolchini, R. Bütler, and E. Brunner. 1972. Contribution on the genetics of serum β-lipoproteins in man. The linkage of Ag x/v, Ag a1/d and Agc/g loci. Humangenetik 15:274–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Morganti, P. E. Beolchini, R. Butler, E. Brunner, and A. Vierucci. 1972. Contribution to the genetics of serum β-lipoproteins in man: VI. Evidence for the existence of the Ag t/z locus, closely linked to the Ag x/v, Ag a1/d and Ag c/g loci. Humangenetik 16:307–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Butler and E. Brunner. 1973. Ag(h), an additional factor of the Ag system. Vox Sang. 25:267–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Bütler and E. Brunner. 1974. Ag(i): Detection of an antithetical factor to Ag(h). Vox Sang. 27:550–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Bütler, E. Brunner, and G. Morganti. 1974. Contribution to the inheritance of the Ag groups. Vox Sang. 26:485–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Vierucci, M. Dettori, G. Morganti, P. E. Beolchini, and R. Butler. 1968. Synthesis of β-lipoproteins (Ag groups) in the foetus and the newborn. Vox Sang. 14:151–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Berg. 1967. Lack of linkage between the Lp and Ag serum system. Vox Sang. 12:71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. D. Brandenbrook. 1971. The isolation and partial purificaiton of low density lipo-proteins carrying the Ag(x) and Ag(y) antigenic determinants. In: Protides of the Biological Fluids. Ed. by H. Peeters. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 197–200.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Ehnholm, R. Bütler, and E. Brunner. 1973. The occurrence of Ag determinants in different lipoproteins. Vox Sang. 25:281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. Seegers, K. Hirschborn, and L. Burnett. 1965. Double beta-lipoprotein: A new genetic variant in man. Science 149:303–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. S. Sodhi. 1969. New lipoprotein differing in charge and density from known plasma lipoproteins. Metabolism 18:852–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. N. Hung and G. Geserik. 1968. Neue Serumproteinpolymorphismen durch Enzymbehandlung von Humanseren. Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 21:679–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ch. Rittner. 1971. Disc electrophoretic variations of human serum lipoproteins (LDL). Vox Sang. 20:526–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. R. Hravie and J. S. Schultz. 1970. Studies of Lp lipoproteins as a quantitative genetic trait. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 66:99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Utermann and H. Wiegandt. 1970. Diskelektrophoretischer Nachweis des Lp(a) Proteins in Lipoproteinfraktionen. Humangenetik 11:66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. J. Albers, P. Wahl, and W. R. Hazzard. 1974. Quantitative genetic studies of the human plasma Lp(a) lipoprotein. Biochem. Genet. 11:475–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. W. Walton, J. Hitchens, H. N. Magnani, and M. Kahn. 1974. A study of methods of identification and estimation of Lp(a) lipoproteins and its significance in health, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 20:323–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. Jürgens and G. M. Kostner. 1975. Studies on the structure of the Lp(a) lipoprotein. Isolation and partial characterization of the Lp(a) specific antigen. Immunogenetics 1:560–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. S. Schultz, D. C. Schreffler, C. F. Singer, and N. R. Harvie. 1974. The genetics of the Lp antigen. I. Its quantitation and distribution in a sample population. Ann. Hum. Genet. (London) 38:39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. J. Albers and W. R. Hazzard. 1974. Immunochemical quantification of human plasma Lp(a). Lipids 9:15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. F. Sing, J. S. Schultz, and D. C. Schreffler. 1974. The genetics of the Lp antigen II. A family study and proposed model of genetic control. Ann. Hum. Genet. (London) 38:47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Bundschuh and A. Vogt. 1965. Die Häufigkeit des Merkmals Lp(x) in der Berliner Bevölkerung. Humangenetik 1:379–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O. Prokop and G. Bundschuh. 1964. Anti-Lpa vom Pferd. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 2:25–28.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ch. Rittner and G. Bundschuh. 1968. Comparative studies of anti-Lp sera. Vox Sang. 15:446–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Torsvik, B. Bowman, and K. Berg. 1972. An alternative procedure for production of anti Lp(a) serum. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand., Sect. B 80:270–272.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    G. Kostner and A. Holasek. 1972. Influence of dextran and polyethylene glycol on sensitivity of two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis and electroimmunodiffusion. Anal. Biochem. 46:680–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Bütler and E. Brunner. 1966. A new sensitive method for studying the polymorphism of the human low density lipoproteins. Vox Sang. 11:738–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. Garoff, K. Simons, Ch. Ehnholm, and K. Berg. 1970. Demonstration by disc electrophoresis the lipoprotein carrying the Lp(a) antigen in human sera. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., Sect. B 78:253–254.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. H. Vogelberg, G. Utermann, and F. A. Gries. 1973. Zur Differenzierung des Lp(a) lipoproteins mit Hilfe der Agarosegel-Elektrophorese. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 11:291–296.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. Berg. 1964. Immunological studies of the Lp(a) factor. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 62:600–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Utermann and H. Wiegandt. 1968. Darstellung und Charakterisierung eines Lipoproteins mit Antigenwirksamkeit im Lp-System. Humangenetik 8:39–46.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Simons, C. Ehnholm, O. Renkonen, and B. Bloth. 1970. Characterization of the Lp(a) lipoprotein in human plasma. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., Sect. B 78:459–466.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    C. Ehnholm, H. Garoff, K. Simons, and H. Aro. 1971. Purification and quantitation of the human plasma lipoprotein carrying the Lp(a) antigen. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 236:431–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Burstein and R. Morfin. 1969. Precipitation des alpha lipoproteins du serums par la phosphotungstate du sodium en presence du chlorure de magnesium. Life Sci. 8(part II):345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. Ehnholm, H. Garoff, O. Renkonen, and K. Simons. 1972. Protein and carbohydrate composition of Lp(a) lipoproteins from human plasma. Biochemistry 11:3229–3232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Utermann, K. Lipp, and H. Wiegandt. 1972. Studies of the Lp(a) lipoprotein of human serum. IV. The disaggregation of the Lp(a) lipoprotein. Humangenetik 14:142–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. Seidel, H. P. Geisen, and D. Roelcke. 1971. Identification of the protein moiety of the Lp(a) lipoprotein in human plasma. FEBS Lett. 18:43–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    G. Kostner. 1974. Studies of the composition and structure of human serum lipoproteins. Isolation and partial characterization of apo-lipoprotein A-111. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 336:383–395.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    G. Kostner, A. Holasek, H. G. Bohlmann, and H. Thiede. 1974. Investigation of serum lipoproteins and apoproteins in abetalipoproteinemia. Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 46:457–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    R. K. Charlton and C.M. Zmijewski. 1970. Soluble HL-A7 antigen: Localization in the β-lipoprotein fraction of human serum. Science 170:636–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Berg. 1971. Compositional relatedness between histocompatibility antigens and human serum lipoproteins. Science 172:1136–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Rittner and I. Täuberecht. 1973. Demonstration of Lp(a) inhibitors in human serum. Does an association exist between HL-A and serum lipoproteins? Z. Immun. Forsch. 146:123–135.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. P. Tilz and G. Kostner. 1973. Comparative investigation of the Lp(a) antigen and the HL-A system. Conference on Serum Lipoproteins, Graz, Austria, Abstract B13.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    D. M. Kahlich-Könner and G. Weippel. 1965. Lp-Typensystem und β-Lipoprotein-konzentration. Humangenetik 1:388–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. K. Reider, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson. 1970. Sinking prebeta lipoprotein and the Lp antigen. Circulation 42(Suppl. III):10.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    G. Dahlen, C. Erison, C. Furberg, L. Lundkvist, and K. Svärdsudd. 1972. Studies on extra pre-β lipoprotein fraction. Acta Med. Scand., Suppl. 531:1–29.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. J. Albers, V. G. Cabana, G. R. Warnik, and W. R. Hazzard. 1975. Lp(a) lipoprotein: Relationship to sinking pre-β lipoprotein hyperlipoproteinemia and apolipoprotein B. Metabolism 24:1047–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. H. Frick, G. Dahlen, C. Furberg, C. Ericson, and M. Wiljasalo. 1974. Serum pre-β1 lipoprotein fraction in coronary atherosclerosis. Acta Med. Scand. 195:337–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    K. Berg, G. Dahlen, and M. H. Frick. 1974. Lp(a) lipoprotein and pre-β1-lipoproteins in patients with coronary heart diseases. Clin. Genet. 6:230–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. Dahlen, K. Berg, U. Ramberg, and A. Tamm. 1974. Lp(a) lipoprotein and pre-α1 lipoprotein in young adults. Acta Med. Scand. 196:327–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. Seidel, P. Alaupovic, R. H. Furman, and W. J. McConnathy. 1970. A lipoprotein characterizing obstructive jaundice. II isolation and partial characterization of the protein moieties of low density lipoproteins. J. Clin. Invest 49:2396–2407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. Petek, G. Kostner, and A. Holasek. 1973. Untersuchungen zur Methodik der immunologischen LP-X Bestimmung. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 11:415–420.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. Kostner, W. Petek, and A. Holasek. 1974. Immunochemical measurement of lipoprotein-X. Clin. Chem. 20:676–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard M. Kostner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical BiochemistryUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations