Low Density Lipoproteins of Nonmammalian Vertebrates

  • O. A. Schjeide


As has been stated elsewhere in this volume, the major motive behind the extensive investigations of low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been that the findings might lend themselves to treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis in human patients. For obvious reasons, much experimentation on lipoprotein systems has taken place in mammals other than man. Subsequently, many of these studies have been thought to have questionable validity when applied to the human situation. Accordingly, if it is unacceptable to blindly extrapolate data obtained from lower mammals to Homo sapiens, it would appear almost unthinkable to thus extrapolate from fish, amphibia, reptiles, or birds.


Serum Lipoprotein Sterol Ester Yolk Granule Garter Snake Comparative Biology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Alexander and C. E. Day. 1973. Distribution of serum lipoproteins of selected vertebrates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 46B:295–312.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Forte and A. V. Nichols. 1972. Application of electron microscopy to the study of plasma lipoprotein structure. Adv. Lipid Res. 10:1–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Mateu, A. Tardieu, V. Lazzati, L. Aggerbeck, and A. M. Scanu. 1972. On the structure of human serum low density lipoprotein. J. Mol. Biol. 70:105–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Siedel, B. Agostini, and P. Muller. 1972. Structure of an abnormal plasma lipoprotein (LP-X) characterizing obstructive jaundice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 260:146–152.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Alaupovic and D. Seidel. 1974. Workshop: Plasma Lipoproteins. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G. Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 629–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Steinberg. 1974. Lipoprotein catabolism. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G. Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 658–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. W. R. Brambell, W. Hemmings, C. L. Oakley, and F. R. S. and R. R. Porter. 1960. The relative transmission of the fractions of papain hydrolyzed homologous γ-globulin from the uterine cavity to the foetal circulation in the rabbit. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser B. 151:478–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. A. Schjeide, F. Galey, E. A. Grellert, R. I-San Lin, J. de Vellis, and J. F. Mead. 1970. Macromolecules in oocyte maturation. Biol. Reprod. Suppl. 2:14–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. Stein, D. Rachmilewitz, S. Eisenberg, L. Sanger-Gabay, and Y. Stein. 1974. Uptake and autoradiographic localization of very low density lipoproteins in rat liver. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G. Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 396–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. L. Bierman, O. Stein, and Y. Stein. 1974. Lipoprotein uptake by rat aortic smooth muscle cells in tissue culture. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 935.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. L. Mills and C. E. Taylaur. 1971. The distribution and composition of serum lipoproteins in eighteen animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 40B:489–501.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Noyan, W. J. Lossow, N. Brot, and I. L. Chaikoff. 1964. Pathway and form of absorption of palmitic acid in the chicken. J. Lipid Res. 5:538–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Bensadoun and A. Rothfeld. 1972. The form of absorption of lipids in the chicken, Gallus domesticus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 141:814–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O. A. Schjeide and G. G. B. Lai. 1970. Estrogen-directed redifferentiation of the avian liver. In: Cell Differentiation. Ed. by O. A. Schjeide and J. de Vellis. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 447–475.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. A. Schjeide. 1963. Lipoproteins of the fowl—serum, egg and intracellular. In: Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids. Ed. by R. T. Holman, W. O. Lundberg and T. Malkin. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 251–289.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. F. Lee and D. L. Puppione. 1972. Serum lipoproteins of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caerulea Girard). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 270:272–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. R. Urist and O. A. Schjeide. 1961. The partition of calcium and protein in the blood of oviparous vertebrates during estrus. J. Gen. Physiol. 44:743–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. L. Kelly and P. Alaupovic. 1975. Lipid transport system in the avian species. 1. Isolation and characterization of apolipoproteins and major lipoprotein density classes of male turkey serum. Atherosclerosis 24:155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. L. Kelly and P. Alaupovic. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    O. A. Schjeide, G. Reiffer, J. L. Kelly, and P. Alaupovic. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. A. Schjeide, M. Wilkens, R. G. McCandless, R. Munn, M. Peterson, and E. Carlsen. 1963. Liver synthesis, plasma transport and structural alterations accompanying passage of yolk proteins. Am. Zool. 3:167–184.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    O. A. Schjeide, P. Koch, and P. Schmidt. Preliminary isolation and characterization of macromolecules of the egg yolk and hemolymph of Carausius morosus (in preparation).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. J. Holshauser, O. A. Schjeide, and W. E. Briles. 1975. Effects of X-irradiation on estrogen-induced synthetic processes of the avian liver. Radiation Res. 62:52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. de Vellis and O. A. Schjeide. 1967. Effect of estrogens, irradiation and actinomycin D on enzymes concerned with lipid metabolism. Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2:276–282.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O. A. Schjeide. 1967. Effects of estrogens on lipid metabolism in the chicken. Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2:265–275.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. W. Miller. 1970. Effects of testosterone and L-thyroxine on estrogen-induced synthetic processes of the avian liver. MS thesis, Northern Illinois University.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. F. Simpson and J. T. M. Neilson. 1973. Aortic atherosclerosis of turkeys induced by a single treatment with diethyllstilbestrol. Atherosclerosis 17:245–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O. A. Schjeide, T. Nicholls, and R. Prince. 1974. Correlation of changes occurring in livers and serums of developing turkey embryos. Cytobiologie 9:407–421.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O. A. Schjeide. 1956. Studies of the New Hampshire chicken embryo. VII. Ultracentrifuge patterns of the plasma lipoproteins. Growth 20:195–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. E. Hahn and R. Church. 1970. Transcriptional patterns during differentiation. In: Cell Differentiation. Ed. by O. A. Schjeide and J. deVellis. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 119–140.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O. A. Schjeide. 1970. Organelle synthesis and assembly. In: Cell Differentiation. Ed. by O. A. Schjeide and J. deVellis. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 375–425.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. Stein and O. Stein. 1974. Lipoprotein synthesis, intracellular transport and secretion in liver. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G. Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 652–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O. A. Schjeide, L. Kancheva, and H. Budrow. 1976 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. W. Bergink, R. A. Wallace, J. A. VandeBerg, E. S. Bos, M. Gruber, and G. Ab. 1974. Estrogen-induced synthesis of yolk proteins in roosters. Am. loot. 14:1177–1193.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jones, P. E. Briles, and O. A. Schjeide. 1975. A mutation restricting ovulation in chickens. Poultry Science 54:1780.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    O. A. Schjeide, E. Briles, S. Holshauser, and D. Jones. 1976. Effect of “restricted ovulator” gene on uptake of yolk-precursor protein. Cell Tiss. Res. 166:109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Jordanov and A. Boyadjiera-Michailova. 1974. Ultrastructural aspects of lipoprotein passage through oocyte envelopes and storage in ooplasm during avian vitellopoiesis. Acta Anat. 89:616–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. Hesseldah. 1969. Ultrastructure of rabbit ovum. Biol. Reprod. Abstr. 1:12.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    O. A. Schjeide and L. Liau. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. L. Wong and K. W. Chiu. 1974. The snake thyroid gland. I. Seasonal variation of thyroidal and serum iodoamino acids. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 23:63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    W. L. Reichert and D. C. Malins. 1974. Interaction of mercurials with salmon serum lipoproteins. Nature 247:569–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. R. Urist, O. A. Schjeide, and F. C. McLean. 1958. The partition and binding of calcium in the serum of the laying hen and of the estrogenized rooster. Endocrinology 63:570–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. Fischer-Dzoga. 1974. Response of aortic medial cells to hyperlipemic serum in vitro. In: Atherosclerosis III. Ed. by G. Schettler and A. Weizel. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 172–174.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    O. A. Schjeide and J. deVellis. 1970. Introduction. In: Cell Differentiation. Ed. by O. A. Schjeide and J. de Vellis. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 2–14.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. E. Day, B. Barker, and W. W. Stafford. 1974. Composition of very low density lipoproteins from cholesterol fed animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 49B:501–505.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. A. Gornall, T. J. Delahunty, and A. Kuksis. 1971. Immunochemical relationships among plasma and egg-yolk lipoproteins of the laying hen. Biochem. J. 125:97–98.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    O. A. Schjeide. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. L. Romanoff and A. J. Romanoff. 1949. The Avian Egg. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 126ff.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. F. Mead. 1963. Lipid metabolism. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 32:241–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. W. Bide. 1972. Changes in fowl plasma α-lipoproteins caused by starvation. Pouk. Sci. 51:305–309.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    N. Snapir, H. Ravona, and M. Perek. 1973. Effect of electrolytic lesions in various regions of the basal hypothalamus in White Leghorn cockerels upon food intake, obesity, blood plasma triglycerides and proteins. Poult. Sci. 52:629–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    W. H. Goldwater and C. Entenman. 1956. Effect of X-irradiation on lipid metabolism. III. Dog serum lipoproteins. Radiation Res. 4:243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    O. A. Schjeide, N. Ragan, and S. Simons. 1958. The effect of X-irradiation on plasma lipoprotein patterns in the embryo. Radiation Res. 9:327–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    O. A. Schjeide, N. Ragan, R. G. McCandless, and F. C. Bishop. 1960. Effect of X-irradiation on cellular inclusions in chicken embryo livers. Radiation Res. 13:205–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    O. A. Schjeide and J. deVellis. 1969. Mechanisms of radiation damage. In: Radiation Biology of the Fetal and Juvenile Mammal. Ed. by M. R. Sikov and D. D. Mahlum. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D. C, pp. 919–942.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    E. Alumot. 1971. The mechanisms of ethylene dibromide action on laying hens. Residue Rev. 41:1–11.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    H. Fisher, K. G. Hollands, and H. S. Weiss. 1962. Environmental temperature and composition of body fat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110:832–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. J. Kudzma, P. M. Hegstad, and R. E. Stoll. 1973. The chick as a laboratory model for the study of estrogen-induced hyperlipidemia. Metabolism 22:423–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. A. Schjeide
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

Personalised recommendations