Chemistry and Analysis of Sialic Acid

  • R. W. Ledeen
  • R. K. Yu


The term “sialic acid” first appeared in the literature in 1952 to describe an unusual acidic aminosugar present in gangliosides and submaxillary mucin (Blix et al., 1952). Although the name was new, the substance had been isolated in crystalline form many years before by Blix (1936), and its general properties were already well known by the early 1950s. Other names employed over the years included lactaminic acid (Kuhn and Brossmer, 1956b), hemataminic acid (Yamakawa and Suzuki, 1952), gynaminic acid (Zilliken et al., 1955), and O-sialic acid, but eventually the nomenclature proposal of Blix et al. (1957) was adopted by consensus. This nomenclature designated “neuraminic acid” as the unsubstituted parent structure (Figure 1) and “sialic acid” as the generic term for the family of related derivatives having an acyl group on the amino nitrogen and frequently other substituents elsewhere.


Sialic Acid Pyranose Ring Neuraminic Acid Brain Ganglioside Methyl Acetyl 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrahamson, S., Fischmeister, I., and Svennerholm, L., 1962, X-ray powder diagrams of sialic acids, Ark. Kemi 18: 435.Google Scholar
  2. Aminoff, D., 1959, The determination of free sialic acid in the presence of the bound compound, Virology 7: 355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aminoff, D., 1961, Method for the quantitative estimation of N-acetylneuraminic acid and their application to hydrolysates of sialomucoids, Biochem. J. 81: 384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ando, S., and Yamakawa, T., 1971, Application of trifluoroacetyl derivatives to sugars and lipid chemistry. I. Gas chromatographic analysis of common constituents of glycolipids, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 70: 335.Google Scholar
  5. Ayala, W., Moore, L. V., and Hess, E. L., 1951, The purple color reaction given by diphenylamine reagent. I. With normal and rheumatic fever sera, J. Clin. Invest. 30: 781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barry, G. T., 1958, Colominic acid, a polymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid, J. Exp. Med. 107: 507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barry, G. T., 1959, Detection of sialic acid in various Escherichia coli strains and in other species of bacteria, Nature 183: 117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barry, G. T., and Goebel, W. F., 1957, Colominic acid, a substance of bacterial origin related to sialic acid, Nature 179: 206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barry, G. T., Abbot, V., and Tsai, T., 1962, Relationship of colominic acid (poly N-acetylneuraminic acid) to bacteria which contain neuraminic acid, J. Gen. Microbiol. 29: 335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barry, G. T., Hamm, J. D., and Graham, M. G., 1963, Evaluation of colorimetric methods in the estimation of sialic acid in bacteria, Nature 200: 806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bentley, R., 1972, Configurational and conformational aspects of carbohydrate biochemistry, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 41: 953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertolini, M., and Pigman, W., 1967, Action of alkali on bovine and ovine submaxillary mucins, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blix, G., 1936, Üder die Kohlenhydratgruppen des Submaxillarismucins, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 240: 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blix, G., 1938, Einige Beobachtungen über eine hexosaminhaltige Substanz in der Protagonfraktion des Gehirns, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 80: 46.Google Scholar
  15. Blix, G., 1959, Sialic acids, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Biochemistry, Vienna, 1: 94.Google Scholar
  16. Blix, G., 1962, Sialic Acids, Methods Carbohyd. Chem. 1: 246.Google Scholar
  17. Blix, G., and Jeanloz, R. W., 1969, Sialic acids and muramic acid, in: The Amino Sugars (R. W. Jeanloz and E. A. Balazs, eds.), pp. 213–265, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Blix, G., and Lindberg, E., 1960, The sialic acids of bovine and equine submaxillary mucins, Acta Chem. Scand. 14: 1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blix, G., and Odin, L., 1955, Isolation of sialic acid from gangliosides, Acta Chem. Scand. 9: 1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blix, G., Svennerholm, L., and Werner, I., 1952, The Isolation of Chondrosamine from gangliosides and from submaxillary mucin, Acta Chem. Scand. 6: 358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blix, G., Lindberg, E., Odin, L., and Werner, I., 1955, Sialic acids, Nature 175: 340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blix, G., Lindberg, E., Odin, L., and Werner, I., 1956, Studies on sialic acids, Acta Soc. Med. Upsalien 61: 1.Google Scholar
  23. Blix, G., Gottschalk, A., and Klenk, E., 1957, Proposed nomenclature in the field of neuraminic and sialic acids, Nature 175: 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Böhm, P., and Baumeister, L., 1955, über die Isolierung der Methoxyneuraminisäure als Spaltprodukt des Serumeiweisses, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 300: 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bose, A. K., and Chatterjee, B. G., 1958, Molecular rotation and absolute configuration. II. Sugars, J. Org. Chem. 23: 1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brossmer, R., and Nebelin, E., 1969, Synthesis of N-formyl-and N-succinyl-D-neuraminic acid and the specificity of neuraminidase, FEBS Lett. 4: 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brug, J., and Paerels, G. B., 1958, Configuration of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Nature 182: 1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brunetti, P., Jourdian, G. W., and Roseman, S., 1962, The sialic acids. III. Distribution and properties of animal N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brunetti, P., Swanson, A., and Roseman, S., 1963, Enzymatic Determination of sialic acids, Methods Enzymol. 6: 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brunngraber, E. G., and Brown, B. D., 1967, Preparation and properties of sialomucopolysaccharides obtained from rat brain, Biochem. J. 103: 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buscher, H., Casals-Stenzel, J., and Schauer, R., 1974, New sialic acids, Eur. J. Biochem. 50: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cabezas, J. A., and Feo, F., 1969, Sialic Acids. XI. On the thiobarbituric acid positive reaction in several materials from the vegetal kingdom, Rev. Esp. Fisiol. 25: 153.Google Scholar
  33. Cabezas, J. A., and Ramos, M., 1972, The type and content of sialic acid of bile from several animal sources, Carbohyd. Res. 24: 486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carrion, A., Bourrillon, R., and Cabezas, J. A., 1969, N-Acetyl-and N, O-diacetylneuraminic acids in a sialoglycopeptide from normal human urine, Clin. Chim. Acta 26: 481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carroll, P. M., and Cornforth, J. W., 1960, Preparation of N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 39: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carubelli, R., and Griffin, M. J., 1968, On the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in HeLa cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 170: 446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clamp, J. R., Dawson, G., and Hough, L., 1967, The simultaneous estimation of 6-deoxy-L-galactose (L-fucose), D-mannose, D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (sialic acid) in glycopeptides and glycoproteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 148: 342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clamp, J. R., Bhatti, T., and Chambers, R. E., 1972, The examination of carbohydrate in glycoproteins by gas-liquid chromatography, in: Glycoproteins (A. Gottschalk, ed.), 2nd ed., pp. 300–321 Elsvier Publishing Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  39. Clark, W. R., Jackson, R. H., and Pallansch, M. J., 1962, Isolation of sialic acid in high yield from colostrum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 58: 129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Comb, D. G., and Roseman, S., 1958, Composition and enzymatic synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80: 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Comb, D. G., and Roseman, S., 1960, Sialic acids. I. Structure and enzymic synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Comb, D. G., and Roseman, S., 1962, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, Methods Enzymol. 5: 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Comb, D. G., Watson, D. R., and Roseman, S., 1966, The sialic acids. IX. Isolation of cytidine 5′-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid from Escherichia coli K-235, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 5637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cornforth, J. W., Firth, M. E., and Gottschalk, A., 1958, The synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Biochem. J. 68: 57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Craven, D. A., and Gehrke, C. W., 1968, Quantitative determination of N-acetylneuraminic acid by gas-liquid chromatography, J. Chromatography 37: 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dawson, G., and Sweeley, C. C., 1971, Mass spectrometry of neutral, mono-and disialoglycosphingolipids, J. Lipid Res. 12: 56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Delmotte, P., 1968, The automatic determination of blood serum sialic acid levels, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochim. 6: 46.Google Scholar
  48. Derevitskaya, V. A., Kalinevich, V. M., and Kochetkov, N. K., 1965a, Synthesis of methyl ester of 9-O-glycyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 160: 596.Google Scholar
  49. Derevitskaya, V. A., Kalinevich, V. M., and Kochetkov, N. K., 1965b, Glycopeptides. XVI. Synthesis of methyl ester of N-glycylmethoxyneuraminic acid, Khim. Prirodn. Soedin 1965: 241.Google Scholar
  50. Derevitskaya, V. A., Kalinevich, V. M., and Kochetkov, N. K., 1966, Lactone of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 169: 1087.Google Scholar
  51. DeVries, G. H., and Binkley, S. B., 1972a, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase of Clostridium perfringens: Purification, properties and mechanism of action, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 151: 234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. DeVries, G. H., and Binkley, S. B., 1972b, 3-Hydroxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Synthesis and inhibitory properties, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 151: 243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dickinson, H. R., and Bush, C. A., 1975, Circular dichroism of oligosaccharides containing neuraminic acid, Biochem. 14: 2299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dimitrov, G. D., 1973, Spectrophotometric method for qualitative and quantitative determination of sialic acid in glycoproteins and glycopeptides, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 354: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Diringer, H., 1972, The thiobarbituric acid assay of sialic acids in the presence of large amounts of lipids, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 353: 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Faillard, H., 1965, The synthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid and the biochemistry of glycoproteins containing neuraminic acid, Angew. Chem. (Intern. Ed.) 4: 445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Faillard, H., and Blohm, M., 1965, Synthese der N-Glycolyl-neuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 341: 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Faillard, H., Kirchner, G., and Blohm, G., 1966, Anomere Benzylglykoside der N-Acetylneuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 347: 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Faillard, H., Ferreira Do Amaral, C., and Blohm, M., 1969, Untersuchungen zur enzymatischen Spezifität der Neuraminidaze und N-Acyl-neuraminat-Lyase in bezug auf die N-Substitution, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 350: 798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fidgen, K. J., 1973, An improved automated method for the estimation of sialic acid released in the neuraminidase assay, Anal. Biochem. 54: 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fischmeister, I., 1958, Infrarotspektren von Sialinsäuren und Sialinsäuremethylestern, Arkiv Kemi. 13: 247.Google Scholar
  62. Flippen, J. L., 1973, The crystal structure of β-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid dihydrate (sialic acid), C11H19NO9.2H2O, Acta Cryst. B29: 1881.Google Scholar
  63. Folch, J., Arsove, S., and Meath, J. A., 1951, Isolation of brain strandin, a new type of large molecule tissue component, J. Biol. Chem. 191: 819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gantt, R., Miliner, S., and Binkley, S. B., 1964, Inhibition of N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase by 3-fluorosialic acid, Biochemistry 3: 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gerbant, L., Rey, E., and Lombart, C., 1973, Improved automated determination of bound N-acetylneuraminic acid in serum, Clin. Chem. 19: 1285.Google Scholar
  66. Gibbons, R. A., 1963, The sensitivity of the neuraminosidic linkage in mucosubstances towards acid and towards neuraminidase, Biochem. J. 89: 380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gielen, W., 1965, Beitrag zur Chemie der Neuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 342: 170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gielen, W., 1967a, Beitrag zur Chemie der Neuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 348: 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gielen, W., 1967b, Die Synthese der Methoxyneuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 348: 378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gielen, W., 1968, Neuraminsäure in Pflanzen? Die 2-Keto-3-desoxyaldonsäuren in Pflanzen und die Synthese der 3-Deoxy-D-glycero-β-D-galakto-nonulosonäure, Z. Naturforsch. 23b: 1598.Google Scholar
  71. Gottschalk, A., 1955, 2-carboxypyrrole: its preparation from and its precursor in mucoproteins, Biochem. J. 61: 298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gottschalk, A., 1958, Neuraminidase: its substrate and mode of action, Adv. Enzymol. 20: 135.Google Scholar
  73. Gottschalk, A., 1960, The Chemistry and Biology of Sialic Acids and Related Substances, Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  74. Gottschalk, A., 1962, The relation between structure and function in some glycoproteins, Perspectives Biol. Med. 5: 327.Google Scholar
  75. Gottschalk, A., 1966, in: Glycoproteins. Their Composition, Structure and Function (A. Gottschalk, ed.) 1st ed., p. 173, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  76. Gottschalk, A., and Lind, P. E., 1949, Product of interaction between influenza virus enzyme and ovomucin, Nature 164: 232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gutteridge, J. M. C., Stocks, J., and Dormandy, T. L., 1974, Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances derived from autoxidizing linoleic and linolenic acids, Anal. Chim. Acta 70: 107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Granzer, E., 1962, Dünnschichtchromatographie von Neuraminsäure-Derivaten, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 328: 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hahn, H., Hellman, B., Lernmark, A., Sehlin, J., and Tüljedal, I., 1974, The pancreatic β-cell recognition of insulin secretagogues, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 5275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hakomori, S., and Saito, T., 1969, Isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipid having a new sialic acid, Biochemistry 8: 5082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Harris, J. U., and Klingman, J. D., 1972, Detection, determination, and metabolism in vitro of gangliosides in mammalian sympathetic ganglia, J. Neurochem. 19: 1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Haverkamp, J., Schauer, R., Wember, M., Kamerling, J. P., and Vliegenthart, J. F. G., 1975, Synthesis of 9-O-acetyl-and 4,9-di-O-acetyl derivatives of the methyl ester of N-acetyl-β-D-neuraminic acid methylglycoside. Their use as models in periodate oxidation studies, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 356: 1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heimer, R., and Meyer, K., 1956, Studies on sialic acid of submaxillary mucoid, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 42: 728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hess, E. L., Coburn, A. F., Bates, R. C., and Murphy, P., 1957, A new method for measuring sialic acid levels in serum and its application to rheumatic fever, J. Clin. Invest. 36: 449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hess, H. H., and Rolde, E., 1964, Fluorometric assay of sialic acid in brain gangliosides, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 3215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hof, L., and Faillard, H., 1973, The serum dependence on the occurrence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in HeLa cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297: 561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Holmquist, L., and Brossmer, R., 1972a, On the specificity of neuraminidase. The carboxymethyl α-ketoside of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid, a Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase substrate having two anionic sites, FEBS Lett. 22: 46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Holmquist, L., and Brossmer, R., 1972b, On the specificity of neuraminidase. Synthesis and properties of the 2-aminoethyl α-and the 2-pyridyl α-and β-ketosides of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 353: 1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Horvat, A., and Touster, O., 1968, On the lysosomal occurrence and the properties of the neuraminidase of rat liver and of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 4380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hotta, K., Kurokawa, M., and Isaka, S., 1970, Isolation and identification of two sialic acids from the jelly coat of sea urchin eggs, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 6307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. How, M. J., Halford, M. D. A., Stacey, M., and Vickers, E., 1969, An improved synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Carbohyd. Res. 11: 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Huang, R. T. C., and Klenk, E., 1972, α-Ketosidic linkage of the neuraminidase-resistant neuraminic acid in brain gangliosides, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 353: 679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Isemura, M., Zahn, R. K., and Schmid, K., 1973, A new neuraminic acid derivative and three types of glycopeptides isolated from the cuvierian tubules of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali, Biochem. J. 131: 509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ishizuka, I., Kloppenburg, M., and Wiegandt, H., 1970, Characterization of gangliosides from fish brain, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 210: 299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jann, K., 1969, Neuraminsäurehaltige Polysaccharide in Escherichia coli, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 350: 666.Google Scholar
  96. Jeanloz, R. W., 1963, Recent developments in the biochemistry of amino sugars, Adv. Enzymol. 25: 433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jochims, J. C., Taigel, G., Seeliger, A., Lutz, P., and Drieson, H. E., 1967, Stereospecific long-rage couplings of hydroxy1 protons of pyranoses, Tetrahed. Lett. 44: 4363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jourdian, G. W., Dean, L., and Roseman, S., 1971, The sialic acids. XI. A periodateresorcinol method for the quantitative estimation of free sialic acids and their glycosides, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., and Vink, J., 1974, Mass spectrometry of pertrimethylsilyl neuraminic acid derivatives, Carbohyd. Res. 33: 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Versluis, C., and Schauer, R., 1975a, Identification of O-Acetylated N-acylneuraminic acids by mass spectrometry, Carbohyd. Res. 41: 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Schauer, R., Strecker, G., and Montreuil, J., 1975b, Isolation and identification of 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid from the urine of a patient with sialuria, Eur. J. Biochem. 56: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Karkas, J. D., and Chargaff, E., 1964, Studies on the stability of simple derivatives of sialic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Karlsson, K. A., 1973, Carbohydrate composition and sequence analysis of cell surface components by mass spectrometry: characterization of the major monosialoganglioside of brain, FEBS Lett. 32: 317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Karlsson, K. A., 1974, Carbohydrate composition and sequence analysis of a derivative of brain disialoganglioside bt mass spectrometry, with molecular weight ions at m/e 2245. Potential use in the specific microanalysis of cell surface components, Biochemistry 13: 3643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Karlsson, K. A., Pascher, I., and Samuelsson, B. E., 1974, Analysis of intact gangliosides by mass spectrometry. Comparison of different. derivatives of a hematoside of a tumour and the major monosialoganglioside of brain, Chem. Phys. Lipids 12: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kendal, A. P., 1968, An automated determination of sialic acids, Anal. Biochem. 23: 150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Khorlin, A. Ya., and Privalova, I. M., 1966, The benzhydryl ester of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Khim. 1966: 1261.Google Scholar
  108. Khorlin, A. Ya., and Privalova, I., 1967, Acylation of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Khim, Prirodn. Soedin. 1967: 191.Google Scholar
  109. Khorlin, A. Ya., and Privalova, I. M., 1968, Glycosylation of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1968: 215.Google Scholar
  110. Khorlin, A. Ya., and Privalova, I. M., 1970, Synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid 8-methyl ether, Carbohyd. Res. 13: 373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klenk, E., 1935, Über die Natur der Phosphatide und anderer Lipoide des Gehirms und der Leber in Niemann-Pickscher Krankheit, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 235: 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Klenk, E., 1941, Neuraminsäure, das Spaltproduct eines neuen Gehirnlipoids, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 268: 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Klenk, E., 1942, Über die Ganglioside, eine neue Gruppe von zuckerhaltigen Gehirnlipoiden, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 273: 76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Klenk, E., and Faillard, H., 1954, Zur Kenntnis der Kohlenhydratgruppen der Mucoproteide, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 298: 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Klenk, E., and Langerbeins, H., 1941, Verteilung von Neuraminsäure in Gehirn. Mit einer Mikromethode für die Bestimmung dieser Substanz im Nervengewebe, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 270: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Klenk, E., and Lauenstein, K., 1952, Zur Kenntnis der Kohlenhydratgruppen des Submaxilleris mucins und Harnmucoproteids. Die Isolierung von Neuraminsaüren als Spaltprodukt, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 291: 147.Google Scholar
  117. Klenk, E., Faillard, H., Weygand, F., and Schöne, H. H., 1956, Untersuchungen über die Konstitution der Neuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 304: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kochetkov, N. K., Chizhov, O. S., Kadentsev, V. I., Smirnova, G. P., and Zhukova, I. G., 1973, Mass spectra of acetylated derivatives of sialic acid, Carbohyd. Res. 27: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kuhn, R., and Baschang, G., 1962a, Die Konfiguration der Sialinsäuren am C-Atom 4, Chem. Ber. 95: 2384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kuhn, R., and Baschang, G., 1962b, Synthese der lactaminsäure, Ann. Chem. 659: 156.Google Scholar
  121. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1956a, Abbau der Lactaminsäure zu N-Acetyl-D-glucosamin, Chem. Ber. 89: 2471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1956b, Über O-Acetyl-lactaminsäurelactose aus Kuh-Colostrum und ihre Spaltbarkeit durch Influenza-Virus, Chem. Ber. 89: 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1957, Die Konfiguration der Lactaminsäure, Angew. Chem. 69: 534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1958a, Zur Konfiguration der Lactaminsäure, Ann. Chem. 616: 221.Google Scholar
  125. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1958b, Die Konstitution der Lactaminsäurelactose; α-Ketosidase-Wirkung von Viren der Influenza-Gruppe, Angew, Chem. 70: 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1959, Über das durch Viren der Influenza-Gruppe spaltbare Trisaccharid der Milch, Chem. Ber. 92: 1667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kuhn, R., and Brossmer, R., 1962, The configuration of sialic acids, Angew. Chem. Intern. Ed. 1: 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kuhn, R., and Lutz, P., 1963, Über Formyl-brenztraubensäure und den Farbstoff der Warren-Reaktion, Biochem. Z. 338: 554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kuhn, R., Brossmer, R., and Schulz, W., 1954, Über die prosthetische Gruppe der Mucoproteine des Kuh-Colstrums, Chem. Ber. 87: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kuhn, R., Lutz, P., and Mac Donald, D. L., 1966, Synthese anomerer Sialinsäuremethylketoside, Chem. Ber. 99: 611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Labat, J., and Schmid, K., 1969, Neuraminidase-resistant sialyl residues of α,-acid glycoprotein, Experientia 25: 701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ledeen, R., 1970, New developments in the study of ganglioside structures, Chem. Phys. Lipids 5: 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ledeen, R., and Salsman, K., 1965, Structure of the Tay-Sachs ganglioside, Biochemistry 4: 2225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ledeen, R. W., and Yu, R. K., 1973a, Structure and enzymic degradation of sphingolipids, in: Lysosomes and Storage Diseases (H. G. Hers and F. Van Hoof, eds.), pp. 105–145, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  135. Ledeen, R. W., and Yu, R. K., 1973b, GLC assay of sialic acid, in: Biological Diagnosis of Brain Disorders (S. Bogoch, ed.), pp. 377–379, Spectrum Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Ledeen, R., Salsman, K., and Cabrera, M., 1968, Gangliosides of bovine adrenal medulla, Biochemistry 7: 2287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ledeen, R. W., Kundu, S. K., Price, H. C., and Fong, J. W., 1974, Mass spectra of permethyl derivatives of glycosphingolipids, Chem. Phys. Lipids 13: 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Liao, T.-H., Gallop, P., and Blumenfeld, O. O., 1973, Modification of sialyl residues of sialoglycoprotein(s) of the human erythrocyte surface, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 8247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Liu, T. Y., Gotschlick, E. C., Dunne, F. T., and Jonssen, E. K., 1971, Studies on the menigococcal polysaccharides. II. Composition and chemical properties of the group B and group C polysaccharide, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 4703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lutz, P., Lochinger, W., and Taigel, G., 1968, Zur Konformation der N-Acetylneuraminsäure, Chem. Ber. 101: 1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Martensson, E., Raal, A., and Svennerholm, L., 1958, Sialic acids in blood serum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 30: 124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. McGuire, E. J., and Binkley, S. B., 1964, The structure and chemistry of colominic acid, Biochemistry 3: 247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McLean, R., and Beidler, J., 1969, 5-Acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-D-galacto-octulosonic acid, an eight-carbon analog of N-acetylneuraminic acid, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91: 5388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1965a, Über synthetische Ketoside der N-Acetyl-D-neuraminsäure. 1. Mitt.: Darstellung einer Reihe durch Neuraminidase spaltbarer Ketoside, Monatsh. Chem. 96: 802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1965b, Über synthetische Ketoside der N-Acetyl-D-neuraminsäure, 2. Mitt.: Anomere n-Amyl-und n-Hexylketoside der N-Acetyl-D-neuraminsäure, Monatsh, Chem. 96: 816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1966a, Über synthetische Ketoside der N-Glykolyl-D-neuraminsäure, Monatsh. Chem. 97: 654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1966b, Über die Spaltung synthetischer Sialinsäure-α-Ketoside durch Neuraminidase, Monatsh. Chem. 97: 990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1966c, Darstellung und enzymatische Spaltbarkeit von α-Ketosiden der N-Propionyl-, N-Butyryl-, und N-Benzoyl-D-neuraminsäure, Monatsh. Chem. 97: 1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1967, Über synthetische Ketoside der N-Acetyl-D-neuraminsäure, 3. Mitt.: Darstellung des Phenyl-α-Ketosides der N-Acetyl-D-neuraminsäure und seines β-Anomeren, Monatsh. Chem. 98: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1969, Uber 2-Desoxy-2.3-dehydro-sialinsäueren, II. Kompetitive Hemmung der Vibriocholerae-Neuraminidase durch 2-Desoxy-2.3-dehydro-N-acyl-neuraminsäueren, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 350: 1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Meindl, P., and Tuppy, H., 1973, 2-Deoxy-2,3-dehydrosialic acid. III. Synthesis and properties of 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydroneuraminic acid and of new N-acyl derivatives, Monatsh. Chem. 104: 402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Meindl, P., Bodo, G., Palese, P., Schulman, J., and Tuppy, H., 1974, Inhibition of neuraminidase activity by derivatives of 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid, Virology 58: 457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mesnard, P., and Devaux, G., 1964, Nouvelle méthode de dosage colorimétrique de l’acide quinique et de ses esters naturels, Bull. Soc. Chim. (France) 1964: 43.Google Scholar
  154. Miettinen, T., and Takki-Luukkainen, I.-T., 1959, Use of butyl acetate in determination of sialic acid, Acta Chem. Scand. 13: 856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mirzayanova, M. N., Davydova, L. P., and Samokhvalov, G. I., 1970, New synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Z. Obshchei Khim. 40: 693.Google Scholar
  156. Neuberger, A., and Ratcliffe, W. A., 1972, The acid and enzymic hydrolysis of O-acetylacted sialic acid residues from rabbit Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, Biochem. J. 129: 683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Neuberger, A., and Ratcliffe, W. A., 1973, Kinetic studies on the acid hydrolysis of the methyl ketoside of unsubstituted and O-acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid, Biochem. J. 133: 623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. O’Connell, A. M., 1973, The crystal structure of N-acetylneuraminic acid methyl ester monohydrate, Acta Cryst. B29: 2320.Google Scholar
  159. Ohkuma, S., and Miyauchi, C., 1966, Chromogen formation and degradation of N-acetylhexosamines and N-acetylneuraminic acid by barium hydroxide treatment, Nature 211: 190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Onodera, K., Hirano, S., and Hayashi, H., 1965, Sialic acid and related substances. II. A comparative assay of N-acetylneuraminic acid, Carbohyd. Res. 1: 44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Paerels, G. B., and Schut, J., 1965, The mechanism of the periodate-thiobarbituric acid reaction of sialic acids, Biochem. J. 96: 787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Palese, P., Bucher, D., and Kilbourne, E. D., 1973, Applications of a synthetic neuraminidase substrate, Appl. Microbiol. 25: 195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Pepper, D. S., 1968, The sialic acids of horse serum with special reference to their virus inhibitory properties, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 156: 317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Price, H. C., and Yu, R. K., 1976, Adrenal medulla gangliosides. A comparative study of some mammals, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 54B: 451.Google Scholar
  165. Price, H. C., Kundu, S., and Ledeen, R., 1975, Structures of gangliosides from bovine adrenal mudulla, Biochemistry 14: 1512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Privalova, I. M., and Khorlin, A. Ya., 1969, Substrates and inhibitors of neuraminidases. Communication synthesis of O-, S-, and N-ketosides of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1969: 2785 (Eng. trans, p. 2614).Google Scholar
  167. Roseman, S., Jourdian, G. W., Watson, D., and Rood, R., 1961, Enzymic synthesis of sialic acid 9-phosphates, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S. 47: 955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rosenberg, S. A., and Einstein, Jr., A. B., 1972, Sialic acids on the plasma membrane of cultured human lymphoid cells, J. Cell. Biol. 53: 466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Saifer, A., and Feldman, N. I., 1971, The photometric determination of gangliosides with the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction, J. Lipid Res. 12: 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Saito, Y., 1956, An improved method for the preparation of sialic acid or acetylneuraminic acid, Nature 178: 995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Schauer, R., 1970, Biosynthese von N-acetyl-O-acetylneuraminsäuren, I., Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 351: 595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Schauer, R., 1973, Chemistry and biology of acylneuraminic acids, Angew. Chem. Intern. Ed. 12: 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Schauer, R., and Buscher, H. P., 1974, An improved method for the synthesis of relabeled or 3H-labeled N-acetylneuraminic acid, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 338: 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Schauer, R., and Faillard, H., 1968, Das Verhalten isomerer N,O-Diacetylneuraminsäure glykoside in Submaxillarismucin von Pferd und Rind bei Einwirkung bakterieller Neuraminidase, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 349: 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Schauer, R., Wirtz-Peitz, F., and Faillard, H., 1970, Synthese von N-acylneuraminsäueren. II. N-[1-14C]Glycolyl-N-Chloracetyl-und N-Fluoracetylneuraminsäure, Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 351: 359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schauer, R., Haverkamp, J., Wember, M., Vliegenthart, J. F., and Kamerling, J. P., 1976, N-Acetyl-9-O-L-lactylneuraminic acid. A new acylneuraminic acid from bovine submandibular gland, Eur. J. Biochem. 62: 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Schneir, M., Benya, P., and Buch, L., 1970, Determination of malonaldehyde in the presence of sialic acid, Anal. Biochem. 35: 46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Seibert, F. B., Pfabb, M. L., and Seibert, M. V., 1948, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 18: 279.Google Scholar
  179. Spence, M. W., and Wolfe, L. S., 1967, Gangliosides in developing rat brain. Isolation and composition of subcellular membranes enriched in gangliosides, Can. J. Biochem. 45: 671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Spiro, R. G., 1964, Periodate oxidation of the glycoprotein fetuin, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Spiro, R. G., 1966, Analysis of sugars found in glycoproteins, Methods Enzymol. 8: 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stephen, A. M., and Jeanloz, R. W., 1966, Synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid and derivatives, Fed. Proc. 25: 409.Google Scholar
  183. Stone, A. L., and Kolodny, E. H., 1971, Circular dichroism of gangliosides from normal and Tay-Sachs tissues, Chem. Phys. Lipids 6: 274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Suttajit, M., and Winzler, R. J., 1971, Effect of modification of N-acetylneuraminic acid on the binding of glycoproteins to influenza virus and on susceptibility to cleavage by neuraminidase, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 3398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Svennerholm, L., 1956, On the isolation and characterization of N-acetylsialic acid, Acta Soc. Med. Upsalien 61: 75.Google Scholar
  186. Svennerholm, L., 1957a, Quantitative estimation of sialic acids. I. A colorimetric method with orcinol-hydrochloric acid (Bial’s) reagent, Arkiv Kemi. 10: 577.Google Scholar
  187. Svennerholm, L., 1957b, Quantitative estimation of sialic acids. II. A colorimetric resorcinol-hydrochloric acid method, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 24: 604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Svennerholm, L., 1958, Quantitative estimation of sialic acids. III. An anionic exchange resin method, Acta Chem. Scand. 12: 547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Svennerholm, L., 1963a, Sialic acids and derivatives: Preparation, Methods Enzymol. 6: 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Svennerholm, L., 1963b, Sialic acids and derivatives: Estimation by the ion-exchange method, Methods Enzymol. 6: 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Svennerholm, L., 1963c, Chromatographic separation of human brain gangliosides, J. Neurochem. 10: 613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sweeley, C. C., and Walker, B., 1964, Determination of carbohydrates in glycolipides and gangliosides by gas chromatography, Anal. Chem. 36: 1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tettamanti, G., Bertona, L., Berra, B., and Zambotti, V., 1964, On the evidence of glycolylneuraminic acid in beef brain gangliosides, Ital. J. Biochem. 13: 315.Google Scholar
  194. Tuppy, H., and Gottschalk, A., 1972, The structure of sialic acids and their quantitation, in: Glycoproteins. Their Composition, Structure and Function (A. Gottschalk, ed.), 2nd ed., pp. 403–449, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  195. Tuppy, H., and Palese, P., 1969, Chromogenic substrate for the investigation of neuraminidases, FEBS Lett. 3: 72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vaitukaitis, J. L., Sherins, R., Ross, G. T., Hickman, J., and Ashwell, G., 1971, A method for the preparation of radioactive FSH with preservation of biologic activity, Endocrinology 89: 1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Vance, D. E., and Sweeley, C. C., 1967, Quantitative determination of the neutral glycosyl ceramides in human blood, J. Lipid Res. 8: 621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Van Lenten, L., and Ashwell, G., 1971, Studies on the chemical and enzymatic modification of glycoproteins. A general method for the tritiation of sialic-acid containing glycoproteins, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 1426.Google Scholar
  199. Walkowiak, H., Kedzierska, B., and Starzynski, W., 1968, Horizontal circular chromatography of sialic acids from serum of certain mammal species, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci. Biol. 16: 97.Google Scholar
  200. Waravdekar, V. S., and Saslaw, L. D., 1957, A method of estimation of 2-deoxyribose, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 24: 439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Warren, L., 1959, The thiobarbituric acid assay of sialic acids, J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Warren, L., 1963a, The distribution of sialic acids in nature, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 10: 153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Warren, L., 1963b, Thiobarbituric acid assay of sialic acid, Methods Enzymol. 6: 463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Warren, L., 1964, N-Glycolyl-8-O-methylneuraminic acid. A new form of sialic acid in the starfish Asterias forbesi, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 83: 129.Google Scholar
  205. Warren, L., and Felsenfeld, H., 1961, N-Acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate and N-acetylneuraminic acid-9-phosphate as intermediates in sialic acid biosynthesis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 5: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Warren, L., and Felsenfeld, H., 1962, The biosynthesis of sialic acids, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Watson, D. F., Jourdian, G. W., and Roseman, S., 1966a, The sialic acids. VIII. Sialic acid 9-phosphate synthetase, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 5627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Watson, D. R., Jourdian, G. W., and Roseman, S., 1966b, N-Acylneuraminic (Sialic) acid 9-phosphate synthetase, Methods Enzymol. 8: 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Watson, R. G., Marinetti, G. V., and Scherp, H. W., 1958, The specific hapten of group C (Group II α) Menigococcus. II. Chemical Nature, J. Immunol. 81: 337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Weissbach, A., and Hurwitz, J., 1959, The formation of 2-keto-3-deoxyheptonic acid in extracts of Escherichia coli B, J. Biol. Chem. 234: 705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Wenger, D. A., and Wardell, S., 1973, Action of neuraminidase (E.C. from Clostridium perfringens on brain gangliosides in the presence of bile salts, J. Neurochem. 20: 607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Werner, I., and Odin, L., 1952, On the presence of sialic acid in certain glycoproteins and in gangliosides, Acta Soc. Med. Upsalien 57: 230.Google Scholar
  213. Wesemann, W., and Zilliken, F., 1966, Synthesen von N-Acyl-neuraminsäuren, I. Rezeptoren der Neurotransmitter, Ann. Chem. 695: 209.Google Scholar
  214. Wirtz-Peitz, F., Schauer, R., and Faillard, H., 1969, Synthese von N-Acyl-neuraminsäuren aus Neruaminsäure-β-methylglykosid, I., Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 350: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Yamakawa, T., and Suzuki, S., 1952, The chemistry of the lipids of posthemolytic residue or stroma of erythrocytes. III. On the structure of hemataminic acid, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 39: 175.Google Scholar
  216. Yu, R. K., and Ledeen, R. W., 1969, Configuration of the ketosidic bond of sialic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Yu, R. K., and Ledeen, R. W., 1970, Gas-liquid chromatographic assay of lipid-bound sialic acid: measurement of gangliosides in brain of several species, J. Lipid Res. 11: 506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Yu, R. K., and Ledeen, R. W., 1972, Gangliosides of human, bovine, and rabbit plasma, J. Lipid Res. 13: 680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Zilliken, F., and Glick, M. C., 1956, Alkalischer Abbau von Gynaminsäure zu Brenztraubensäure und N-Acetyl-D-glucosamin, Naturwissenschaften 43: 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zilliken, F., and O’Brien, P. J., 1960, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, Biochem. Prep. 7: 1.Google Scholar
  221. Zilliken, F., and Whitehouse, M. W., 1958, The nonulosaminic acids. Neuraminic acids and related compounds (sialic acids), Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. 13: 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zilliken, F., Braun, G. A., and György, P., 1955, Gynaminic acid. A naturally occurring form of neuraminic acid in human milk, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 54: 564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Ledeen
    • 1
  • R. K. Yu
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Biochemistry and NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations