The Mysterious “Split”: A Clinical Inquiry into Problems of Consciousness and Brain

  • Peter H. Knapp


Felix Deutsch, a pioneer in psychoanalysis and psychosomatic medicine, took for his title of another symposium a phrase of Freud’s: “The Mysterious Leap from the Mind to the Body.” My modification focuses, as did the conference as a whole, on the notion of bifurcation or splitting. It is further intended to suggest that many conceptual problems concerning consciousness and brain are sophisticated present-day heirs to the problems of mind and body.


Conscious Experience Psychosomatic Medicine Bodily Awareness Free Association Personal Sphere 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashby, W. R. (1960): Design for a Brain: The Origin of Adaptive Behavior. 2nd Ed. Revised, London: Chapman Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertalanffy, L. Von (1950): An outline of general systems theory. Br. J. Philos. Sci. 1, 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertalanffy, L. Von (1964): The mind body problem: A new view. Psychosom. Med. 26, 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertalanffy, L. Von (1969): Law or chance. In: Beyond Reductionalism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences. Ed. by A. Koestler & J. R. Smythies, London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  5. Birdwhistell, R. (1971): Kinesics and Context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brady, J. V. (1958): Ulcers in executive monkeys. Sci. Am. 199, 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruner, J. S. (1969): On voluntary action and its hierarchical structure. In: Beyond Reductionism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences. Ed. by A. Koestler & J. R. Smythies, London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  8. Cassirer, E. (1953): The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms I, Language. (R. Manheim Transl.) New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Casteneda, C. (1969): The Teachings of Don Juan. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  10. Chomsky, N. (1957): Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton & Co.Google Scholar
  11. Cobb, S. (1957): Monism and Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychosom. 19, 177–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colby, K. M. (1960): Experiment on the effects of an observer’s presence on the image system. Behav. Sci. 5, 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colby, K. M. (1961): On the greater amplifying power of causal-correlative over interrogative input on free association in an experimental psychoanalytic situation. J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 133, 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Condon, W. and Sander, L. (1973): Personal communication.Google Scholar
  15. Deutsch, F. (1959): The Mysterious Leap from The Mind to The Body. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Ellenberger, H. (1970): The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, S. & Cleveland, S. E. (1958): Body Image and Personality. Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  18. Freud, S. (1925): Instincts and their viscissitudes. In: Collected Papers 4, 60–83. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  19. Henry, J. & Stephens P. (1969): Psychosocial stimuli to induce renal and cardiovascular pathology in mice. (Abstract) Psychosom. Med. 31, 454.Google Scholar
  20. Holt, R. R. (1972): Freud’s mechanistic and humanistic images of man. In: Psychoanalysis and Contempory Science Vol. 1. Ed. by R. R. Holt and E. Peterfreund, New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  21. James, W. (1890): Principles of Psychology. England: Dover Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kety, S. (1969): New perspectives in Psychopharmacology. Beyond Reductionism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences. Ed. by A. Koestler & J. R. Smythies, London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  23. Knapp, P. H. (1969): Image, symbol and personality. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 21, 392–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knapp, P. H. (1973): Experimental Free Association. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  25. Knapp, P. H., Mathé, A., & Vachon, L. (1976): Psychosomatic aspects of bronchial asthma. In: Bronchial Asthma, Its Nature and Management. Ed. by E. B. Weiss and M. S. Segal, Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  26. Knapp, P. H. & Nemetz, S. J. (1960): Acute bronchial asthma: 1. concomitant depression and excitement, and varied antecedent patterns in 406 attacks. Psychosom. Med. 22, 42–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Langer, S. K. (1942): Philosophy in a New Key. New York: Mentor Press.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, G. A., Galenter, E. & Pribram, K. H. (1958): Plans and the Structure of Behavior. New York: H. Holt & Co.Google Scholar
  29. Morris, C. (1938): Foundations of the theory of signs. In: Foundations of the Unity of Science: Toward an International Encyclopedia of Unified Science Vol. 1, No. 2. Ed. by O. Neurath, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Mushatt, C. (1973): Mind-body environment: Toward understanding the impact of loss on psyche and soma. In press, Psychoanal. Quart.Google Scholar
  31. Neisser, U. (1963): Imitation of man by machine. Science 139, 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ogden, C. K., Richards, I. A. (1923): The Meaning of Meaning. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  33. Pinderhughes, C. (1969): Understanding black power. Am. J. Psychiatry 125, 1552.Google Scholar
  34. Ricoeur, P. (1970): Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. D. Savage ( Transl.) New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ryle, G. (1949): The Concept of Mind. London: Hutchinson & Co.Google Scholar
  36. Sander, WL. W. (1964): Adaptive relationships in early mother-child interaction. J. Amer. Acad. Child Psych. 3, 231–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scheflen, A. E. (1966): Systems and psychosomatics. Psychosom. Med. 28, 297–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schildkraut, J. J. & Kety, S. S. (1967): Biogenic amines and emotion. Science 156, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Skinner, B. F. (1971): Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  40. Spence, D. (1972): Digital and analog thought. Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  41. Spitz, R. A. (1957): No and Yes. New York: Int. Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  42. Stechler, G. Bradford, S. & Levy, H. (1966): Attention in the newborn: Its effect on motility and skin potential reactivity. Science 151, 1246–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Walter, W. G. (1953): The Living Brain. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  44. Weisman, A. (1958): Reality sense and reality testing. Behav. Sci. 3, 228–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weiss, J. M. (1971a): Effects of coping behavior in different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats. J. Compar. Physiol. Psychol. 77, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weiss, J. M. (1971b): Effects of punishing the coping response (conflict) on stress pathology in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 77, 14–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weiss, J. M. (1971c): Effects of coping behavior with and without a feedback signal on stress pathology in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 77, 22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Whitehead, A. N. (1926): Process and Reality. New York: McMillan.Google Scholar
  49. Wolff, H. G. (1948): Headache and Other Head Pain. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter H. Knapp
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston University School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations