Advertisement

Development in Complex Perceptual Activities

  • Herbert L. PickJr.

Abstract

Let us begin by examining the development of some very simple perceptual functions in normal children. Consider visual acuity as a first example. A number of studies using various methods (Fantz, Ordy, and Udelf, 1962; Gorman, Cogan, and Gillis, 1957; Dayton, Jones, Aiu, Rawson, Steele, and Rose, 1964) find the visual acuity of infants between zero and 1 month of age to be between 20/150 and 20/400 Snellen. It increases over the first several months of age and then rapidly through childhood, reaching maximum (20/20 to 20/15 Snellen) about the age of 10 years (Weymouth, 1963). Consider auditory acuity as a second example. Steinschneider, Lipton, and Richmond (1966) found neonates sensitive to sounds of 70 db or more. Bartoshuk (1964) found that the function relating responsivity and intensity of sound in neonates was similar to that of adults, and Eagles, Wishik, Doerfler, Melnick, and Levine (1963) found auditory acuity increasing slowly and gradually between 5 and 13 years with a slight decrease in sensitivity at 14. Even somewhat more complex perceptual functions such as those involved in size constancy seem to show gradual improvement with age. Typical of these studies is one by Zeigler and Leibowitz (1957). Children between 7 and 9 years of age showed less constancy than a group of adults in adjusting a rod 5 feet away to match the size of one varying from 10 to 100 feet away.

Keywords

Reference System Heart Rate Deceleration Haptic Perception Perceptual Integration Pictorial Depth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acredolo, L. P. Frames of referenced used by children for orientation in unfamiliar spaces. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, W., and Tronick, E. Infant responses to impending collision: Optical and real. Science, 1971, 171, 818–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartoshuk, A. K. Human neonatal cardiac responses to sound: A power function. Psychonomic Science, 1964, 1, 151–152.Google Scholar
  4. Benson, K., and Yonas, A. Development of sensitivity to static pictorial depth information. Perception and Psychophysics, 1973, 13, 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berman, P. W. How a child finds his way in two-dimensional space. Colloquium presented at Pennsylvania State University. 1973, and personal communication.Google Scholar
  6. Bower, T. G. R. The development of reaching in infants. Unpublished monograph, University of Edinburgh, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Bower, T. G. R., Broughton, J. M., and Moore, M. K. Infant responses to approaching objects: An indicator of response to distal variables. Perception and Psychophysics, 1970, 9, 193–196. (a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bower, T. G. R., Broughton, J. M., and Moore, M. K. Demonstration of intention in the reaching behavior of neonate humans. Nature, 1970, 228 (no. 5272), 697–681. (b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruner, J. S., and Koslowski, B. Visually preadapted constituents of manipulatory action. Perception, 1972, 1, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campos, J. J., Langer, A., and Krowitz, A. Cardiac responses on the visual cliff in prelocomotor human infants. Science, 1970, 170, 196–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dayton, G. O. Jr., Jones, M. H., Aiu, P., Rawson, R. H., Steele, B., and Rose, M. Developmental study of coordinated eye movements in the human infant I: Visual acuity in the newborn human: A study based on induced optokinetic nystagmus recorded by electro-oculography. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1964, 71, 865–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deregowski, J. B. Difficulties in pictorial depth perception in Africa. British Journal of Psychology, 1968, 59, 195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eagles, F. L. Wishik, S. M., Doerfler, L. G., Melnick, W., and Levine, H. S. Hearing sensitivity and related factors in children. Published by Laryngoscope, 650 S. Kingshighway, St. Louis, Mo., 63110. 1963, Vol. XI, 220.Google Scholar
  14. Ebihara, T. Moji ni okeru katachi no shigekiiki ni tsuite. (Stimulus thresholds of shapes for blind children.) Journal of Psychology of the Blind, 1958, 4, 27–31.Google Scholar
  15. Fantz, R. L., Ordy, J. M., and Udelf, M. S. Maturation of pattern vision in infants during first six months. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 907–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibson, J. J. The perception of the visual world. Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  17. Gibson, J. J. The senses considered as perceptual systems. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. Gorman, J. J., Cogan, D. G., and Gillis, S. S. An apparatus for grading visual acuity of infants on the basis of opticokinetic nystagmus. Pediatrics, 1957, 19, 1088–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham, F. K., and Jackson, J. C. Arousal systems and infant heart rate responses. In H. W. Reese and L. P. Lipsitt, (Eds.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 5). New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  20. Hatwell, Y. Perception tactile desformes et organisations spatial tactile. (Tactile form perception in the organization of tactile space.) Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique, 1959, 56 (no. 2), 187–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hochberg, J., and Brooks, V. Pictorial recognition as an unlearned ability: A study of one child’s performance. American Journal of Psychology, 1962, 75, 624–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hruska, K., and Yonas, A. Developmental changes in cardiac responses to the optical stimulus of impending collision. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research. St. Louis, Mo., 1971.Google Scholar
  23. Hudson, W. Pictorial depth perception in sub-cultural groups in Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 1960, 52, 183–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hudson, W. The study of the problem of pictorial perception among unacculturated groups. International Journal of Psychology, 1967, 2, 89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jahoda, G. Geometric illusions and environment: A study in Ghana. British Journal of Psychology, 1966, 57, 193–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kilbride, P. C., and Robbins, M. C. Linear perspective, pictorial depth perception and education among the Baganda. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1968, 27, 601–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lasky, R. E. The effect of visual feedback on the reaching of young infants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. Leibowitz, H. W., Brislin, R., Perlmutter, L., and Hennessy, R. Ponzo perspective illusion as a manifestation of space perception. Science, 1969, 166, 1174–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McKinney, J. P. Hand schema in children. Psychonomic Science, 1964, 1, 99–100.Google Scholar
  30. Mundy-Castle, A. C. Pictorial depth perception in Ghanaian children. International Journal of Psychology, 1966, 1, 289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pick, A. D. Games experimenters play! Review of cross-cultural studies on cognition. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota, 1973.Google Scholar
  32. Pick, H. L. Jr. Systems of perceptual and perceptual-motor development. In J. Hill (Ed.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 4). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  33. Pick, H. L. Jr., and Pick, A. D. Sensory and perceptual development. In P. Mussen (Ed.), CarmichaeVs manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  34. Pollack, R. H. Simultaneous and successive presentation of elements of the Müller-Lyer figure and chronological age. Perceptual Motor Skills, 1964, 19, 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pollack, R. H. Some implications of ontogenetic changes in perception. In J. Flavell and D. Elkind (Eds.), Studies in cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jean Piaget. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  36. Schwartz, A. N., Campos, J. J., and Baisel, E. J. The visual cliff: Cardiac and behavioral responses on the deep and shallow sides at five and nine months of age. Unpublished manuscript, Psychology Department, University of Denver.Google Scholar
  37. Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., and Herskovits, M. J. The influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966.Google Scholar
  38. Steinschneider, A., Lipton, E. L., and Richmond, J. B. Auditory sensitivity in the infant: Effect of intensity on cardiac and motor responsivity. Child Development, 1966, 37, 233–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Warren, D., Anooshian, L. J., and Bollinger, J. G. Early vs. late blindness: The role of early vision in spatial behavior. The American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin, 1973, 26, 151–170.Google Scholar
  40. Weymouth, F. W. Visual acuity of children. In M. J. Hirsch and R. E. Wick (Eds.), Vision of children. Philadelphia, Penn.: Chilton, 1963.Google Scholar
  41. Witkin, H. A., Lewis, H. B., Hartzman, M., Machover, K., Meissner, P. B., and Wapner, S. Personality through perception. New York: Harper, 1954.Google Scholar
  42. Worchel, P. Space perception and orientation in the blind. Psychological Monographs, 1951, 65, (Whole No. 332).Google Scholar
  43. Yonas, A., and Pick, H. L. Jr. Infant space perception in L. Cohen and P. Salapatek (Eds.), Perception in infants. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  44. Zeigler, H. P., and Leibowitz, H. Apparent visual size as a function of distance for children and adults. American Journal of Psychology, 1957, 70, 106–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert L. PickJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Child DevelopmentUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations