The Socialization of the Individual

  • Boyd R. McCandless


Socialization is a behavioral term that refers, first, to the way children, youth, and adults behave with reference to other children, youth, and adults; and, second, how they function in the several social roles that are specified in families and communities.


Moral Development External Locus Interpersonal Trust Socialization Product Negative Contingency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allport, G. W. Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  2. Baumrind, D. Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 1971, 4, No. 1, Part 2. Pp. 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benedict, R. Patterns of culture. New York: New American Library of World Literature, 1953.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, J. W. Independence and conformity in subsistence-level societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 7, 415–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byrne, D., and Griffitt, W. B. A developmental investigation of the law of attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 4, 699–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cavior, N., and Dokecki, P. R. Physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and academic achievement as contributors to interpersonal attractiveness among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 9, 44–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooley, C. H. Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner, 1902.Google Scholar
  8. Coopersmith, S. The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Erikson, E. H. Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton, 1963.Google Scholar
  10. Feshbach, S. Aggression. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), CarmichaeVs manual of child psychology (Vol. II). New York: Wiley, 1970. Pp. 159–260.Google Scholar
  11. Freud, S. Collected papers. London: Hogarth, 1950.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, J. G., Jr. A science of the South Pacific: Analysis of the character structure of the Peace Corps volunteers. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 232–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hartshorne, H., and May, M. A. Studies in the nature of character: Vol. I: Studies in deceit; studies in self control; Vol. HI: Studies in the organization of character. New York: Macmillan, 1928-1930.Google Scholar
  14. Hartup, W. W., and Coates, B. Imitation of a peer as a function of reinforcement from the peer group and rewardingness of the model. Child Development, 1967, 38, 1003–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hartup, W. W., Glazer, J. A., and Charlesworth, R. Peer reinforcement and sociemetric status. Child Development, 1967, 38, 1017–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoffman, M. L. Moral development. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. II). New York: Wiley, 1970. Pp. 261–360.Google Scholar
  17. Kagan, J., Rosman, B. L., Day, D., Albert, J., and Philips, W. Information processing in the child: Significance of analytic and reflective attitudes. Psychological Monographs, 1964, 78 (Whole No. 578) 578.Google Scholar
  18. Katz, H. A., and Rotter, J. B. Interpersonal trust scores of college students and their parents. Child Development, 1969, 40, 657–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kohlberg, L. The development of children’s orientations toward a moral order. I: Sequence in the development of moral thought. Vita Humana, 1963, 6, 11–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lundin, R. W. Personality theory in behavioristic psychology. In J. M. Wepman and R. W. Heine (Eds.), Concepts of personality. Chicago: Aldine, 1963. Pp. 257–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McCandless, B. R., and Evans, E. D. Children and adolescents: Psychosocial development. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Madsen, M. C., and Shapira, A. Cooperative and competitive behavior of urban Afro-American, Anglo-American, Mexican-American, and Mexican village children. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3, 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mead, G. H. Mind, self and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  24. Mischel, W. Sex-typing and socialization. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. II). New York: Wiley, 1970. Pp. 3–72.Google Scholar
  25. Moreno, J. L. Who shall survive? Beacon, New York: Beacon House, 1953.Google Scholar
  26. Nakamura, C. Y., and Finck, D. Effect of social or task orientation and evaluative or nonevaluative situations on performance. Child Development, 1973, 44, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reschly, D. J., and Mittman, A. The relationship of self-esteem status and task ambiguity to the self-reinforcement behavior of children. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 9, 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roff, M. Childhood social interactions and young adult bad conduct. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1961, 63, 333–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rollins, H. A., McCandless, B. R., Thompson, M., and Brasseil, W. A. Project Success Environment: An extended application of contingency management in inner-city schools. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1974, 66, 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rotter, J. B. Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rotter, J. B. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 1966, 80 (Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  32. Shore, M. F., Massimo, J. L., and Ricks, D. F. A factor analytic study of psychotherapeutic change in delinquent boys. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1965, 21, 208–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Skinner, B. F. Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Bantam/Vintage, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. Sullivan, H. S. The collected works of Harry Stack Sullivan. New York: Norton, 1953.Google Scholar
  35. Willems, E. P. Sense of obligation to high school activities as related to school size and marginality of student. Child Development, 1967, 38, 1247–1260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wylie, R. The self-concept. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1974. Pp. xviii + 433.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boyd R. McCandless
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations