Liquid-Crystal Displays—Packaging and Surface Treatments

  • L. A. Goodman


For the proper operation of liquid-crystal display devices, appropriate cell construction and surface treatment methods are necessary. In this chapter, first, some of the general packaging techniques that are being used today are outlined. Second, the common conductive coatings are listed and standard preparation methods given. Third, the diverse surface treatment methods are summarized and, finally, some relationships between cell construction and device operation are discussed.


Liquid Crystal Nematic Liquid Crystal Indium Oxide Conductive Coating Parallel Alignment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. L. Vossen, “RF Sputtered Transparent Conductors II: The System In2O3-SnO2,” RCA Rev., 32, p. 289, June 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. B. Fraser and H. D. Cook, “Highly Conductive Transparent Films of Sputtered In2-xSnx-O3-y,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 119, p. 1368 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. H. Gillery, “Transparent Conductive Coatings of Indium Oxide,” Information Display, 9, p. 17 (1972).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Clary, Optical Coating Lab., Inc., Santa Rosa, California; private communication.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emulsitone Solution No. 673, Emulsitone Co., Millburn, N.J.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bulletin on Indium Oxide Conductive Coatings, Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bulletin entitled “Nesa and Nesatron Glass,” PPG Industries, Industrial Glass Products, Pittsburgh, Penna.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Friedel, “The Mesomorphic States of Matter,” Ann. Physique, 18, p. 273 (1922).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Zocher, Z. Phys. Chem., 132, 285 (1928).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. F. Schiekel and K. Fahrenschon, “Deformation of Nematic Liquid Crystals with Vertical Orientation in Electrical Fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 19, p. 391 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. F. Dryer, “Epitaxy of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” p. 1113 in Liquid Crystals 3, G. H. Brown and M. M. Labes, eds., Gordon and Breach, London (1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Flannery, “New Electro-Optic Effect in a Room-Temperature Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 25, p. 1326 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Uchida, H. Watanabe, and M. Wada, “Molecular Arrangement of Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., 11, p. 1559, (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. E. Petrie, H. K. Bucher, R. T. Klingbiel, and P. I. Rose, “Aspects of Physical Properties and Applications of Liquid Crystals,” Organic Chemical Bulletin 45, No. 2 (1973), Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Haller and H. A. Huggins, Additive for Liauid Crystal Material, U.S. Patent 3,656,834, April 18, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Zocher and K. Coper, Z. Phys. Chem., 132, p. 195 (1928).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Franc. Miner. Christ. 66, p. 105 (1943).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. E. Proust, L. Ter-Minassian-Saraga, and E. Guyon, “Orientation of a Nematic Liquid Crystal By Suitable Boundary Conditions,” Sol. St. Commun., 11, p. 1227 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. J. Kahn, “Orientation of Liquid Crystals by Surface Coupling Agents,” App. Phys. Lett., 22, p. 386(1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shapes and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, p. 1683 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. W. Berreman, “Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Grooved Surfaces,” Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst., 23, p; 215 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Performance Advantages of Liquid Crystal Displays with Surfactant-Produced Homogeneous Alignment,” Digest of 1972 Soc. for Information Display International Symp., San Francisco, Calif., p. 90.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L T. Creagh and A. R. Kmetz, “Mechanism of Surface Alignment in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst., 24, p. 59 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. G. Shafrin and W. A. Zisman, “Effect of Adsorbed Water on the Spreading of Organic Liquids on Soda-Lime Glass,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., 50, p. 478 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. G. Grabmeier, W. F. Greubel, H. H. Kruger, and U. W. Wolff, “Homogeneous Orientation of Liquid Crystal Layers,” 4th International Liquid Crystal Conf., Kent, Ohio, Aug. 1972, Paper No. 103.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    U. W. Wolff, W. F. Greubel, and H. H. Kruger, “The Homogeneous Alignment of Liquid Crystal Layers,” Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst., 23, p. 187 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-Produced Alignment of Liquid Crystals,” Proc. IEEE, 61, p. 823 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. A. Zisman, “Relation of the Equilibrium Contact Angle to Liquid and Solid Constitution,” Adv. Chem. Ser., 43, p. 1 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Solids, 2nd ed. New York: Interscience, 1967, Chap. VII.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. E. Proust and L. Ter-Minassian-Saraga, “Notes des Membres et Correspondants et Notes Présentees ou Transmisses Par Leurs Soins,” C. R. Acad. Sci., 276C, p. 1731 (1973).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Haller, “Alignment and Wetting Properties of Nematic Liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 24, p. 349 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. L. Janning, “Thin-Film Surface Orientation for Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 21, p. 173 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. Guyon, P. Pieranski, and M. Boix, “On Different Boundary Conditions of Nematic Films Deposited on Obliquely Evaporated Plates,” Letters in Appl. and Eng. Science, 1, p. 19 (1973).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. D. Dixon, T. P. Brody, and W. A. Hester, “Alignment Mechanism in Twisted Nematic Layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 24, p. 47 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Meyerhofer, Private Communication.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Current Information on Liquid Crystals No. 4 (1973), E. Merck Co., Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Goodman and F. DiGeronimo, “Nematic Liquid Crystal Misalignment Induced by Excess Alkali Impurities in Soft Glass,” 5th International Liquid Crystal Conf., Stockholm, Sweden, June 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RCA Laboratories 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Goodman
    • 1
  1. 1.RCA LaboratoriesPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations